Use of Biomarkers and Imaging for Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer.
Kato Shingo,Honda Kazufumi
Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest cancers worldwide, and it is typically diagnosed late, with a poor prognosis. Early detection is the most important underlying factor for improving the prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. One of the most effective strategies for detecting cancers at an early stage is screening of the general population. However, because of the low incidence of pancreatic cancer in the general population, the stratification of subjects who need to undergo further examinations by invasive and expensive modalities is important. Therefore, minimally invasive modalities involving biomarkers and imaging techniques that would facilitate the early detection of pancreatic cancer are highly needed. Multiple types of new blood biomarkers have recently been developed, including unique post-translational modifications of circulating proteins, circulating exosomes, microRNAs, and circulating tumor DNA. We previously reported that circulating apolipoprotein A2 undergoes unique processing in the bloodstream of patients with pancreatic cancer and its precancerous lesions. Additionally, we recently demonstrated a new method for measuring pancreatic proton density in the fat fraction using a fat-water magnetic resonance imaging technique that reflects pancreatic steatosis. In this review, we describe recent developments in potential biomarkers and imaging modalities for the early detection and risk stratification of pancreatic cancer, and we discuss current strategies for implementing screening programs for pancreatic cancer.
Exosomal long non-coding RNAs in the diagnosis and oncogenesis of pancreatic cancer.
Robless Eunice Eugenia,Howard Justin Andrew,Casari Ilaria,Falasca Marco
Extracellular vesicles, specifically exosomes, play a significant role as an extracellular messenger through their transporting cargo. Of particular interest are the potential roles they play in pancreatic cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma displays high chemo-resistance and metastatic ability, which may be influenced by cancer-derived exosomes carrying proteins, lipids and RNA. To date, among the most extensively examined exosomal molecular cargo there are long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) that, despite the increasing interest in their role and functions, are relatively poorly understood compared to other RNA transcripts. Nevertheless, we have witnessed an increasing interest for lncRNAs roles and functions in the past decade. For example, lncRNAs have been investigated as potential biomarkers for diagnosing pancreatic cancer and may have a role as therapeutics targets for precision medicine, but may also directly intervene in tumour progression features such as metastasis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and resistance of cancer cells towards chemotherapy agents. The function of lncRNAs within various cancer exosomes is still undefined. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on pancreatic cancer-derived exosome specific lncRNAs having prominent roles in genome integrity, pancreatic cancer progression and in other oncogenic hallmarks.
Extracellular Vesicles as Potential Biomarkers for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer.
Yee Nelson S,Zhang Sheng,He Hong-Zhang,Zheng Si-Yang
Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is highly metastatic, and it tends to be detected at advanced stages. Identifying and developing biomarkers for early detection of PC is crucial for a potentially curative treatment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer lipid membrane-structured nanovesicles found in various human bodily fluids, and they play important roles in tumor biogenesis and metastasis. Cancer-derived EVs are enriched with DNA, RNA, protein, and lipid, and they have emerged as attractive diagnostic biomarkers for early detection of PC. In this article, we provided an overview of the cell biology of EVs and their isolation and analysis, and their roles in cancer pathogenesis and progression. Multiplatform analyses of plasma-based exosomes for genomic DNA, micro RNA, mRNA, circular RNA, and protein for diagnosis of PC were critically reviewed. Numerous lines of evidence demonstrate that liquid biopsy with analysis of EV-based biomarkers has variable performance for diagnosis of PC. Future investigation is indicated to optimize the methodology for isolating and analyzing EVs and to identify the combination of EV-based biomarkers and other clinical datasets, with the goal of improving the predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of screening tests for early detection and diagnosis of PC.