Role of Regulatory T Cells in Disturbed Immune Homeostasis in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Hou Jia,Sun Yongchang
Frontiers in immunology
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic disease in which T cell-mediated pulmonary inflammation has been shown to play a key role. Accumulating evidence shows that COPD has many of the characteristics of an autoimmune response. An adaptive immune response directed against lung self-antigens, which are released during the initial innate inflammatory response and are triggered by constant exposure to cigarette smoke and epithelial injury, drives the persistent inflammatory response found in smokers. The development and severity of adaptive inflammation depend on the level of tolerance to self-antigens. For these reasons, the effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells on adaptive immunity in COPD patients is of particular interest and could be targeted therapeutically. The disturbance in immune homeostasis caused by changes in the number or function of Treg cells, which is related to cigarette smoke exposure, may be of importance in understanding the development and progression of COPD.
Immune Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Bhat Tariq A,Panzica Louis,Kalathil Suresh Gopi,Thanavala Yasmin
Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex chronic disease. Chronic inflammation is the hallmark of COPD, involving the interplay of a wide variety of cells in the lung microenvironment. Cigarette smoke (CS) induces chronic lung inflammation and is considered a key etiological factor in the development and pathogenesis of COPD. Structural and inflammatory cells in the lung respond to CS exposure by releasing proinflammatory mediators that recruit additional inflammatory immune cells, which collectively contribute to the establishment of a chronic inflammatory microenvironment. Chronic inflammation contributes to lung damage, compromises innate and adaptive immune responses, and facilitates the recurrent episodes of respiratory infection that punctuate and further contribute to the pathological manifestations of the stable disease. A number of studies support the conclusion that immune dysfunction leads to exacerbations and disease severity in COPD. Our group has clearly demonstrated that CS exacerbates lung inflammation and compromises immunity to respiratory pathogens in a mouse model of COPD. We have also investigated the phenotype of immune cells in patients with COPD compared with healthy control subjects and found extensive immune dysfunction due to the presence and functional activity of T regulatory cells, CD4(+)PD-1(+) exhausted effector T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Manipulation of these immunosuppressive networks in COPD could provide a rational strategy to restore functional immune responses, reduce exacerbations, and improve lung function. In this review, we discuss the role of immune dysfunction in COPD that may contribute to recurrent respiratory infections and disease severity.
Immune checkpoints in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Wilkinson Tom M A
European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society
Cell-mediated immune responses are vital to the body's defence against infection and play a key role in tumour immunity. T-cell activation and cytotoxic function is tightly regulated by a series of immune-regulatory receptor-ligand interactions or immune checkpoints. These controls limit immune-mediated damage, particularly in the context of chronic infection. However, prolonged signalling through these axes can lead to progressive loss of T-cell function, termed exhaustion.Understanding of the biology of checkpoints and that exhaustion is reversible has been key to the development of new therapies directed at reversing the dysfunctional status of T-cells, which are dramatically improving outcomes of cancer treatment.Emerging data suggest that immune checkpoint axes are dysregulated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). T-cells from diseased lungs express the key receptor programmed death (PD)1 and demonstrate loss of cytotoxic function. However, the picture is complex with evidence of downregulation of the associated ligand PDL1 on alveolar macrophages. The resulting impact may be excessive T-cell inflammation as a consequence of acute infection, which may contribute to the pattern of exacerbation and lung damage characteristic of COPD. More work is needed to understand these immune controls in COPD before the therapeutic advances seen in lung cancer can be explored.
Airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a true paradox.
Eapen Mathew Suji,Myers Stephen,Walters Eugene Haydn,Sohal Sukhwinder Singh
Expert review of respiratory medicine
INTRODUCTION:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is primarily an airway condition, which mainly affects cigarette smokers and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and poorly reversible. In COPD research, there has been a long held belief that airway disease progression is due to inflammation. Although this may be true in the airway lumen with innate immunity activated by the effect of smoke or secondary to infection, the accurate picture of inflammatory cells in the airway wall, where the pathophysiological COPD remodeling occurs, is uncertain and debatable. Areas covered: The current review provides a comprehensive literature survey of the changes in the main inflammatory cells in human COPD patients and focuses on contrarian views that affect the prevailing dogma on inflammation. The review also delves into the role of oxidative stress and inflammasomes in modulating the immune response in COPD. Further, the effects of inflammation in affecting the epithelium, fibroblasts, and airway remodeling are discussed. Expert commentary: Inflammation as a driving force for airway wall damage and remodelling in early COPD is at the very least 'oversimplified' and is likely to be misleading. This has serious implications for rational thinking about the illness, including pathogenesis and designing therapy.
Th17/Treg immunoregulation and implications in treatment of sulfur mustard gas-induced lung diseases.
Iman Maryam,Rezaei Ramazan,Azimzadeh Jamalkandi Sadegh,Shariati Parvin,Kheradmand Farrah,Salimian Jafar
Expert review of clinical immunology
INTRODUCTION:Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extremely toxic gas used in chemical warfare to cause massive lung injury and death. Victims exposed to SM gas acutely present with inhalational lung injury, but among those who survive, some develop obstructive airway diseases referred to as SM-lung syndrome. Pathophysiologically, SM-lung shares many characteristics with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including airway remodeling, goblet cell metaplasia, and obstructive ventilation defect. Some of the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis, which include dysregulated lung inflammation, neutrophilia, recruitment of interleukin 17A (IL -17A) expressing CD4T cells (Th17), and the paucity of lung regulatory T cells (Tregs), have also been described in SM-lung. Areas covered: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases inclusive of all literature prior to and including May 2017. Expert commentary: Here we review some of the recent findings that suggest a role for Th17 cell-mediated inflammatory changes associated with pulmonary complications in SM-lung and suggest new therapeutic approaches that could potentially alter disease progression with immune modulating biologics that can restore the lung Th17/Treg balance.
Regulatory T Cells in Respiratory Health and Diseases.
Singh Rani,Alape Daniel,de Lima Andrés,Ascanio Juan,Majid Adnan,Gangadharan Sidhu P
Respiratory diseases compromise the health of millions of people all over the world and are strongly linked to the immune dysfunction. CD4+FOXP3+ T regulatory cells, also known as Tregs, have a central role maintaining tissue homeostasis during immune responses. Their activity and clinical impact have been widely studied in different clinical conditions including autoimmune diseases, inflammatory conditions, and cancer, amongst others. Tregs express transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), which allows regulation of the immune response through anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-) and direct cell-to-cell interaction. Maintenance of immune tolerance is achieved via modulation of effector CD4+ T helper 1, 2 or 17 (Th1, Th2, Th17) cells by Tregs. This review highlights the recent progress in the understanding of Tregs in different disorders of the respiratory system.
Regulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the role of regulatory T-cells and Th17 cells.
Lane Nina,Robins R Adrian,Corne Jonathan,Fairclough Lucy
Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, which is associated with irreversible airway obstruction. The pathological hallmarks of COPD are destruction of the lung parenchyma (pulmonary emphysema), inflammation of the central airways (chronic bronchitis) and inflammation of the peripheral airways (respiratory bronchiolitis). Tobacco smoking is established as the main aetiological factor for COPD. A maladaptive modulation of inflammatory responses to inhalation of noxious particles and gases is generally accepted as being a key central pathogenic process; however, the precise regulatory mechanisms of the disease are poorly understood. Two cell types are known to be important in immune regulation, namely regulatory T-cells and the newly identified Th17 (T-helper 17) cells. Both types of cells are subsets of CD4 T-lymphocytes and modulate the immune response through secretion of cytokines, for example IL (interleukin)-10 and IL-17 respectively. The present review will begin by describing the current understanding of inflammatory cell involvement in the disease process, and then focus on the possible role of subsets of regulatory and helper T-cells in COPD.
[Regulatory T cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
Limón-Camacho Leonardo,Solleiro-Villavicencio Helena,Pupko-Sissa Ilana,Lascurain Ricardo,Vargas-Rojas María Inés
Archivos de cardiologia de Mexico
Exposition to tobacco smoke has been established as the main risk factor to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), by inducing inflammation of the airways. Several cell populations participate in this inflammatory process. It has been accepted that a maladaptive modulation of inflammatory responses plays a critical role in the development of the disease. Regulatory T cells (Treg) are a subset of T CD4(+) lymphocytes that modulate the immune response through secretion of cytokines. The role of the Treg cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not clearly known, that is why it is important to focus in understanding their participation in the pathogenesis of the disease. To elaborate a systematic review of original articles in which we could describe Treg cells (their ontogeny, mechanisms of action) and their role in COPD, we made a systematic literature search in some data bases (MEDLINE, AMED, PubMed and Scielo) looking through the next keywords: "COPD and Regulatory T cells/EPOC y células T reguladoras", «Inflammation and COPD/Inflamación y EPOC», «Regulatory T cells/Células T reguladoras». We included basic science articles, controlled and non-controlled clinical trials, meta-analysis and guides. From this search we conclude that Treg cells are a subpopulation of T CD4(+) lymphocytes and their major functions are the suppression of immune responses and the maintenance of tolerance to self-antigens. A disruption in the regulatory mechanisms of the Treg cells leads to the development and perpetuation of inflammation in COPD.
[Research Progress of Treg/Th17 in the Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Lung Cancer].
Zhou Jinhua,Wang Wei,Liu Ruijuan
Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are global high incidence and high mortality diseases, which seriously increase the socio-economic burden. Smoke exposure, genetic susceptibility and chronic inflammation are common susceptible factors. At present, abnormal inflammatory immune response plays an important role in the occurrence and development of the two diseases. In the process of immune response, tumor microenvironment (TME) is gradually produced, which is beneficial to angiogenesis and immunosuppression, and finally leads to immune escape of tumor cells, leading to tumor formation. In this paper, the present situation of COPD complicated with lung cancer and the relationship between abnormal immune response, especially Treg/Th17, and its occurrence and development are briefly reviewed.