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    Controlled hypotension for FESS: A randomised double-blinded comparison of magnesium sulphate and dexmedetomidine. Chhabra Alka,Saini Preeti,Sharma Karuna,Chaudhary Neelam,Singh Abhineet,Gupta Sunanda Indian journal of anaesthesia Background and Aims:Intense bleeding during general anaesthesia (GA) is the major limitation during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulphate (MgSO) for controlled hypotension in FESS. Methods:Sixty eight patients undergoing FESS were randomised to receive either dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by infusion at 0.2 to 0.7 μg/kg/h (Group D) or MgSO 40 mg/kg over 10 min followed by an infusion at 10 to 15 mg/kg/h (Group M). Anaesthesia and infusion rates for study drugs were maintained with sevoflurane to keep MAP between 60-70 mmHg throughout the surgery. The time to reach the target MAP, the number of patients requiring a minimum and maximum infusion doses of study drugs were noted. Results:The mean time to achieve target mean arterial pressure (MAP) was less in group D (10.59 ± 2.04) as compared with (21.32 ± 4.65 min) group M ( < 0.001). The target MAP was achieved between 5-15 min in 73.52% patients (Group D) with an infusion dose of 0.2-0.4 μg/kg/h of dexmedetomidine without the use of sevoflurane, while 82.35% patients in group M required 4% sevoflurane along with >12-15 mg/kg/hr infusion of MgSO to achieve target MAP in 10-20 min. Conclusion:Dexmedetomidine is superior to MgSO in achieving target MAP in lesser time with minimum infusion dose. 10.4103/ija.IJA_417_19
    Effect of dexmedetomidine on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients undergoing anesthesia with controlled hypotension for endoscopic sinus surgery. Ma H,Lai B,Dong S,Lv Y,Wang S,Jin X,Pan Z Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents
    Controlled hypotension in day care functional endoscopic sinus surgery: A comparison between esmolol and dexmedetomidine: A prospective, double-blind, and randomized study. Das A,Chhaule S,Bhattacharya S,Basunia S R,Mitra T,Halder P S,Chattopadhyay S,Mandal S K Saudi journal of anaesthesia BACKGROUND:Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is the cornerstone of therapeutic management for nasal pathologies. This study is to compare the ability of preoperative and intraoperative esmolol versus dexmedetomidine for producing induced hypotension during FESS in adults in a day care setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sixty patients (20-45 years) posted for FESS under general anesthesia were randomly divided into Group E (n = 30) receiving esmolol, loading dose 1 mg/kg over 1 min followed by 0.5 mg/kg/h infusion during maintenance and Group D (n = 30) receiving dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg over 15 min before induction of anesthesia followed by 0.5 μg/Kg/h infusion during maintenance, respectively. Nasal bleeding and Surgeon's satisfaction score; amount and number of patients receiving fentanyl and nitroglycerine for analgesia and deliberate hypotension, Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU) and hospital stay; hemodynamic parameters and side effects were recorded for each patient. RESULTS:Significantly less number and dosage of nitroglycerine was required (P = 0.0032 and 0.0001, respectively) in Group D compared to that in Group E. Again the number and dosage of patients requiring fentanyl were significantly lower in Group D. However, the duration of controlled hypotension was almost similar in both the groups. Group D patients suffered from significantly less nasal bleeding, and surgeon's satisfaction score was also high in this group. Discharge from PACU and hospital were significantly earlier in Group D. Intraoperative hemodynamics were quite comparable (P > 0.05) without any appreciable side effects. CONCLUSION:Dexmedetomidine found to be providing more effectively controlled hypotension and analgesia and thus allowing less nasal bleeding as well as more surgeons' satisfaction score. 10.4103/1658-354X.174919
    Comparison between dexmedetomidine and remifentanil for controlled hypotension and recovery in endoscopic sinus surgery. Lee Jungah,Kim Yongshin,Park Chansoon,Jeon Yeonsu,Kim Daewoo,Joo Jinduk,Kang Hyerim The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology OBJECTIVES:We compared the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil hydrochloride in intraoperative field conditions and recovery during endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS:Sixty-six patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II) scheduled for elective endoscopic sinus surgery were enrolled in this prospective, double-blinded, randomized study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Propofol, 2 to 2.5 mg/kg, was administered to both groups to induce anesthesia, which was maintained with desflurane. One group received dexmedetomidine 1 microg/kg over 10 minutes at anesthesia induction, followed by 0.4 to 0.8 microg/kg per hour infusion during maintenance, whereas the other group received remifentanil 1 microg/kg over 1 minute at anesthesia induction, followed by 0.2 to 0.4 microg/kg per minute infusion during maintenance. Surgical conditions, hemodynamic parameters, intraoperative blood loss, time to extubation, sedation, and pain in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) were recorded. RESULTS:There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to surgical field conditions, blood loss, or extubation time. The sedation score (Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation) in the PACU was significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group than in the remifentanil group (p < 0.001). No differences were found in total blood loss, surgical field conditions, hemodynamic parameters, time to extubation, or pain in the PACU when the two groups were compared (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Although remifentanil and dexmedetomidine both enabled hypotensive anesthesia and good intraoperative fields for endoscopic sinus surgery, recovery was faster with remifentanil than with dexmedetomidine in the immediate postoperative period. 10.1177/000348941312200702