Awake Fiberoptic Intubation Protocols in the Operating Room for Anticipated Difficult Airway: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Cabrini Luca,Baiardo Redaelli M,Ball Lorenzo,Filippini Martina,Fominskiy Evgeny,Pintaudi Margherita,Putzu Alessandro,Votta Carmine D,Sorbello Massimiliano,Antonelli Massimo,Landoni Giovanni,Pelosi Paolo,Zangrillo Alberto
Anesthesia and analgesia
Awake fiberoptic intubation is one of the recommended strategies for surgical patients with anticipated difficult airway, especially when concurrent difficult ventilation is expected. We performed the first systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing different protocols for awake fiberoptic intubation in anticipated difficult airway, including studies investigating elective awake fiberoptic intubation for scheduled surgery; randomized controlled trials comparing different methods for performing awake fiberoptic intubation; and adult patients with anticipated difficult airway. We excluded studies in the nonoperating theater settings, randomized controlled trials comparing awake fiberoptic intubation with other techniques, and studies based on simulation. Primary outcomes were success rate and death; secondary outcomes were major adverse events. Thirty-seven randomized controlled trials evaluating 2045 patients and 4 areas were identified: premedication, local anesthesia, sedation, and ancillary techniques to facilitate awake fiberoptic intubation. Quality of evidence was moderate-low and based on small-sampled randomized controlled trials. Overall, 12 of 2045 intubation failures (0.59%) and 7 of 2045 severe adverse events (0.34%) occurred, with no permanent consequences or death. All evaluated methods to achieve local anesthesia performed similarly well. No differences were observed in success rate with different sedatives. Dexmedetomidine resulted in fewer desaturation episodes compared to propofol and opioids with or without midazolam (relative risk, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.28-0.95]; P = .03); occurrence of desaturation was similar with remifentanil versus propofol, while incidence of apnoea was lower with sevoflurane versus propofol (relative risk, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.22-0.81]; P = .01). A high degree of efficacy and safety was observed with minimal differences among different protocols; dexmedetomidine might offer a better safety profile compared to other sedatives.
A Randomized Controlled Study Comparing Dexmedetomidine-Midazolam with Fentanyl-Midazolam for Sedation during awake Fiberoptic Intubation in Anticipated Difficult Airway.
Yadav Urvashi,Yadav Jay Brijesh Singh,Srivastava Dhiraj,Srivastava Swati
Anesthesia, essays and researches
Background:Awake fibreoptic nasotracheal intubation is an effective technique for the management of patients with difficult airways. Adequate sedation with effective topicalization of the airway is important to overcome discomfort and achieve intubation successfully. Aim and Objectives:Our aim was to compare the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine-midazolam with fentanyl-midazolam infusion for providing conscious sedation during fibreoptic intubation in patients with anticipated difficult airway under topical anaesthesia. Materials and Methods:Thirty adult patients of ASA physical status classification I and II with anticipated difficult airway and planned for elective awake nasal fibreoptic intubation under conscious sedation were randomly allocated into two groups. Dexmedetomidine 1 μg.kg-1 diluted in 50 ml saline was infused in Group DM over 10 min and Fentanyl 2 μg.kg-1 diluted in 50 ml saline was infused in Group FM over 10 min. Topicalization of the airway was done in all patients. All patients were assessed for sedation score, ease of endotracheal tube placement, patient comfort and cooperation, tolerance to endotracheal tube, any adverse events and recall of procedure. Results:The score of the modified OAA/S was comparable between the groups ( > 0.05). Quality of AFOI was comparable in both groups ( > 0.05). The intubation time and first EtCO2 were significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group ( <0.05). Group DM also showed better hemodynamics and less episodes of desaturation than Group FM. Conclusion:Fentanyl-midazolam and dexmedetomidine-midazolam are both effective for awake fiberoptic intubation under topical anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine allows better endurance and more stable hemodynamics.