Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows similar response in patients with inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer when compared with operable breast cancer: a secondary analysis of the GeparTrio trial data. Costa Serban Dan,Loibl Sibylle,Kaufmann Manfred,Zahm Dirk-Michael,Hilfrich Jörn,Huober Jens,Eidtmann Holger,du Bois Andreas,Blohmer Jens-Uwe,Ataseven Beyhan,Weiss Erich,Tesch Hans,Gerber Bernd,Baumann Klaus H,Thomssen Christoph,Breitbach Georg Peter,Ibishi Shaip,Jackisch Christian,Mehta Keyur,von Minckwitz Gunter Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by mastectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) or locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), but it is considered less effective in these diseases than in operable breast cancer (OBC). We report a prospective comparison of the GeparTrio trial of patients with IBC (cT4 days) or LABC (cT4a-c or cN3; stage IIIB or IIIC) and patients with OBC (cT2-3). PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were stratified by stage and were randomly assigned to six or eight cycles of docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (TAC) or to two cycles of TAC followed by four cycles of vinorelbine/capecitabine. We present results of a secondary aim of the study, which was to compare pathologic complete response (pCR; ie, no remaining invasive/noninvasive tumor in breast and lymph nodes) in different stage groups. Results A total of 287 patients with IBC (n = 93) or LABC (n = 194) and 1,777 patients with OBC were entered onto the trial. At baseline, parameters were as follows for the three types of cancer, respectively: median tumor sizes: 8.0 cm, 7.0 cm, and 4.0 cm (P < .001); multiple lesions: 31.2%, 27.3%, and 19.6% (P < .001); nodal involvement: 86.6%, 71.2%, and 51.6% (P < .001); grade 3: 44.4%, 30.4%, and 39.9% (P = .178); lobular-invasive type: 7.5%, 17.5%, and 13.3% (P = .673); negative hormone receptor status: 38.0%, 20.0%, and 36.4% (P = .008); and positive human growth factor receptor 2 status: 45.1%, 38.9%, and 35.7% (P = .158). Response rates for IBC, LABC, and OBC, respectively, were 8.6%, 11.3%, and 17.7% for pCR (P = .002); 71.0%, 69.6%, and 83.4% for overall response by physical or sonographic examination (P < .001); and 12.9%, 33.0%, and 69.9% for breast conservation (P < .001). All P values were for IBC and LABC versus OBC. However, tumor stage itself was not an independent predictor for pCR in multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.59; P = .13). CONCLUSION No evidence of a difference in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was found by tumor stage when analysis was adjusted for baseline characteristics. 10.1200/JCO.2009.23.5101
    Neoadjuvant vinorelbine-capecitabine versus docetaxel-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide in early nonresponsive breast cancer: phase III randomized GeparTrio trial. von Minckwitz Gunter,Kümmel Sherko,Vogel Petra,Hanusch Claus,Eidtmann Holger,Hilfrich Jörn,Gerber Bernd,Huober Jens,Costa Serban Dan,Jackisch Christian,Loibl Sibylle,Mehta Keyur,Kaufmann Manfred, Journal of the National Cancer Institute BACKGROUND:Among breast cancer patients, nonresponse to initial neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with unfavorable outcome. We compared the response of nonresponding patients who continued the same treatment with that of patients who switched to a well-tolerated non-cross-resistant regimen. METHODS:Previously untreated breast cancer patients received two 3-week cycles of docetaxel at 75 mg/m(2), doxorubicin at 50 mg/m(2), and cyclophosphamide at 500 mg/m(2) per day (TAC). Patients whose tumors did not decrease in size by at least 50% were randomly assigned to four additional cycles of TAC or to four cycles of vinorelbine at 25 mg/m(2) and capecitabine at 2000 mg/m(2) (NX). The outcome was sonographic response, defined as a reduction in the product of the two largest perpendicular diameters by at least 50%. A difference of 10% or less in the sonographic response qualified as noninferiority of the NX treatment. Pathological complete response was defined as no invasive or in situ residual tumor masses in the breast and lymph nodes. Toxic effects were assessed. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:Of 2090 patients enrolled in the GeparTrio study, 622 (29.8%) who did not respond to two initial cycles of TAC were randomly assigned to an additional four cycles of TAC (n = 321) or to four cycles of NX (n = 301). Sonographic response rate was 50.5% for the TAC arm and 51.2% for the NX arm. The difference of 0.7% (95% confidence interval = -7.1% to 8.5%) demonstrated noninferiority of NX (P = .008). Similar numbers of patients in both arms received breast-conserving surgery (184 [57.3%] in the TAC arm vs 180 [59.8%] in the NX arm) and had a pathological complete response (5.3% vs 6.0%). Fewer patients in the NX arm than in the TAC arm had hematologic toxic effects, mucositis, infections, and nail changes, but more had hand-foot syndrome and sensory neuropathy. CONCLUSION:Pathological complete responses to both regimens were marginal. Among patients who did not respond to the initial neoadjuvant TAC treatment, similar efficacy but better tolerability was observed by switching to NX than continuing with TAC. 10.1093/jnci/djn085
    Ki67 levels as predictive and prognostic parameters in pretherapeutic breast cancer core biopsies: a translational investigation in the neoadjuvant GeparTrio trial. Denkert C,Loibl S,Müller B M,Eidtmann H,Schmitt W D,Eiermann W,Gerber B,Tesch H,Hilfrich J,Huober J,Fehm T,Barinoff J,Jackisch C,Prinzler J,Rüdiger T,Erbstösser E,Blohmer J U,Budczies J,Mehta K M,von Minckwitz G Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology BACKGROUND:The proliferation marker Ki67 has been suggested as a promising cancer biomarker. As Ki67 needs an exact quantification, this marker is a prototype of a new generation of tissue-based biomarkers. In this study, we have systematically evaluated different cut points for Ki67 using three different clinical end points in a large neoadjuvant study cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We have evaluated pretherapeutic Ki67 levels by immunohistochemistry in 1166 breast cancer core biopsies from the neoadjuvant GeparTrio trial. We used the standardized cutoff-finder algorithm for three end points [response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (pCR), disease-free (DFS) and overall-survival (OS)]. The analyses were stratified for hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 status by molecular subtype radar diagrams (MSRDs). RESULTS:A wide range of Ki67 cut points between 3%-94% (for pCR), 6%-46% (for DFS) and 4%-58% (for OS) were significant. The three groups of Ki67 ≤ 15% versus 15.1%-35% versus >35% had pCR-rates of 4.2%, 12.8%, and 29.0% (P < 0.0005), this effect was also present in six of eight molecular subtypes. In MSRD, Ki67 was significantly linked to prognosis in uni- and multivariate analysis in the complete cohort and in HR-positive, but not triple-negative tumors. CONCLUSIONS:Ki67 is a significant predictive and prognostic marker over a wide range of cut points suggesting that data-derived cut point optimization might not be possible. Ki67 could be used as a continuous marker; in addition, the scientific community could define standardized cut points for Ki67. Our analysis explains the variability observed for Ki67 cut points in previous studies; however, this should not be seen as weakness, but as strength of this marker. MSRDs are an easy new approach for visualization of biomarker effects on outcome across molecular subtypes in breast cancer. The experience with Ki67 could provide important information regarding the development and implementation of other quantitative biomarkers. 10.1093/annonc/mdt350
    Gene expression profiling of breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide within the GEPARTRIO trial: HER-2, but not topoisomerase II alpha and microtubule-associated protein tau, is highly predictive of tumor response. Rody A,Karn T,Gätje R,Ahr A,Solbach C,Kourtis K,Munnes M,Loibl S,Kissler S,Ruckhäberle E,Holtrich U,von Minckwitz G,Kaufmann M Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) Gene expression analysis in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an interesting tool for identification of gene signatures and new markers to predict tumor response. However, the detection of predictive markers strongly depends on the drugs used in the specific therapeutic setting. There is growing evidence that topoisomerase II-alpha (TOPO IIalpha) is a marker for anthracycline-, and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) for taxane sensitivity. HER-2 has been described as a marker of both anthracycline and taxane sensitivity. We performed gene expression profiling of 50 patients within the GEPARTRIO study, an anthracycline and taxane neoadjuvant chemotherapy trial. Here we investigate the predictive value of TOPO IIalpha, MAPT and HER-2 mRNA expression for pathological complete response (pCR) in this setting. Interestingly, HER-2 gene expression was strongly predictive of pCR (P=0.017) as well as overall response (P=0.037) and clinical complete response (cCR, P=0.050). In contrast, for both TOPO IIalpha and MAPT no correlation with pCR was observed in our sample group. 10.1016/j.breast.2006.06.008
    Effect of neoadjuvant anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy in different biological breast cancer phenotypes: overall results from the GeparTrio study. Huober Jens,von Minckwitz Gunter,Denkert Carsten,Tesch Hans,Weiss Erich,Zahm Dirk Michael,Belau Antje,Khandan Fariba,Hauschild Maik,Thomssen Christoph,Högel Bernhard,Darb-Esfahani Silvia,Mehta Keyur,Loibl Sibylle Breast cancer research and treatment In order to explore the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) on clinical mid-course and pathological complete response (pCR) at surgery in different biological breast cancer subtypes. The GeparTrio study included 2,072 patients with operable or locally advanced breast cancer. After two cycles with docetaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) patients were randomized according to their clinical response. Clinical and biological factors were assessed for predicting clinically mid-course response and pCR at surgery. The overall pCR rate, defined as no invasive residuals in breast and axilla, was 20.5%. The highest pCR rate of 57% was observed in patients below 40 years of age with triple negative or grade 3 tumors. Independent factors for mid-course response and pCR were: young age, non-T4 tumors, high grade, and hormone receptor status, the strongest single predictive factor. Within the biological subtypes, grading was an independent factor to predict pCR for luminal tumors, clinical tumor stage for the HER2 like tumors and age for the triple negative ones. Grading gave independent information for mid-course response within the triple negative group. No factor predicted mid-course response within the other groups. Grading and age can identify subgroups within the luminal and triple negative patients who have an increased benefit from NACT. 10.1007/s10549-010-1103-9
    In vivo chemosensitivity-adapted preoperative chemotherapy in patients with early-stage breast cancer: the GEPARTRIO pilot study. von Minckwitz G,Blohmer J-U,Raab G,Löhr A,Gerber B,Heinrich G,Eidtmann H,Kaufmann M,Hilfrich J,Jackisch C,Zuna I,Costa S D, Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology BACKGROUND:Response to the first two cycles of preoperative chemotherapy might differentiate subgroups of breast cancer patients with high or minimal chances for a pathologic complete response (pCR) and may be used as an in vivo chemosensitivity test. METHODS:Breast cancer patients were treated with two cycles of TAC (docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2) every 21 days). Patients whose tumors showed a response received four more cycles. Patients whose tumors did not respond were randomized to four additional cycles TAC or NX (vinorelbine 25 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8, capecitabine 2000 mg/m(2) days 1-14, every 21 days). The primary end point was pCR at surgery. RESULTS:Two hundred and eighty-five patients showed a clinical response, in 73.0% after two cycles, in 88.4% at surgery, and a pCR was seen in 17.9%. Breast conservation was possible in 72.2%. Responding patients obtained a pCR in 22.6% whereas non-responding patients reached a pCR in 7.3% and 3.1% with TAC or NX, respectively. Grade III/IV neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were observed during TAC in 70.2% and 13.5%, respectively. Significantly less toxicity were observed with NX. CONCLUSION:Early response to TAC can reliably identify patients with a high chance of achieving a pCR. New effective treatments need to be explored for patients without an early response. 10.1093/annonc/mdi001