Long Working Hours and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.
Virtanen Marianna,Kivimäki Mika
Current cardiology reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To summarize the evidence on the relationship between long working hours and cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease and stroke. RECENT FINDINGS:Large-scale meta-analyses with published and individual participant observational data on more than 740,000 men and women free of cardiovascular disease report a link between long working hours (≥ 55 h a week) and the onset of cardiovascular events. Our meta-analytic update of summary evidence suggests a 1.12-fold (95% CI 1.03-1.21) increased risk associated with coronary heart disease and a 1.21-fold (95% CI 1.01-1.45) increased risk of stroke, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent and the possibility of residual confounding and bias cannot be ruled out. Few studies have examined the mechanisms which may be stress-related, behavioral, or biological. The recent pooled analyses suggest that increased cardiac electric instability and hypercoagulability might play a role. The evidence that long working hours are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is accumulating and suggests a small risk. Studies on the effects of long working hours in high-risk populations and those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, mechanistic research, and intervention studies are needed to advance this research field.
Age at natural menopause and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a pooled analysis of individual patient data.
Zhu Dongshan,Chung Hsin-Fang,Dobson Annette J,Pandeya Nirmala,Giles Graham G,Bruinsma Fiona,Brunner Eric J,Kuh Diana,Hardy Rebecca,Avis Nancy E,Gold Ellen B,Derby Carol A,Matthews Karen A,Cade Janet E,Greenwood Darren C,Demakakos Panayotes,Brown Daniel E,Sievert Lynnette L,Anderson Debra,Hayashi Kunihiko,Lee Jung Su,Mizunuma Hideki,Tillin Therese,Simonsen Mette Kildevæld,Adami Hans-Olov,Weiderpass Elisabete,Mishra Gita D
The Lancet. Public health
BACKGROUND:Early menopause is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality; however, the association between early menopause and incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease is unclear. We aimed to assess the associations between age at natural menopause and incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. METHODS:We harmonised and pooled individual-level data from 15 observational studies done across five countries and regions (Australia, Scandinavia, the USA, Japan, and the UK) between 1946 and 2013. Women who had reported their menopause status, age at natural menopause (if postmenopausal), and cardiovascular disease status (including coronary heart disease and stroke) were included. We excluded women who had hysterectomy or oophorectomy and women who did not report their age at menopause. The primary endpoint of this study was the occurrence of first non-fatal cardiovascular disease, defined as a composite outcome of incident coronary heart disease (including heart attack and angina) or stroke (including ischaemic stroke or haemorrhagic stroke). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations between age at menopause and incident cardiovascular disease event. We also adjusted the model to account for smoking status, menopausal hormone therapy status, body-mass index, and education levels. Age at natural menopause was categorised as premenopausal or perimenopausal, younger than 40 years (premature menopause), 40-44 years (early menopause), 45-49 years (relatively early), 50-51 years (reference category), 52-54 years (relatively late), and 55 years or older (late menopause). FINDINGS:Overall, 301 438 women were included in our analysis. Of these 301 438 women, 12 962 (4·3%) had a first non-fatal cardiovascular disease event after menopause, of whom 9369 (3·1%) had coronary heart disease and 4338 (1·4%) had strokes. Compared with women who had menopause at age 50-51 years, the risk of cardiovascular disease was higher in women who had premature menopause (age <40 years; HR 1·55, 95% CI 1·38-1·73; p<0·0001), early menopause (age 40-44 years; 1·30, 1·22-1·39; p<0·0001), and relatively early menopause (age 45-49 years; 1·12, 1·07-1·18; p<0·0001), with a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular disease following menopause after age 51 years (p<0·0001 for trend). The associations persisted in never smokers, and were strongest before age 60 years for women with premature menopause (HR 1·88, 1·62-2·20; p<0·0001) and early menopause (1·40, 1·27-1·54; p<0·0001), but were attenuated at age 60-69 years, with no significant association observed at age 70 years and older. INTERPRETATION:Compared with women who had menopause at age 50-51 years, women with premature and early menopause had a substantially increased risk of a non-fatal cardiovascular disease event before the age of 60 years, but not after age 70 years. Women with earlier menopause need close monitoring in clinical practice, and age at menopause might also be considered as an important factor in risk stratification of cardiovascular disease for women. FUNDING:Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.
Variations between women and men in risk factors, treatments, cardiovascular disease incidence, and death in 27 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries (PURE): a prospective cohort study.
Walli-Attaei Marjan,Joseph Philip,Rosengren Annika,Chow Clara K,Rangarajan Sumathy,Lear Scott A,AlHabib Khalid F,Davletov Kairat,Dans Antonio,Lanas Fernando,Yeates Karen,Poirier Paul,Teo Koon K,Bahonar Ahmad,Camilo Felix,Chifamba Jephat,Diaz Rafael,Didkowska Joanna A,Irazola Vilma,Ismail Rosnah,Kaur Manmeet,Khatib Rasha,Liu Xiaoyun,Mańczuk Marta,Miranda J Jaime,Oguz Aytekin,Perez-Mayorga Maritza,Szuba Andrzej,Tsolekile Lungiswa P,Prasad Varma Ravi,Yusufali Afzalhussein,Yusuf Rita,Wei Li,Anand Sonia S,Yusuf Salim
Lancet (London, England)
BACKGROUND:Some studies, mainly from high-income countries (HICs), report that women receive less care (investigations and treatments) for cardiovascular disease than do men and might have a higher risk of death. However, very few studies systematically report risk factors, use of primary or secondary prevention medications, incidence of cardiovascular disease, or death in populations drawn from the community. Given that most cardiovascular disease occurs in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is a need for comprehensive information comparing treatments and outcomes between women and men in HICs, middle-income countries, and low-income countries from community-based population studies. METHODS:In the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological study (PURE), individuals aged 35-70 years from urban and rural communities in 27 countries were considered for inclusion. We recorded information on participants' sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, medication use, cardiac investigations, and interventions. 168 490 participants who enrolled in the first two of the three phases of PURE were followed up prospectively for incident cardiovascular disease and death. FINDINGS:From Jan 6, 2005 to May 6, 2019, 202 072 individuals were recruited to the study. The mean age of women included in the study was 50·8 (SD 9·9) years compared with 51·7 (10) years for men. Participants were followed up for a median of 9·5 (IQR 8·5-10·9) years. Women had a lower cardiovascular disease risk factor burden using two different risk scores (INTERHEART and Framingham). Primary prevention strategies, such as adoption of several healthy lifestyle behaviours and use of proven medicines, were more frequent in women than men. Incidence of cardiovascular disease (4·1 [95% CI 4·0-4·2] for women vs 6·4 [6·2-6·6] for men per 1000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0·75 [95% CI 0·72-0·79]) and all-cause death (4·5 [95% CI 4·4-4·7] for women vs 7·4 [7·2-7·7] for men per 1000 person-years; aHR 0·62 [95% CI 0·60-0·65]) were also lower in women. By contrast, secondary prevention treatments, cardiac investigations, and coronary revascularisation were less frequent in women than men with coronary artery disease in all groups of countries. Despite this, women had lower risk of recurrent cardiovascular disease events (20·0 [95% CI 18·2-21·7] versus 27·7 [95% CI 25·6-29·8] per 1000 person-years in men, adjusted hazard ratio 0·73 [95% CI 0·64-0·83]) and women had lower 30-day mortality after a new cardiovascular disease event compared with men (22% in women versus 28% in men; p<0·0001). Differences between women and men in treatments and outcomes were more marked in LMICs with little differences in HICs in those with or without previous cardiovascular disease. INTERPRETATION:Treatments for cardiovascular disease are more common in women than men in primary prevention, but the reverse is seen in secondary prevention. However, consistently better outcomes are observed in women than in men, both in those with and without previous cardiovascular disease. Improving cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment, especially in LMICs, should be vigorously pursued in both women and men. FUNDING:Full funding sources are listed at the end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).