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    [Functional amblyopia]. Avram Elena,Stănilă Adriana Oftalmologia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990) Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual system that represents unilateral or bi-lateral reduction of visual acuity in which an organic cause cannot be detected. The illness represents a syndrome of visual deficits, not only a deterioration of visual acuity. This syndrome includes: presence of crowding phenomena, contrast sensitivity deterioration, deficits in accommodation, deterioration of spatial orientation and ocular motility dysfunction. Depending on its etiology, amblyopia is classified into four main types: strabismic amblyopia, anisometropic amblyopia, isoametropic amblyopia and stimulus deprivation amblyopia. To successfully treat the "lazy eye" it is essential to remove the amblyopic factor with techniques addressing each disturbing factor. Techniques used for treating amblyopia include: occlusion, optical penalty or pharmacological, therapy with Levodopa and computer vision therapy. Amblyopia treatment is lengthy and it is very important to counsel not only the child but the whole family and to establish a relationship of trust between doctor and patient in order to get high treatment compliance and high child motivation.
    A pragmatic approach to amblyopia diagnosis: evidence into practice. Webber Ann L,Camuglia Jayne E Clinical & experimental optometry Amblyopia is a common cause of reduced vision in children. The clinical diagnosis is complicated and requires consideration of the severity of vision loss relative to the characteristics of the disrupting amblyogenic factor. Added to the challenge of a thorough examination of very young children, is the weight of consequence if the amblyogenic factor is not identified and treated appropriately within clinically recommended time frames. Further, the poor visual function may be a symptom of more sinister underlying pathology impacting the visual pathway. This review presents an evidence-based, pragmatic approach to the diagnosis of amblyopia, as a means for guiding best practice for the care of children who present with reduced vision. 10.1111/cxo.12662
    Treatment of amblyopia as a function of age. Holmes Jonathan M,Levi Dennis M Visual neuroscience Although historically, treatment of amblyopia has been recommended prior to closure of a critical window in visual development, the existence and duration of that critical window is currently unclear. Moreover, there is clear evidence, both from animal and human studies of deprivation amblyopia, that there are different critical windows for different visual functions and that monocular and binocular deprivation have different neural and behavioral consequences. In view of the spectrum of critical windows for different visual functions and for different types of amblyopia, combined with individual variability in these windows, treatment of amblyopia has been increasingly offered to older children and adults. Nevertheless, treatment beyond the age of 7 years tends to be, on average, less effective than in younger children, and the high degree of variability in treatment response suggests that age is only one of many factors determining treatment response. Newly emerging treatment modalities may hold promise for more effective treatment of amblyopia at older ages. Additional studies are needed to characterize amblyopia by using new and existing clinical tests, leading to improved clinical classification and better prediction of treatment response. Attention also needs to be directed toward characterizing and measuring the impact of amblyopia on the patients' functional vision and health-related quality of life. 10.1017/S0952523817000220
    Classification of Visual Cortex Plasticity Phenotypes following Treatment for Amblyopia. Balsor Justin L,Jones David G,Murphy Kathryn M Neural plasticity Monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period (CP) has enduring effects on visual acuity and the functioning of the visual cortex (V1). This experience-dependent plasticity has become a model for studying the mechanisms, especially glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors, that regulate amblyopia. Less is known, however, about treatment-induced changes to those receptors and if those changes differentiate treatments that support the recovery of acuity versus persistent acuity deficits. Here, we use an animal model to explore the effects of 3 visual treatments started during the CP ( = 24, 10 male and 14 female): binocular vision (BV) that promotes good acuity versus reverse occlusion (RO) and binocular deprivation (BD) that causes persistent acuity deficits. We measured the recovery of a collection of glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor subunits in the V1 and modeled recovery of kinetics for NMDAR and GABAR. There was a complex pattern of protein changes that prompted us to develop an unbiased data-driven approach for these high-dimensional data analyses to identify plasticity features and construct plasticity phenotypes. Cluster analysis of the plasticity phenotypes suggests that BV supports adaptive plasticity while RO and BD promote a maladaptive pattern. The RO plasticity phenotype appeared more similar to adults with a high expression of GluA2, and the BD phenotypes were dominated by GABA 1, highlighting that multiple plasticity phenotypes can underlie persistent poor acuity. After 2-4 days of BV, the plasticity phenotypes resembled normals, but only one feature, the GluN2A:GluA2 balance, returned to normal levels. Perhaps, balancing Hebbian (GluN2A) and homeostatic (GluA2) mechanisms is necessary for the recovery of vision. 10.1155/2019/2564018
    Macular retinal and choroidal thickness in unilateral amblyopia using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Araki Syunsuke,Miki Atsushi,Goto Katsutoshi,Yamashita Tsutomu,Takizawa Go,Haruishi Kazuko,Ieki Yoshiaki,Kiryu Junichi,Yaoeda Kiyoshi BMC ophthalmology BACKGROUND:To investigate macular retinal and choroidal thickness in amblyopic eyes compared to that in fellow and normal eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). METHODS:This study examined 31 patients with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia (6.9 ± 3.8 years, mean ± standard deviation), 15 patients with strabismic amblyopia without anisometropia (7.9 ± 4.2 years), and 24 age-matched controls (7.8 ± 3.3 years). Retinal and choroidal thickness was measured by 3D scans using SS-OCT. A 6-mm area around the fovea was automatically analyzed using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study map. The thickness from SS-OCT was corrected for magnification error using individual axial length, spherical refraction, cylinder refraction, and corneal radius. Retinal thickness was divided into the macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer + inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL), ganglion cell complex (GCC), and the inner limiting membrane to the retinal pigment epithelium (ILM-RPE) thickness. Retinal and choroidal thickness was compared among amblyopic, fellow, and normal eyes. RESULTS:In both amblyopia groups, there was no significant difference in the mRNFL, GCL+IPL, and GCC thicknesses among the amblyopic, fellow, and control eyes. In the anisometropic amblyopia group, choroidal thickness (subfovea, center 1 mm, nasal and inferior of the inner ring, nasal of the outer ring, and center 6 mm) of amblyopic eyes were significantly greater than that of fellow and normal eyes. In contrast, none of the choroidal thicknesses were significantly different among the investigated eyes in the strabismic amblyopia group. CONCLUSIONS:We found no significant difference in inner retinal thickness in patients with unilateral amblyopia. Although there were significant differences in choroidal thickness with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia, there was no significant difference for the strabismic amblyopia. The discrepancy in choroidal thickness between the two types of amblyopia may be due to both differences in ocular size and underlying mechanism. 10.1186/s12886-017-0559-3