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    Role of melatonin in sleep deprivation-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction in mice. Gao Ting,Wang Zixu,Dong Yulan,Cao Jing,Lin Rutao,Wang Xintong,Yu Zhengquan,Chen Yaoxing Journal of pineal research Intestinal diseases caused by sleep deprivation (SD) are severe public health threats worldwide. This study focuses on the effect of melatonin on intestinal mucosal injury and microbiota dysbiosis in sleep-deprived mice. Mice subjected to SD had significantly elevated norepinephrine levels and decreased melatonin content in plasma. Consistent with the decrease in melatonin levels, we observed a decrease of antioxidant ability, down-regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in sleep-deprived mice, which resulted in colonic mucosal injury, including a reduced number of goblet cells, proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells, expression of MUC2 and tight junction proteins and elevated expression of ATG5, Beclin1, p-P65 and p-IκB. High-throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA demonstrated that the diversity and richness of the colonic microbiota were decreased in sleep-deprived mice, especially in probiotics, including Akkermansia, Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium. However, the pathogen Aeromonas was markedly increased. By contrast, supplementation with 20 and 40 mg/kg melatonin reversed these SD-induced changes and improved the mucosal injury and dysbiosis of the microbiota in the colon. Our results suggest that the effect of SD on intestinal barrier dysfunction might be an outcome of melatonin suppression rather than a loss of sleep per se. SD-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction involved the suppression of melatonin production and activation of the NF-κB pathway by oxidative stress. 10.1111/jpi.12574
    Sleep Loss Can Cause Death through Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Gut. Vaccaro Alexandra,Kaplan Dor Yosef,Nambara Keishi,Pollina Elizabeth A,Lin Cindy,Greenberg Michael E,Rogulja Dragana Cell The view that sleep is essential for survival is supported by the ubiquity of this behavior, the apparent existence of sleep-like states in the earliest animals, and the fact that severe sleep loss can be lethal. The cause of this lethality is unknown. Here we show, using flies and mice, that sleep deprivation leads to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequent oxidative stress, specifically in the gut. ROS are not just correlates of sleep deprivation but drivers of death: their neutralization prevents oxidative stress and allows flies to have a normal lifespan with little to no sleep. The rescue can be achieved with oral antioxidant compounds or with gut-targeted transgenic expression of antioxidant enzymes. We conclude that death upon severe sleep restriction can be caused by oxidative stress, that the gut is central in this process, and that survival without sleep is possible when ROS accumulation is prevented. VIDEO ABSTRACT. 10.1016/j.cell.2020.04.049