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    The Toxicity of Nanoparticles to Organisms in Freshwater. Lekamge Sam,Ball Andrew S,Shukla Ravi,Nugegoda Dayanthi Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing industry yielding many benefits to society. However, aquatic environments are at risk as increasing amounts of nanoparticles (NPs) are contaminating waterbodies causing adverse effects on aquatic organisms. In this review, the impacts of environmental exposure to NPs, the influence of the physicochemical characteristics of NPs and the surrounding environment on toxicity and mechanisms of toxicity together with NP bioaccumulation and trophic transfer are assessed with a focus on their impacts on bacteria, algae and daphnids. We identify several gaps which need urgent attention in order to make sound decisions to protect the environment. These include uncertainty in both estimated and measured environmental concentrations of NPs for reliable risk assessment and for regulating the NP industry. In addition toxicity tests and risk assessment methodologies specific to NPs are still at the research and development stage. Also conflicting and inconsistent results on physicochemical characteristics and the fate and transport of NPs in the environment suggest the need for further research. Finally, improved understanding of the mechanisms of NP toxicity is crucial in risk assessment of NPs, since conventional toxicity tests may not reflect the risks associated with NPs. Behavioural effects may be more sensitive and would be efficient in certain situations compared with conventional toxicity tests due to low NP concentrations in field conditions. However, the development of such tests is still lacking, and further research is recommended. 10.1007/398_2018_18
    Interaction of engineered nanoparticles with various components of the environment and possible strategies for their risk assessment. Bhatt Indu,Tripathi Bhumi Nath Chemosphere Nanoparticles are the materials with at least two dimensions between 1 and 100 nm. Mostly these nanoparticles are natural products but their tremendous commercial use has boosted the artificial synthesis of these particles (engineered nanoparticles). Accelerated production and use of these engineered nanoparticles may cause their release in the environment and facilitate the frequent interactions with biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystems. Despite remarkable commercial benefits, their presence in the nature may cause hazardous biological effects. Therefore, detail understanding of their sources, release interaction with environment, and possible risk assessment would provide a basis for safer use of engineered nanoparticles with minimal or no hazardous impact on environment. Keeping all these points in mind the present review provides updated information on various aspects, e.g. sources, different types, synthesis, interaction with environment, possible strategies for risk management of engineered nanoparticles. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.011
    Polystyrene nanoparticles: Sources, occurrence in the environment, distribution in tissues, accumulation and toxicity to various organisms. Kik Kinga,Bukowska Bożena,Sicińska Paulina Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Civilization development is associated with the use of plastic. When plastic was introduced to the market, it was assumed that it was less toxic than glass. Recently, it is known that plastics are serious ecological problem they, do not degrade and remain in the environment for hundreds of years. Plastic may be degraded into micro-particles < 5000 nm in diameter, and further into nanoparticles (NPs) < 100 nm in diameter. NPs have been detected in air, soil, water and sludge. One of the most commonly used plastics is polystyrene (PS) - a product of polymerization of styrene monomers. It is used for the production of styrofoam and other products like toys, CDs and cup covers. In vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-NPs) may penetrate organisms through several routes i.e. skin, respiratory and digestive tracts. They can be deposited in living organisms and accumulate further along the food chain. NPs are surrounded by "protein corona" that allows them penetrating cellular membranes and interacting with cellular structures. Depending on the cell type, NPs may be transported through pinocytosis, phagocytosis, or be transported passively. Currently there are no studies that would indicate a carcinogenic potential of PS-NPs. On the other hand, the PS monomer (styrene) was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a potentially carcinogenic substance (carcinogenicity class B2). Despite of the widespread use of plastics and the presence of plastic NPs of secondary or primary nature, there are no studies that would assess the effect of those substances on human organism. This study was aimed at the review of the literature data concerning the formation of PS-NPs in the environment, their accumulation along the food chain, and their potential adverse effects on organisms on living various organization levels. 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114297
    Modelling the Release, Transport and Fate of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment - A Review. Markus Adriaan A,Parsons John R,Roex Erwin W M,de Voogt Pim,Laane Remi W P M Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology Engineered nanoparticles, that is, particles of up to 100 nm in at least one dimension, are used in many consumer products. Their release into the environment as a consequence of their production and use has raised concern about the possible consequences. While they are made of ordinary substances, their size gives them properties that are not manifest in larger particles. It is precisely these properties that make them useful. For instance titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in transparent sunscreens, because they are large enough to scatter ultraviolet light but too small to scatter visible light.To investigate the occurrence of nanoparticles in the environment we require practical methods to detect their presence and to measure the concentrations as well as adequate modelling techniques. Modelling provides both a complement to the available detection and measurement methods and the means to understand and predict the release, transport and fate of nanoparticles. Many different modelling approaches have been developed, but it is not always clear for what questions regarding nanoparticles in the environment these approaches can be applied. No modelling technique can be used for every possible aspect of the release of nanoparticles into the environment. Hence it is important to understand which technique to apply in what situation. This article provides an overview of the techniques involved with their strengths and weaknesses. Two points need to be stressed here: the modelling of processes like dissolution and the surface activity of nanoparticles, possibly under influence of ultraviolet light, or chemical transformation has so far received relatively little attention. But also the uncertainties surrounding nanoparticles in general-the amount of nanoparticles used in consumer products, what constitutes the appropriate measure of concentration (mass or numbers) and what processes are relevant-should be explicitly considered as part of the modelling. 10.1007/398_2016_17
    Nano-bio effects: interaction of nanomaterials with cells. Cheng Liang-Chien,Jiang Xiumei,Wang Jing,Chen Chunying,Liu Ru-Shi Nanoscale With the advancements in nanotechnology, studies on the synthesis, modification, application, and toxicology evaluation of nanomaterials are gaining increased attention. In particular, the applications of nanomaterials in biological systems are attracting considerable interest because of their unique, tunable, and versatile physicochemical properties. Artificially engineered nanomaterials can be well controlled for appropriate usage, and the tuned physicochemical properties directly influence the interactions between nanomaterials and cells. This review summarizes recently synthesized major nanomaterials that have potential biomedical applications. Focus is given on the interactions, including cellular uptake, intracellular trafficking, and toxic response, while changing the physicochemical properties of versatile materials. The importance of physicochemical properties such as the size, shape, and surface modifications of the nanomaterials in their biological effects is also highlighted in detail. The challenges of recent studies and future prospects are presented as well. This review benefits relatively new researchers in this area and gives them a systematic overview of nano-bio interaction, hopefully for further experimental design. 10.1039/c3nr34276j
    Assessing nanoparticle toxicity in cell-based assays: influence of cell culture parameters and optimized models for bridging the in vitro-in vivo gap. Joris Freya,Manshian Bella B,Peynshaert Karen,De Smedt Stefaan C,Braeckmans Kevin,Soenen Stefaan J Chemical Society reviews The number of newly engineered nanomaterials is vastly increasing along with their applications. Despite the fact that there is a lot of interest and effort is being put into the development of nano-based biomedical applications, the level of translational clinical output remains limited due to uncertainty in the toxicological profiles of the nanoparticles (NPs). As NPs used in biomedicines are likely to directly interact with cells and biomolecules, it is imperative to rule out any adverse effect before they can be safely applied. The initial screening for nanotoxicity is preferably performed in vitro, but extrapolation to the in vivo outcome remains very challenging. In addition, generated in vitro and in vivo data are often conflicting, which consolidates the in vitro-in vivo gap and impedes the formulation of unambiguous conclusions on NP toxicity. Consequently, more consistent and relevant in vitro and in vivo data need to be acquired in order to bridge this gap. This is in turn in conflict with the efforts to reduce the number of animals used for in vivo toxicity testing. Therefore the need for more reliable in vitro models with a higher predictive power, mimicking the in vivo environment more closely, becomes more prominent. In this review we will discuss the current paradigm and routine methods for nanotoxicity evaluation, and give an overview of adjustments that can be made to the cultivation systems in order to optimise current in vitro models. We will also describe various novel model systems and highlight future prospects. 10.1039/c3cs60145e