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    Co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs with vitamin E TPGS by porous PLGA nanoparticles for enhanced chemotherapy against multi-drug resistance. Zhu Huijun,Chen Hongbo,Zeng Xiaowei,Wang Zhongyuan,Zhang Xudong,Wu Yanping,Gao Yongfeng,Zhang Jinxie,Liu Kewei,Liu Ranyi,Cai Lintao,Mei Lin,Feng Si-Shen Biomaterials We report a strategy to make use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle (PLGA NPs) for co-delivery of docetaxel (DTX) as a model anticancer drug together with vitamin E TPGS. The latter plays a dual role as a pore-forming agent in the nanoparticles that may result in smaller particle size, higher drug encapsulation efficiency and faster drug release, and also as a bioactive agent that could inhibit P-glycoprotein to overcome multi-drug resistance of the cancer cells, The DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of 0, 10, 20 and 40% TPGS were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method and then characterized for their size and size distribution, surface morphology, physical status and encapsulation efficiency of the drug in the NPs. All four NPs were found of size ranged 100-120 nm and EE ranged 85-95% at drug loading level around 10%. The in vitro evaluation showed that the 48 h IC50 values of the free DTX and the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of 0, 10, 20% TPGS were 2.619 and 0.474, 0.040, 0.009 μg/mL respectively, which means that the PLGA NPs formulation could be 5.57 fold effective than the free DTX and that the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of 10 or 20% TPGS further be 11.85 and 52.7 fold effective than the DTX-loaded PLGA NPs of no TPGS (therefore, 66.0 and 284 fold effective than the free DTX). Xenograft tumor model and immunohistological staining analysis further confirmed the advantages of the strategy of co-delivery of anticancer drugs with TPGS by PLGA NPs. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.11.086
    Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies. Li Wen,Zhang Han,Assaraf Yehuda G,Zhao Kun,Xu Xiaojun,Xie Jinbing,Yang Dong-Hua,Chen Zhe-Sheng Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR. 10.1016/j.drup.2016.05.001
    Overcoming acquired drug resistance in colorectal cancer cells by targeted delivery of 5-FU with EGF grafted hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Chen Lijue,She Xiaodong,Wang Tao,He Li,Shigdar Sarah,Duan Wei,Kong Lingxue Nanoscale Acquired drug resistance (ADR) can be developed in colorectal cancer cells after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment and diminish the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In this work, acquired 5-FU resistance in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained with the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene expression which can convert 5-FU to its inactive metabolite. To overcome ADR in colorectal cancer, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) grafted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were used as nanocarriers to deliver 5-FU to colorectal cancer cells with acquired drug resistance. The effect and mechanism of 5-FU loaded EGF grafted HMSNs (EGF-HMSNs-5-FU) in overcoming acquired drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells were studied. The EGF-HMSNs were demonstrated to be specifically internalized in EGFR overexpressed SW480/ADR cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis and can escape from endo-lysosomes. The EGF-HMSNs-5-FU exhibited much higher cytotoxicity on SW480/ADR cells than HMSNs-5-FU and free 5-FU while the plain HMSNs did not show significant cytotoxicity. The mechanism of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in overcoming drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells could be attributed to the specific internalization of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in EGFR overexpressed cells which can lead to high intracellular drug accumulation and cause cell death through S phase arrest. 10.1039/c5nr03527a
    Chloroquine diphosphate bearing dextran nanoparticles augmented drug delivery and overwhelmed drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Kashyap Aman,Kaur Rupinder,Baldi Ashish,Jain Upendra Kumar,Chandra Ramesh,Madan Jitender International journal of biological macromolecules Chloroquine diphosphate (CHQ) is primarily used for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria at the dose of 500mg orally or 10mg/kg parenterally. However, point mutations in Plasmodiumfalciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) protein and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 1 (Pfmdr1) localized in digestive vacuole membrane, are responsible for CHQ resistance. Therefore, in present investigation, dextran nanoparticles bearing chloroquine diphosphate (CHQ-DEX-NPs) were formulated by solvent diffusion method of size below 70nm with zeta-potential of -20.1±3.2mV. FT-IR, DSC and PXRD techniques confirmed the successful loading of drug in nanomatrix system with amorphous attributes. In vitro drug release analysis indicated the Higuchi pattern with diffusion controlled drug release. The IC of CHQ-DEX-NPs in sensitive (3D7) and resistant (RKL9) Plasmodium falciparum strains was estimated to be 0.031-μg/ml and 0.13-μg/ml significantly lower than 0.059-μg/ml and 0.36-μg/ml of CHQ. The augmented therapeutic efficacy of CHQ-DEX-NPs may be credited to deposition of tailored nanoparticles in food vacuoles of malaria parasites owing to the affinity of parasite towards DEX that consequently lower the drug resistance and improved the therapeutic index. In conclusion, CHQ-DEX-NPs must be evaluated under a set of stringent in vivo parameters to establish its therapeutic efficacy in preclinical model. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.102