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    SAVE 2.0: Identifying and strengthening resident leadership skills through simulation based team training. Onufer Emily Jean,Andrade Erin,Caldwell Katharine E,Cullinan Darren,Vallar Kelly,Turnbull Isaiah R,Schuerer Douglas,Wise Paul E,Klingensmith Mary E,Punch L J The journal of trauma and acute care surgery BACKGROUND:The "Surgery for Abdomino-thoracic ViolencE (SAVE)" animate lab engages surgical residents in the management of penetrating injuries in a team setting. Senior residents, representing postgraduate year (PGY) 3-5, assume the role of team leader and facilitate the junior residents, PGY1-2, in operative management of simulated penetrating wounds. Residents completed five scenarios with increasing level of difficulty within set time limits. Senior residents were evaluated on their team's ability to "SAVE" their patient within the time allotted, as well as their communication and leadership skills. METHODS:General, vascular, urology, and plastic surgery residents (n = 79) were divided into 25 teams of three to four residents by "resident scores" (R scores, the sum of the team members' PGY) to create balanced teams with comparable years of clinical experience. Residents completed assessments of their senior resident's leadership ability and style. RESULTS:Evaluation of a resident's desired learning style changed across PGY with junior residents preferring more hands-on guidance compared with senior residents preferring only verbal correction. Resident leadership evaluations demonstrated that team leaders of varied resident years achieved the highest scores. Greater differences in the mismatch between autonomy provided to and desired by junior residents correlated to greater junior resident discomfort in expressing their opinion, confidence, and leadership ratings of senior residents. However, greater autonomy mismatch also correlated to more rapid time to task completion. CONCLUSION:Different from our expectations, clinical experience alone did not define team leader success. Leadership is a powerful influence on the outcome of team performance and may be a skill, which can transcend overall clinical experience. A match between desired and provided resident autonomy and team cohesion may demonstrate a stronger effect on team success in stressful operative situations, such as trauma resuscitation. Enhancement of leadership skills early in residency training may represent an important focus for trauma surgery education. 10.1097/TA.0000000000003037
    Current Status and Factors Influencing Surgical Options for Breast Cancer in China: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of 110 Hospitals. Yang Benlong,Ren Guosheng,Song Erwei,Pan Da,Zhang Jing,Wang Yongsheng,Liao Ning,Tang Jinhai,Wang Xiang,Cui Shude,Jin Feng,Geng Cuizhi,Sun Qiang,Li Hongyuan,Fan Zhimin,Cao Xuchen,Wang Haibo,Wang Shu,Shao Zhimin,Wu Jiong The oncologist BACKGROUND:There are limited nationwide data regarding breast cancer surgery in China. The Chinese Anti-Cancer Association's Committee of Breast Cancer Society and the Chinese Society of Breast Surgeons conducted a nationwide survey to examine the use of and barriers associated with surgical options among patients with breast cancer. METHODS:Surveys were sent via e-mail to the directors of 110 centers that performed at least 200 breast cancer operations in 2017. The electronic questionnaire contained 183 questions and covered six aspects, including demographic information about the hospitals and surgeons, surgical practice, and application of breast reconstruction. RESULTS:The selected hospitals were from 31 provinces or municipalities. The overall proportion of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) was 22%. Local gross domestic product was significantly related to the rate of BCS (p = .046). Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed routinely in 76% of hospitals. Only 14.5% (16/110) of hospitals used the dual-tracer method, including radioisotopes. For patients with cN0 disease receiving BCS with one or two positive sentinel lymph nodes, 20% (22/110) of hospitals accepted omitting axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). For patients who underwent mastectomy, only 4% (4/110) of hospitals accepted omitting ALND. There was an obvious polarization trend in the proportion of oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery (OPS); 35/110 (32%) performed OPS in fewer than 10% of cases, whereas 36/110 (33%) performed OPS in more than 50% of cases. OPS was more likely to be performed in academic hospitals. Volume displacement was more commonly used than volume replacement (p < .001). Breast reconstruction was routinely performed in 96/110 (87%) of hospitals, 62% of which involved cooperation with the plastic surgery department. Factors influencing breast reconstruction after mastectomy included the establishment of a plastic surgery department, regional economy, and cooperation between the plastic and general surgery departments. Overall, the proportion of breast reconstruction procedures after mastectomy was 10.7%, with 70% being implant-based reconstruction, 17% autologous tissue reconstruction, and 13% a combination. Overall, 22% of the hospitals predominantly performed immediate breast reconstruction. For delayed reconstruction, two-stage implant-based breast reconstruction was the first choice for 46% of centers, whereas 20% of centers chose autologous reconstruction. Among the 96 centers that performed autologous-based reconstruction, 96% performed latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction, 65% performed transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap reconstruction, and 45% used deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps. CONCLUSION:The results are of great value for promoting the implementation of a consensus on diagnostic and treatment standards, development of guidelines for breast cancer, and training of breast specialists. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:This study aimed to establish comprehensive baseline data on the status of current breast cancer treatment in China by presenting the statistics on clinical treatments and surgeries, the distribution of clinical stages, and the demographic characteristics of patients. This report is based on a survey conducted by the Chinese Anti-Cancer Association's Committee of Breast Cancer Society and the Chinese Society of Breast Surgeons, which examined the use of breast cancer surgical options in hospitals all over the country and the factors hindering the adoption of procedures and techniques. This study makes a significant contribution to the literature because there are limited nationwide data regarding breast cancer surgery in China. 10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0001
    Beneficial effects of autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in active progressive multiple sclerosis. Petrou Panayiota,Kassis Ibrahim,Levin Netta,Paul Friedemann,Backner Yael,Benoliel Tal,Oertel Frederike Cosima,Scheel Michael,Hallimi Michelle,Yaghmour Nour,Hur Tamir Ben,Ginzberg Ariel,Levy Yarden,Abramsky Oded,Karussis Dimitrios Brain : a journal of neurology In this study (trial registration: NCT02166021), we aimed to evaluate the optimal way of administration, the safety and the clinical efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in patients with active and progressive multiple sclerosis. Forty-eight patients (28 males and 20 females) with progressive multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale: 3.0-6.5, mean : 5.6 ± 0.8, mean age: 47.5 ± 12.3) and evidence of either clinical worsening or activity during the previous year, were enrolled (between 2015 and 2018). Patients were randomized into three groups and treated intrathecally (IT) or intravenously (IV) with autologous MSCs (1 × 106/kg) or sham injections. After 6 months, half of the patients from the MSC-IT and MSC-IV groups were retreated with MSCs, and the other half with sham injections. Patients initially assigned to sham treatment were divided into two subgroups and treated with either MSC-IT or MSC-IV. The study duration was 14 months. No serious treatment-related safety issues were detected. Significantly fewer patients experienced treatment failure in the MSC-IT and MSC-IV groups compared with those in the sham-treated group (6.7%, 9.7%, and 41.9%, respectively, P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0008). During the 1-year follow-up, 58.6% and 40.6% of patients treated with MSC-IT and MSC-IV, respectively, exhibited no evidence of disease activity compared with 9.7% in the sham-treated group (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0048, respectively). MSC-IT transplantation induced additional benefits on the relapse rate, on the monthly changes of the T2 lesion load on MRI, and on the timed 25-foot walking test, 9-hole peg test, optical coherence tomography, functional MRI and cognitive tests. Treatment with MSCs was well-tolerated in progressive multiple sclerosis and induced short-term beneficial effects regarding the primary end points, especially in the patients with active disease. The intrathecal administration was more efficacious than the intravenous in several parameters of the disease. A phase III trial is warranted to confirm these findings. 10.1093/brain/awaa333