Glucocorticoids and steroid sparing medications monotherapies or in combination for IgG4-RD: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
Omar Dina,Chen Yu,Cong Ye,Dong Lingli
Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
OBJECTIVE:To assess the safety and efficacy of glucocorticoids (GCs), immunosuppressive agents (IM) and rituximab (RTX), alone or in combination, for the treatment of IgG4-RD. METHODS:Relevant articles published were searched in the databases with relevant key words. Network meta-analysis was conducted, with various outcomes including relapse rate, remission rate and adverse events. Data were calculated with odds ratio (ORs) and 95% CI. P-score was used to rank the treatments. RESULTS:A total of 15 studies involving 1169 patients were included. Network meta-analysis indicated that RTX maintenance therapy had the lowest relapse rate of all treatments (OR = 0.10, 95% CI [0.01, 1.63]), whereas GCs + IM was associated with a lower relapse rate compared with GCs alone (OR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.20, 0.80]). Further, patients treated with GCs + IM had a higher remission rate than those given GCs (OR= 3.36, 95% CI [1.44, 7.83]), IM (OR= 55.31, 95% CI [13.73, 222.73]) monotherapies or RTX induction therapy only (OR= 7.38, 95% CI [1.56, 34.94]). The rate of adverse events was comparable among the different treatment groups. CONCLUSION:Treatment of IgG4-RD patients with GCs and IM was associated with higher remission rates and lower relapse rates, as well as comparable safety profiles compared with GC, IM and RTX induction therapy. RTX maintenance therapy had a larger reduction in the relapse rate compared with GC and IM. The current evidence should be carefully scrutinized as the included studies were observational in design. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm.
The efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive therapies in the treatment of IgA nephropathy: A network meta-analysis.
Tan Jiaxing,Dong Lingqiu,Ye Donghui,Tang Yi,Hu Tengyue,Zhong Zhengxia,Tarun Padamata,Xu Yicong,Qin Wei
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a common autoimmune glomerulonephritis that can result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Whether immunosuppressants are superior or equivalent to supportive care is still controversial. A network meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive treatment for IgAN. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched on December 30, 2018. We used a random-effects model with a Bayesian approach to appraise both renal outcomes and serious adverse effects. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to present the relative effects. The ranking probabilities were calculated by the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). In total, 24 RCTs comprising 6 interventions were analyzed. Steroids significantly delayed the progression of renal deterioration with acceptable serious adverse effects, compared with supportive care (RR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.13-0.51, SUCRA = 48.7%). AZA combined with steroids might be an alternative immunosuppressive therapy. Tacrolimus might decrease the proteinuria level (RR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2-9.4, SUCRA = 66.5%) but cannot improve renal function, and the side effects of tacrolimus should not be neglected. MMF and CYC showed no superiority in the treatment of IgAN. In summary, steroids might be recommended as the first-line immunosuppressive therapy for IgAN.
Efficacy and Safety of Immunosuppressive Monotherapy Agents for IgA Nephropathy: A Network Meta-Analysis.
Han Shisheng,Yao Tianwen,Lu Yan,Chen Min,Xu Yanqiu,Wang Yi
Frontiers in pharmacology
The efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive monotherapy agents were evaluated for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) using a network meta-analysis approach. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published prior to October 1, 2019, using immunosuppressive agents for treating IgAN, were systematically searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Relative risks (RRs) or standard mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the random-effects model. The primary outcomes were clinical remission, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and serious adverse events (SAEs). The secondary outcomes were urinary protein excretion and serum creatinine. Twenty-five RCTs with 2,005 participants were deemed eligible. Six medications were evaluated: corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), tacrolimus (TAC), cyclosporine, leflunomide, and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). Steroids (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.17-1.93), MMF (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.15-3.65), TAC (RR 3.67, 95% CI 1.06-12.63), and HCQ (RR 3.25, 95% CI 1.05-10.09) significantly improved clinical remission rates compared to supportive care alone. Only steroids reduced the risk of ESRD (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.12-0.98); however, there were significantly more SAEs than in the control group (RR 2.90, 95% CI 1.37-6.13). No significantly different effects in serum creatinine levels were found among the therapies. MMF showed no significant improvement in remission when excluding studies with a follow-up of fewer than 2 years in the sensitivity analysis (RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.40-4.92). The effect of TAC in the decrease of proteinuria was reversed after discontinuing medication for 3 months; the long-term effects of HCQ could not be evaluated due to the short follow-up duration. Corticosteroids might induce remission and increase renal survival in IgAN; however, adverse reactions should be taken into consideration. MMF, TAC, and HCQ might improve the remission of proteinuria when treating IgAN, but showed no superiority compared to steroids, and the long-term effects require further study.
Efficacy and cost of different treatment in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy: A network meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis.
Dai Pinyuan,Xie Weihua,Yu Xiaojin,Sun Jinfang,Wang Shiyuan,Kawuki Joseph
BACKGROUND:Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is the most common pathological type of adult nephrotic syndrome. However, the treatments for IMN patients had not been compared from the perspectives of therapeutic effect and pharmacoeconomics. Therefore, a network meta-analysis and a cost-effectiveness analysis were conducted to find the optimum treatment for IMN patients. METHODS:Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared the treatments including cyclophosphamide (CTX), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporine (CsA), tacrolimus (TAC), leflunomide (LEF), chlorambucil (CLB) and rituximab (RTX) for patients with IMN were reviewed. The complete and partial remission rates were extracted and then compared by network meta-analysis. The surface under the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) was calculated to rank the remission rate for all treatments. Then, the cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to compared the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of different treatments. RESULTS:A total of 75 articles with 4806 participants were included according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Compared with the glucocorticoids (GC) group, CTX + GC (95%RR 1.02,1.76), CsA + GC (95%RR 1.11,2.13) and TAC + GC (95%RR 1.44,2.59) were associated with a significantly higher rate of complete remission. TAC + GC were most likely to be ranked the best (SUCRA of 92.1%). From the perspective of the cost-effectiveness analysis in China, the ICER of LEF + GC to CTX + GC was $30616.336 per unit utility, and that of TAC + GC to CTX + GC was $670475.210 per unit utility. And the ICER of CTX + GC to LEF + GC in the UK was $-65680.879 per unit utility. CONCLUSIONS:CTX + GC was the cheapest treatment with obvious curative effect in China, while LEF + GC was a cost-effective alternative to CTX + GC. The remission rate of TAC + GC was highest despite the high single-dose cost.