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    Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Are Elevated in Patients with Pneumonia-related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Bendib Inès,de Chaisemartin Luc,Granger Vanessa,Schlemmer Frédéric,Maitre Bernard,Hüe Sophie,Surenaud Mathieu,Beldi-Ferchiou Asma,Carteaux Guillaume,Razazi Keyvan,Chollet-Martin Sylvie,Mekontso Dessap Armand,de Prost Nicolas Anesthesiology BACKGROUND:Neutrophil extracellular traps have been associated with tissue damage. Whether these are involved in the pathogenesis of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and could be a potential therapeutic target is unknown. The authors quantified bronchoalveolar and blood neutrophil extracellular traps in patients with pneumonia-related ARDS and assessed their relationship with ventilator-free days. METHODS:Immunocompetent patients with pneumonia and moderate or severe ARDS (n = 35) and controls (n = 4) were included in a prospective monocentric study. Neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations were quantified (as DNA-myeloperoxidase complexes) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations and the primary clinical endpoint (i.e., the number of live ventilator-free days at day 28) was assessed using linear regression analyses. RESULTS:There was no significant relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations and ventilator-free days by multiple regression analysis (β coefficient = 2.40; 95% CI, -2.13 to 6.92; P = 0.288). Neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations were significantly higher in bronchoalveolar lavage than in blood of ARDS patients (median [first to third quartiles]:154 [74 to 1,000] vs. 26 [4 to 68] arbitrary units, difference: -94; 95% CI, -341 to -57; P < 0.0001). Bronchoalveolar concentrations of patients were higher than those of controls (154 [74 to 1,000] vs. 4 [4 to 4] arbitrary units, difference: -150; 95% CI, -996 to -64; P < 0.001) and associated with bronchoalveolar interleukin-8 (Spearman's ρ = 0.42; P = 0.012) and neutrophil concentrations (ρ = 0.57; P < 0.0001). Intensive care unit mortality (12%, n = 2 of 17 vs. 17%, n = 3 of 18; P > 0.99) and the number of ventilator-free days at day 28 (22 [14 to 25] vs. 14 [0 to 21] days; difference: -5; 95% CI, -15 to 0; P = 0.066) did not significantly differ between patients with higher (n = 17) versus lower (n = 18) bronchoalveolar neutrophil extracellular trap concentrations. CONCLUSIONS:Bronchoalveolar neutrophil extracellular trap concentration was not significantly associated with mechanical ventilation duration in pneumonia-related ARDS. 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002619
    Extracellular Vesicles: A New Frontier for Research in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Mahida Rahul Y,Matsumoto Shotaro,Matthay Michael A American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology Recent research on extracellular vesicles (EVs) has provided new insights into pathogenesis and potential therapeutic options for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). EVs are membrane-bound anuclear structures that carry important intercellular communication mechanisms, allowing targeted transfer of diverse biologic cargo, including protein, mRNA, and microRNA, among several different cell types. In this review, we discuss the important role EVs play in both inducing and attenuating inflammatory lung injury in ARDS as well as in sepsis, the most important clinical cause of ARDS. We discuss the translational challenges that need to be overcome before EVs can also be used as prognostic biomarkers in patients with ARDS and sepsis. We also consider how EVs may provide a platform for novel therapeutics in ARDS. 10.1165/rcmb.2019-0447TR
    Proviral MicroRNAs Detected in Extracellular Vesicles From Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients With Influenza Virus-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Scheller Nicoletta,Herold Susanne,Kellner Ronny,Bertrams Wilhelm,Jung Anna Lena,Janga Harshavadhan,Greulich Timm,Schulte Leon N,Vogelmeier Claus F,Lohmeyer Jürgen,Schmeck Bernd The Journal of infectious diseases Influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory infections and alveolar epithelial damage resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to mediate cellular crosstalk in inflammation by transfer of microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we found significant changes in the miRNA composition of EVs in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with IAV-induced ARDS. Among the 9 significantly deregulated microRNAs, miR-17-5p was upregulated in patients' BALF and in EVs of IAV-infected lung epithelial cells (A549). In these cells, transfer of miR-17-5p strongly downregulated expression of the antiviral factor Mx1 and significantly enhanced IAV replication. 10.1093/infdis/jiy554
    MicroRNA-574-5p Attenuates Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome by Targeting HMGB1. He Binchan,Zhou Wei,Rui Yuwen,Liu Lulu,Chen Bilin,Su Xin American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical condition with high mortality. HMGB1 (high-mobility group protein B1) is one of the key proinflammatory factors in the ARDS "inflammatory storm." According to previous studies, some microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in this process. We aimed to determine the contributing miRNAs targeting the expression and release of HMGB1. miRNA expression in the peripheral blood of patients with ARDS was measured by miRNA microarray. miRNAs targeting HMGB1 were screened and explored for further study. In LPS-induced cell and mouse ARDS models, we explored the effect of this miRNA on the expression and secretion of HMGB1 by Western blot, real-time qPCR, and ELISA. The effects of this miRNA on the NF-κB signaling pathway, proinflammatory cytokines, and NLRP3 (nod-like receptor protein 3) inflammasome were detected by Western blot and real-time qPCR. In ARDS models, microRNA-574-5p (miR-574-5p) expression could be induced by the TLR4/NF-κB pathway upon LPS stimulation. It could suppress the inflammatory response by targeting HMGB1. Enforcing the expression of miR-574-5p or HMGB1 siRNA silencing inhibits the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Moreover, overexpression of HMGB1 reversed the antiinflammatory effect of miR-574-5p. In ARDS mice, overexpression of miR-574-5p suppresses alveolar leukocytes infiltration, interstitial edema, protein effusion, and inflammation. This study demonstrated that miR-574-5p provided negative feedback to LPS-induced inflammation and relieved ARDS. It may provide new therapeutic strategies for ARDS. 10.1165/rcmb.2020-0112OC