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    Evaluation of serum interleukin 17 and zinc levels in recalcitrant viral wart. Ghanem Afaf Helmy,Esawy Abdulla Mohamed,Khalifa Naglaa Ali,Kamal Hend Mahmoud Journal of cosmetic dermatology BACKGROUND:Warts are benign epithelial proliferations of the skin and mucosa caused by infection with HPV. Low IL-17 levels may contribute in occurrence, maintenance, severity, and recurrence of different types of cutaneous wart that depend mainly on the cell-mediated immunity defect. In a majority of the patients, zinc deficiency was associated with persistent, progressive, or recurrent viral warts. A careful dose of oral zinc sulfate may be helpful in the management of such patients. Zn deficiency negatively affects the Th17 cells. IL 6 induced STAT3 activation during chronic inflammation and Th17 development suppressed by Zn via attenuating this activation critically controls Th17-cell development. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the role of interleukin 17 and zinc in recalcitrant warts. PATENTS AND METHODS:All studied patients were subjected to history taking and dermatological examination. The evaluation of serum IL-17 level was done by ELISA in 25 recalcitrant wart patients and 25 wart patients. The measurement of serum zinc level was determined by colorimetric methods, using Au 480 Beckman coulter chemistry analyzer. RESULTS:The results revealed a significant decrease in serum IL-17 and zinc levels in recalcitrant wart patients. CONCLUSION:Both IL-17 and zinc deficiency have a role in the pathogenesis of recalcitrant warts through the imbalance of immune system and deficiency of immune cells. There is no significant correlation between serum levels of IL-17 and zinc, suggesting that they have different mechanisms in affecting the immune system. 10.1111/jocd.13106