Nurses' resilience and the emotional labour of nursing work: An integrative review of empirical literature.
Delgado Cynthia,Upton Dominic,Ranse Kristen,Furness Trentham,Foster Kim
International journal of nursing studies
BACKGROUND:The emotional labour of nursing work involves managing the emotional demands of relating with patients, families and colleagues. Building nurses' resilience is an important strategy in mitigating the stress and burnout that may be caused by ongoing exposure to these demands. Understandings of resilience in the context of emotional labour in nursing, however, are limited. OBJECTIVES:To investigate the state of knowledge on resilience in the context of emotional labour in nursing. DESIGN:Integrative literature review. DATA SOURCES:CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, and PsycINFO electronic databases were searched for abstracts published between 2005 and 2015 and written in English. Reference lists were hand searched. REVIEW METHODS:Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method was used to guide this review. The constant comparative method was used to analyze and synthesize data from 27 peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative articles. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool. RESULTS:Emotional labour is a facet of all aspects of nursing work and nurse-patient/family/collegial interactions. Emotional dissonance arising from surface acting in emotional labour can lead to stress and burnout. Resilience can be a protective process for the negative effects of emotional labour. Several resilience interventions have been designed to strengthen nurses' individual resources and reduce the negative effects of workplace stress; however they do not specifically address emotional labour. Inclusion of emotional labour-mitigating strategies is recommended for future resilience interventions. CONCLUSION:Resilience is a significant intervention that can build nurses' resources and address the effects of emotional dissonance in nursing work. There is a need for further investigation of the relationship between resilience and emotional labour in nursing, and robust evaluation of the impact of resilience interventions that address emotional labour.
Workplace resilience and emotional labour of Australian mental health nurses: Results of a national survey.
Delgado Cynthia,Roche Michael,Fethney Judith,Foster Kim
International journal of mental health nursing
Emotional labour is a form of adversity faced by mental health nurses in the context of their workplace interactions. Frequent exposure to emotional adversity can negatively impact mental health nurses' biopsychosocial well-being, workplace relationships, and performance. Workplace resilience is a dynamic interactive process within and between the person and their environment that promotes positive adaptation to adverse events and restores well-being. Workplace resilience could be a protective process that helps mental health nurses positively adapt to workplace emotional adversity. This study aimed to investigate Australian mental health nurses' workplace resilience and emotional labour and explore the relationship between them. A national cross-sectional online survey comprising the Resilience at Work and Emotional Labour scales was completed by registered nurses (n = 482) working in a mental health role or setting across Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between resilience and the emotional labour strategy of surface acting. A positive association between resilience, frequency of emotional labour, and clinical supervision was also found. These findings point to a potential link between mental health nurses' skills of cognitive reframing, and emotional and behavioural regulation needed to effectively manage their emotions and remain therapeutic in interpersonal interactions. Clinical supervision may be a key strategy in supporting mental health nurses' resilience. Further investigation of workplace individuals' internal and external resources, and organizational resources, supports, and strategies that can promote and strengthen mental health nurses' well-being is needed.