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    Should fecal microbial transplantation be used in the ICU? McClave Stephen A,Patel Jayshil,Bhutiani Neal Current opinion in critical care PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Maintaining gut barrier defenses, modulating immune responses, and supporting the role of commensal microbiota are major factors influencing outcome in critical illness. Of these, maintaining a commensal 'lifestyle' and preventing the emergence of a virulent pathobiome may be most important in reducing risk of infection and multiple organ failure. RECENT FINDINGS:The polymeric formulas utilized for enteral nutrition in the ICU are absorbed high in the gastrointestinal tract and may not reach the microbial burden in the cecum where their effect is most needed. The provision of a few select probiotic organisms may be insufficient to refaunate the gut and establish a 'recovery pattern,' propelling the patient toward health and homeostasis. Use of fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) appears to be a more successful strategy for replenishing the intestinal microbiome and maintaining its commensal phenotypic expression. SUMMARY:FMT has become an attractive option to mitigate multiple organ dysfunction in the ICU. This article discusses the physiology, rationale, early experience, and expectations for such therapy in the critically ill patient. 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000489
    Fecal microbiota transplantation for multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Klingensmith Nathan J,Coopersmith Craig M Critical care (London, England) 10.1186/s13054-016-1567-z
    Effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation for severe diarrhea after drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. Wei Yanling,Li Ning,Xing Hanyang,Guo Tianjiao,Gong Hao,Chen Dongfeng Medicine The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating intestinal failure associated with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS).A 32-year-old Chinese woman, who developed DIHS-associated multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) manifesting as combined dysfunction of the intestine, liver, and kidney, was treated with 4 times of FMT at a frequency of once every 6 days. The structure and composition of the patient's fecal microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA-based molecular techniques. The clinical outcomes after FMT treatment were assessed by abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), characterization of fecal microbiota, measurement of serum inflammatory markers, and other clinical examinations.After 4 rounds of FMT were administered, the patient showed dramatic improvement in MODS and severe diarrhea with these clinical conditions under control. We consistently observed significant alteration in her gut microbiota, mainly involving considerable enrichment in Firmicutes members and depletion of Proteobacteria opportunistic organisms. Moreover, this reconstituted bacterial community composition correlated with fecal output, T helper cells, and inflammatory markers. Abdominal contrast-enhanced CT scans before and after FMT indicated significant improvement in inflammation and edema within the small intestine and colon of the patient. Notably, after completion of the fourth FMT, the level of inflammation in the intestine and colon had returned to normal. Over 6 months of follow-up, the intestinal mucous remained normal.Our results represent a breakthrough in the clinical management of MODS and suggest new therapeutic avenues to pursue for microbiota-related indications. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018476
    Successful treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and diarrhea following severe sepsis. Wei Yanling,Yang Jun,Wang Jun,Yang Yang,Huang Juan,Gong Hao,Cui Hongli,Chen Dongfeng Critical care (London, England) BACKGROUND:The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of gut-derived infections, making it a potential therapeutic target against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after sepsis. However, the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating this disease has been rarely investigated. METHODS:Two male patients, a 65-year-old and an 84-year-old, were initially diagnosed with cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, respectively, after admission. During the course of hospitalization, both patients developed MODS, septic shock, and severe watery diarrhea. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Intestinal dysbiosis was confirmed by 16S rDNA-based molecular analysis of microbiota composition in fecal samples from the two patients. The two patients each received a single nasogastric infusion of sterile-filtered, pathogen-free feces from a healthy donor. Fecal samples were collected every two days post infusion to monitor changes in microbiota composition in response to treatment. RESULTS:Following FMT, MODS and severe diarrhea were alleviated in both patients. Their stool output and body temperature markedly declined and normalized. Significant modification of microbiota composition, characterized by a profound increase of commensals in the Firmicutes phylum and depletion of opportunistic organisms in the Proteobacteria phylum, was observed in both patients. Furthermore, we identified a reconstituted bacterial community enriched in Firmicutes and depleted of Proteobacteria that was associated with a decrease in the patients' fecal output and in the levels of plasma inflammation markers. CONCLUSIONS:The outcome of treating two patients with FMT indicates that restoration of the intestinal microbiota barrier can alleviate the infection and modulate the immune response. These findings warrant further investigation of FMT as a putative new therapy for treating microbiota-related diseases such as MODS. 10.1186/s13054-016-1491-2