Photo-Fenton reaction of graphene oxide: a new strategy to prepare graphene quantum dots for DNA cleavage.
Zhou Xuejiao,Zhang Yan,Wang Chong,Wu Xiaochen,Yang Yongqiang,Zheng Bin,Wu Haixia,Guo Shouwu,Zhang Jingyan
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are great promising in various applications owing to the quantum confinement and edge effects in addition to their intrinsic properties of graphene, but the preparation of the GQDs in bulk scale is challenging. We demonstrated in this work that the micrometer sized graphene oxide (GO) sheets could react with Fenton reagent (Fe(2+)/Fe(3+)/H(2)O(2)) efficiently under an UV irradiation, and, as a result, the GQDs with periphery carboxylic groups could be generated with mass scale production. Through a variety of techniques including atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, gas chromatography, ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and total organic carbon measurement, the mechanism of the photo-Fenton reaction of GO was elucidated. The photo-Fenton reaction of GO was initiated at the carbon atoms connected with the oxygen containing groups, and C-C bonds were broken subsequently, therefore, the reaction rate depends strongly on the oxidization extent of the GO. Given the simple and efficient nature of the photo-Fenton reaction of GO, this method should provide a new strategy to prepare GQDs in mass scale. As a proof-of-concept experiment, the novel DNA cleavage system using as-generated GQDs was constructed.
Induction of ferroptosis in response to graphene quantum dots through mitochondrial oxidative stress in microglia.
Wu Tianshu,Liang Xue,Liu Xi,Li Yimeng,Wang Yutong,Kong Lu,Tang Meng
Particle and fibre toxicology
BACKGROUND:Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) provide a bright prospect in the biomedical application because they contain low-toxic compounds and promise imaging of deep tissues and tiny vascular structures. However, the biosafety of this novel QDs has not been thoroughly evaluated, especially in the central nervous system (CNS). The microarray analysis provides a hint that nitrogen-doped GQDs (N-GQDs) exposure could cause ferroptosis in microglia, which is a novel form of cell death dependent on iron overload and lipid peroxidation. RESULTS:The cytosolic iron overload, glutathione (GSH) depletion, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were observed in microglial BV2 cells treated with N-GQDs, which indicated that N-GQDs could damage the iron metabolism and redox balance in microglia. The pre-treatments of a specific ferroptosis inhibitor Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) and an iron chelater Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) not only inhibited cell death, but also alleviated iron overload, LPO and alternations in ferroptosis biomarkers in microglia, which were caused by N-GQDs. When assessing the potential mechanisms of N-GQDs causing ferroptosis in microglia, we found that the iron content, ROS generation and LPO level in mitochondria of BV2 cells all enhanced after N-GQDs exposure. When the antioxidant ability of mitochondria was increased by the pre-treatment of a mitochondria targeted ROS scavenger MitoTEMPO, the ferroptotic biological changes were effectively reversed in BV2 cells treated with N-GQDs, which indicated that the N-GQDs-induced ferroptosis in microglia could be attributed to the mitochondrial oxidative stress. Additionally, amino functionalized GQDs (A-GQDs) elicited milder redox imbalance in mitochondria and resulted in less ferroptotic effects than N-GQDs in microglia, which suggested a slight protection of amino group functionalization in GQDs causing ferroptosis. CONCLUSION:N-GQDs exposure caused ferroptosis in microglia via inducing mitochondrial oxidative stress, and the ferroptotic effects induced by A-GQDs were milder than N-GQDs when the exposure method is same. This study will not only provide new insights in the GQDs-induced cell damage performed in multiple types of cell death, but also in the influence of chemical modification on the toxicity of GQDs.
Insight into the cellular internalization and cytotoxicity of graphene quantum dots.
Wu Congyu,Wang Chong,Han Ting,Zhou Xuejiao,Guo Shouwu,Zhang Jingyan
Advanced healthcare materials
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), owing to their unique morphology, ultra-small lateral sizes, and exceptional properties, hold great promise for many applications, especially in the biomedical field. In this work, the cellular internalization, distribution, and cytotoxicity of the GQDs are explored complementarily using transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopies, and flow cytometry with human gastric cancer MGC-803 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. It is demonstrated that the GQDs are internalized primarily through caveolae-mediated endocytosis. The effects of GQDs on the cell viability, internal cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membranes potential, and cell cycles show that the cytotoxicity of GQDs is lower than that of the micrometer-sized graphene oxide (GO). The low cytotoxicity and size consistence render GQDs appropriate for biomedical application.
Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Reduce Oxidative Stress and Inhibit Neurotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo through Catalase-Like Activity and Metabolic Regulation.
Ren Chaoxiu,Hu Xiangang,Zhou Qixing
Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Both oxidative stress and neurotoxicity are huge challenges to human health, and effective methods and agents for resisting these adverse effects are limited, especially in vivo. It is shown here that, compared to large graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, GO quantum dots (GOQDs), as nanozymes, efficiently reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and HO in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion (MPP)-induced PC12 cells. In addition, GOQDs exert neuroprotective effects in a neuronal cell model by decreasing apoptosis and α-synuclein. GOQDs also efficiently diminish ROS, apoptosis, and mitochondrial damage in zebrafish treated with MPP. Furthermore, GOQDs-pretreated zebrafish shows increased locomotive activity and Nissl bodies in the brain, confirming that GOQDs ameliorate MPP-induced neurotoxicity, in contrast to GO nanosheets. GOQDs contribute to neurotoxic amelioration by increasing amino acid metabolism, decreasing tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and reducing steroid biosynthesis, fatty acid biosynthesis, and galactose metabolic pathway activity, which are related to antioxidation and neurotransmission. Meanwhile, HO decomposition and Fenton reactions suggest the catalase-like activity of GOQDs. GOQDs can translocate into zebrafish brains and exert catalase-mimicking activity to resist oxidation in the intracellular environment. Unlike general nanomaterials, biocompatible GOQDs demonstrate their high potential for human health by reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting neurotoxicity.
Necrotic, apoptotic and autophagic cell fates triggered by nanoparticles.
Mohammadinejad Reza,Moosavi Mohammad Amin,Tavakol Shima,Vardar Deniz Özkan,Hosseini Asieh,Rahmati Marveh,Dini Luciana,Hussain Salik,Mandegary Ali,Klionsky Daniel J
Nanomaterials have gained a rapid increase in use in a variety of applications that pertain to many aspects of human life. The majority of these innovations are centered on medical applications and a range of industrial and environmental uses ranging from electronics to environmental remediation. Despite the advantages of NPs, the knowledge of their toxicological behavior and their interactions with the cellular machinery that determines cell fate is extremely limited. This review is an attempt to summarize and increase our understanding of the mechanistic basis of nanomaterial interactions with the cellular machinery that governs cell fate and activity. We review the mechanisms of NP-induced necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy and potential implications of these pathways in nanomaterial-induced outcomes. Abbreviations: Ag, silver; CdTe, cadmium telluride; CNTs, carbon nanotubes; EC, endothelial cell; GFP, green fluorescent protein; GO, graphene oxide; GSH, glutathione; HUVECs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells; NP, nanoparticle; PEI, polyethylenimine; PVP, polyvinylpyrrolidone; QD, quantum dot; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SiO, silicon dioxide; SPIONs, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; SWCNT, single-walled carbon nanotubes; TiO, titanium dioxide; USPION, ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide; ZnO, zinc oxide.