Ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. fruits inhibits proinflammatory mediators via down regulating nuclear factor-κB in LPS stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.
Jayesh Kuriakose,Helen Lal Raisa,Vysakh A,Binil Eldhose,Latha M S
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Inflammation has been considered as a major risk factor for various kinds of human diseases. Macrophages play substantial roles in host defense against infection. It can be activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The current study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl acetate fraction isolated from T. bellerica (EFTB) in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines. The inhibitory effects of EFTB on total cyclooxygenase (COX), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity, nitrate and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were studied. The gene level expression of COX-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were also studied in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. EFTB (100μg/mL) inhibited all inflammatory markers in dose dependent manner. Moreover, EFTB down regulated the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NF-κB against LPS stimulation. Our results demonstrated that EFTB is able to attenuate inflammatory response possibly via suppression of ROS and NO species, inhibiting the production of arachidonic acid metabolites, proinflammatory mediators and cytokines release.
Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway.
Chatterjee Ananya,Chatterjee Sirshendu,Biswas Angshuman,Bhattacharya Sayanti,Chattopadhyay Subrata,Bandyopadhyay Sandip K
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE) of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla) against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX-) dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg, single dose) administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG) E(2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS) were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5 mg/kg/day) and omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day) for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL). Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE(2) synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio.
Biphasic Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. Extract on NSAID-Induced Ulcer: An Antioxidative Trail Weaved with Immunomodulatory Effect.
Chatterjee Ananya,Chattopadhyay Subrata,Bandyopadhyay Sandip K
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM
Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.), apart from its food value, can be used as a gastroprotective agent in non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy. It has been suggested that the antioxidative property of amla is the key to its therapeutic effect. Hence, on the basis of in vitro antioxidative potential, the ethanolic extract of amla (eAE) was selected for in vivo study in NSAID-induced ulcer. Intriguingly, eAE showed biphasic activity in ulcerated mice, with healing effect observed at 60 mg/kg and an adverse effect at 120 mg/kg.The dose-dependent study revealed that switching from anti-oxidant to pro-oxidant shift and immunomodulatory property could be the major cause for its biphasic effect, as evident from the total antioxidant status, thiol concentration, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content followed by mucin content, PGE(2) synthesis and cytokine status. Further, Buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) pretreatment established the potential impact of antioxidative property in the healing action of eAE. However, eAE efficiently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) levels and appreciably upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) concentration. In conclusion, gastric ulcer healing induced by eAE was driven in a dose-specific manner through the harmonization of the antioxidative property and modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine level.
Nitric oxide radical scavenging active components from Phyllanthus emblica L.
Kumaran A,Karunakaran R Joel
Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands)
An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to identify the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging components of Phyllanthus emblica. Dried fruit rind of P. emblica was extracted with methanol and then separated into hexane, ethyl acetate, and water fractions. Among these only the ethyl acetate phase showed strong NO scavenging activity in vitro, when compared with water and hexane phases. The ethyl acetate fraction was then subjected to separation and purification using Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Five compounds showing strong NO scavenging activity were identified by spectral methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MS) and by comparison with literature values to be Gallic acid, Methyl gallate, Corilagin, Furosin, and Geraniin. In addition, HPLC identification and quantification of isolated compounds were also performed. Gallic acid was found to be a major compound in the ethyl acetate extract and Geraniin showed highest NO scavenging activity among the isolated compounds.
Identification of phenolics in the fruit of emblica (Phyllanthus emblica L.) and their antioxidant activities.
Liu Xiaoli,Cui Chun,Zhao Mouming,Wang Jinshui,Luo Wei,Yang Bao,Jiang Yueming
An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to identify the antioxidative components of emblica fruit. Dried fruit of emblica was extracted with methanol and then partitioned by ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity among four fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was then subjected to separation and purification using Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Six compounds were identified to be geraniin (1), quercetin 3-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol 3-β-d-glucopyranoside (3), isocorilagin (4), quercetin (5), and kaempferol (6), respectively, by spectral methods, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and mass spectroscopy (MS), and comparison with literatures. Compounds 2-4 and 6 were identified from emblica fruit for the first time. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of purified compounds were screened for their antioxidative potential using lipid peroxidation and DPPH systems. All the purified compounds showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. Amongst, geraniin showed the highest antioxidant activity (4.7 and 65.7μM of IC50 values for DPPH and lipid peroxidation assay, respectively) than other purified compounds.
Structural identification of isomallotusinin and other phenolics in Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit hull.
Luo Wei,Wen Lingrong,Zhao Mouming,Yang Bao,Ren Jiaoyan,Shen Guanglin,Rao Guohua
The air-dried fruit hull of Phyllanthus emblica L. was extracted with 95% ethanol, and then the extract was partitioned by diethyl ether and ethyl acetate (EA). The EA fraction was then subjected to separation and purification using silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography repeatedly to obtain five hydrolysable tannins. They were identified as mucic acid 1,4-lactone 3-o-gallate (C1), isocorilagin (C2), chebulanin (C3), chebulagic acid (C4) and isomallotusinin (C5) using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. Isomallotusinin and chebulanin were identified from emblica dried fruit hull for the first time, and isomallotusinin was the first time identified from Phyllanthus. Furthermore, the antioxidant abilities of these hydrolysable tannins were investigated using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging systems. All hydrolysable tannins showed strong DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. Isomallotusinin and chebulagic acid exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other purified compounds tested.
Chemopreventive efficacy of Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) fruit extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis--a dose-response study.
Krishnaveni Mani,Mirunalini Sankaran
Environmental toxicology and pharmacology
Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae), a novel natural fruit has long been used as a home remedy by the medical practitioners. In this report, we investigated the chemopreventive effect of P. emblica fruit methanolic extract (PFMet) on oxidant-antioxidant status in hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Buccal pouch carcinoma was induced in hamsters by painting with DMBA (0.5% in mineral oil) on the left buccal pouch three times a week for 14 weeks. By means of HPLC analysis, ascorbic acid (24.13%), gallic acid (10.45%), ellagic acid (1.74%) and quercetin (0.009%) were identified and quantified in the PFMet. The results showed that depleted activities of SOD, CAT and TBARS level and significant elevation were observed in the levels of GSH, vitamin E and activity of GPx in DMBA group of buccal pouch. The level of TBARS was significantly enhanced and the activities of enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) and non-enzymatic (vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH) antioxidants were diminished significantly in plasma of tumor bearing animals. The effects were dose dependent and the above noted parameters were renovated to near normal after supplementation with different doses of PFMet (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW). The data obtained in this study clearly indicate that PFMet at a dose of 200mg/kg BW possesses optimum chemopreventive effect against DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
Evaluation of Cellular Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Main Phyllanthus Emblica L. Cultivars in China.
Li Y,Sun H Y,Yu X Y,Liu D,Wan H X
Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences
The cell-based antioxidant activity assay as more biological relevant assay was considered to be more accurate to predict antioxidant activity in vivo than chemical activity assays. In the present study, the five main Phyllanthus emblica L. cultivars in China were subjected for cellular antioxidant activity based on HepG2 cells as well as antiproliferative activity. Total phenolics, total flavonoids and oxygen radical absorbance capacity were also measured. The results showed that Qingyougan, Binggan and Boligan (832±100, 774±52 and 704±28 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had higher cellular antioxidant activity than Tianyougan and Yougan (553±50 and 457±24 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) in phosphate buffered saline wash protocol whereas, Boligan (3735±217 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had the highest cellular antioxidant activity and Tianyougan (2025±171 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had the lowest cellular antioxidant activity in no phosphate buffered saline wash protocol. The highest and lowest antiproliferative activities were observed in Binggan and Tianyougan (median effective dose: 6.95±0.11 and 14.03±0.10 mg/ml), respectively. The significant correlation was only observed between total flavonoids and cellular antioxidant activity from no phosphate buffered saline wash protocol (R(2) =0.908, P<0.05), and total flavonoids and antiproliferative activity (R(2) =0.887, P<0.05), suggesting the major contribution of flavonoids to the bioactivities of emblica. Overall, the data obtained revealed that different Phyllanthus emblica L. cultivars had strong cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, thus should be recommended to increase consumption for health.
The hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit on high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in SD rats.
Huang Cheng-Ze,Tung Yu-Tang,Hsia Shih-Min,Wu Chi-Hao,Yen Gow-Chin
Food & function
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease, is closely associated with metabolic syndrome and refers to the accumulation of hepatic steatosis not due to excess alcohol consumption. Phyllanthus emblica L. is a rich source of gallic acid and many known medicinally phytochemicals such as tannins, lignans, flavonoids, alkaloids, vitamin C, mucic acid, and ellagic acid. Our previous study has revealed that P. emblica exhibits inhibitory effects on hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis in vitro, as well as gallic acid improves high fat diet (HFD)-induced dyslipidaemia, hepatosteatosis, and oxidative stress in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the water extract of P. emblica L. fruit (WEPE) on NAFLD in an animal model. The results showed that WEPE could significantly decrease body weight, peritoneal fat and epididymal fat, enhance the antioxidant enzyme activities, and improve steatosis through elevating adiponectin in adipocytes and PPAR-α in the liver as well as lowering SREBP-1c in the liver of rats fed with a high fat diet (HFD). This might be an explanation for the hepatic fat deposition-lowering effect of WEPE. These results demonstrate that WEPE could be beneficial for the amelioration of HFD-induced steatosis.
Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Phyllanthus emblica L. and evaluation of antioxidant activities.
Tsai C-C,Chou C-H,Liu Y-C,Hsieh C-W
International journal of cosmetic science
OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Phyllanthus emblica. METHODS:Extracts obtained by UAE were evaluated for their antioxidant activities. Extraction experiments were carried out with three factors and three levels namely extraction time (varying from 15 to 60 min), ethanol concentration (varying from 50 to 90%) and frequency (varying from 28 to 56 kHz). RESULTS:The results showed that the UAE optimal conditions of extracting total phenol components were as follows: 15 min of extraction time, 60°C of extraction temperature, 70% of ethanol concentration, 56 kHz of ultrasonic frequency and a 1: 50 solid to solvent ratio. Under optimal conditions, the leaching-out rate of phenolic compounds was up to 55.34 mg g(-1) , and the yield of crude extract of P. emblica was up to 56.82%. The results reveal that the yield of phenolic compounds of UAE (56.82%) is higher than that of conventional solvent extraction (16.78%). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts obtained by UAE were evaluated in terms of activities of DPPH (1,1'-diphenyl-2-2'-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power. P. emblica extracts obtained by UAE showed high antioxidant activity (26.00, 50.11 and 115.91 μg mL(-1) of IC50 values for DPPH radicals, total antioxidant ability and chelating ability of ferrous ion). CONCLUSION:The result of this study showed that UAE was a suitable method for the extraction of total phenolic compounds. Moreover, the author's main finding in this work is the fact that phenolic compounds from P. emblica show excellent antioxidant activity in multi-test systems.
Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit on methionine and choline-deficiency diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
Tung Yu-Tang,Huang Cheng-Ze,Lin Jia-Hong,Yen Gow-Chin
Journal of food and drug analysis
Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit contains abundant bioactive components and exhibits a variety of biological activities. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of water extract of P. emblica (WEPE) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was evaluated. C57BL/6 mice were fed methionine and choline-deficiency diet (MCD diet) for 4 or 8 weeks to induce NASH. Results showed that administration of WEPE could significantly reduce serum AST and ALT as compared to MCD diet-alone group. Administration of WEPE could significantly decrease lipid peroxidation and CYP2E1 mRNA expression, and elevate the antioxidant activities in mice livers. In addition, administration of WEPE after 8 weeks could significantly decrease the mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β in mice livers, but have less improving effect of hepatic steatosis and mononuclear cell infiltration. Taken together, MCD diet might cause serious hepatic steatosis and mild inflammation in mice livers, but administration of WEPE could ameliorate the rapid progression of NASH.
HPLC fingerprint analysis of Phyllanthus emblica ethanol extract and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Li Wei,Zhang Xiaoying,Chen Rong,Li Yifeng,Miao Jianyin,Liu Guo,Lan Yaqi,Chen Yunjiao,Cao Yong
Journal of ethnopharmacology
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Phyllanthus emblica L. (P. emblica) as a medical plant has been used to treat diseases in Asia. It is famous for a wide range of biological activities, especially for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, quality control underlying the bioactivity of P. emblica fruits remains to be studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this study, we evaluated the HPLC fingerprint and bioactivity of polyphenols extracted from P. emblica fruits grown in different habitats. RESULTS:P. emblica fruits collected from 10 different habitats in Guangdong, Fujian, Yunnan, and Guangxi provinces in China were used to establish a simple and reliable HPLC fingerprint assay. Simultaneous quantification of three monophenols was also performed to determine assay quality and consistency. Additionally, chemical assessment of the different ethanolic extract (PEEE) from 10 P. emblica fruits demonstrated that they exhibited antioxidant activity by enhancing reducing power and total antioxidant capacity, scavenging hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion. PEEE protected RAW264.7 cells from oxidative damage by increasing glutathione content and total superoxide dismutase activity, suppressing MDA content. PEPE also alleviated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells by decreasing release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Notably, the PEEE samples from Yunnan province showed the optimal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects among all the PEEE samples. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, The PEEE HPLC fingerprint may help improve P. emblica quality control, and P. emblica with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may be potentially applied in functional foods or in adjuvant therapy for medicinal development.
Isoalantolactone induces apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-dependent upregulation of death receptor 5 in human esophageal cancer cells.
Lu Zhengyang,Zhang Guangxin,Zhang Yifan,Hua Peiyan,Fang Meidan,Wu Meiliang,Liu Tongjun
Toxicology and applied pharmacology
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most prevalent cancer and has high mortality in our society. Isoalantolactone, extracted from Inula helenium L, has shown potent anticancer effects on a variety of cancers. However, its effect on human esophageal cancer, and the underlying molecular mechanism, remain to be investigated. In the present study, we demonstrated that isoalantolactone induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Treatment with isoalantolactone activated caspases-3, -7, and -10, and upregulated death receptor (DR)5. Furthermore, DR5 knockdown partially reversed the effect of isoalantolactone. These results indicated the extrinsic apoptosis was induced by isoalantolactone. In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly elevated after treatment with isoalantolactone. N-Acetylcysteine, an ROS scavenger, blocked both the apoptosis and decreased cell viability caused by isoalantolactone. In vivo, significant suppression of tumor growth by isoalantolactone was observed in an ECA109 cell xenograft mouse model. Isoalantolactone showed no obvious adverse effects on mouse weight and histology of heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney. In conclusion, our results revealed that isoalantolactone induced apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway via upregulation of DR5 and elevation of ROS in human esophageal cancer cells. Isoalantolactone, therefore, could be a potential candidate in developing anticancer agents for esophageal cancer patients.
Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of Azine Derivatives of 6-Hydroxyxanthanodiene.
Neganova Margarita E,Klochkov Sergey G,Pukhov Sergey A,Afanasieva Svetlana V,Aleksandrova Yulia R,Yandulova Ekaterina Y,Avila-Rodriguez Marco F,Mikhaleva Liudmila M,Nikolenko Vladimir N,Somasundaram Siva G,Kirkland Cecil E,Aliev Gjumrakch
Current cancer drug targets
BACKGROUND:The conjugates of the sesquiterpene lactone of the eremophilane series of 6- hydroxyxanthanodiene with hydrogenated azines (piperidines and piperazines) have been synthesized and identified by NMR spectrometer. OBJECTIVE:A lactone with an unusual skeleton "6-hydroxyxanthanodiene" was extracted from the plant Elecampane (Inula helenium L) and identified various species with NMR spectrometer. METHODS:The cytotoxic, mitochondrial, and antioxidant activities on different tumor lines such as A549, HCT116, RD and Jurkat were investigated and determined possible mechanisms. RESULTS:The results showed that the most potent compound was IIIi exhibiting highest cytotoxicity against RD cells (IC50 25.23 ± 0.04 μM), depolarized the mitochondrial membrane and was an effective antioxidant (IC50 inhibition of LP 10.68 ± 3.21 μM) without any toxic side effect on healthy cells. CONCLUSION:The conjugates of sesquiterpene lactone 6-hydroxyxanthanodiene III and hydrogenated azines may help to design potential promising anticancer drugs.
Alantolactone Enhances the Phagocytic Properties of Human Macrophages and Modulates Their Proinflammatory Functions.
Gierlikowska Barbara,Gierlikowski Wojciech,Demkow Urszula
Frontiers in pharmacology
Aim of the Study:Phagocytosis is a crucial element of innate immune defense involved in bacterial killing. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of alantolactone on phagocytosis and cytokines release by THP1-derived macrophages. We assessed whether antimicrobial compound alantolactone (a sesquiterpene lactone present in .) is able to stimulate immune functions of macrophages by increase of uptake, phagosome acidification and further stimulation of phago-lysosomes formation. Simultaneously, we tested influence of alantolactone on cytokines/chemokines production and p65 NF-κB concentration. The activity of alantolactone was compared with clarithromycin at concentration 20 µM. Methods:The cytotoxicity of alantolactone as well as uptake, pH of phagosomes and phago-lysosomes fusion were analysed with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species and superoxide production were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The efficiency of phagocytosis was evaluated quantifying viable bacteria (CFU). The effect on p65 protein concentration and cytokine production by macrophages were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results:Alantolactone enhanced phagocytosis increase of uptake, acidification of phagosomes, and later stimulation of phago-lysosomes fusion. Alantolactone treatment resulted in ROS and superoxide production decrease. Furthermore, alantolactone inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 as well as decreased p65 concentration, the subunit responsible for NF-κB activation and cytokine production and simultaneously stimulated release of anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-10 and TGF-β). Conclusion:Results of our study indicate that alantolactone enhances clearance of , and simultaneously modulates immune response, preventing collateral damage of the surrounding tissues. Considering the importance of phagocytosis in the pathogen killing, alantolactone may have a great potential as the supportive treatment of infections. Further studies are warranted to confirm this hypothesis.
Apoptosis induction by alantolactone in breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrion-dependent pathway.
Cui Li,Bu Weiquan,Song Jie,Feng Liang,Xu Tingting,Liu Dan,Ding Wenbo,Wang Jianhua,Li Changyang,Ma Binge,Luo Yi,Jiang Ziyu,Wang Chengcheng,Chen Juan,Hou Jian,Yan Hongmei,Yang Lei,Jia Xiaobin
Archives of pharmacal research
Alantolactone is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium L. Although alantolactone possesses anti-inflammation and apoptosis-induction activities, the underlying mechanism of anti-cancer effect on human breast cancer cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we explored the possibility of alantolactone as an apoptosis-inducing cytotoxic agent using MDA-MB-231 cells as in vitro model. Alantolactone significantly induced its apoptosis, demonstrated by cell cycle analysis, annexin V-APC/7-AAD double staining and dUTP nick end labeling. Additionally, alantolactone triggered the mitochondrial-mediated caspase cascade apoptotic pathway, which was confirmed by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, loss of MMP, release of cytc from mitochondria to cytoplasm, activation of caspase 9/3, and subsequent cleavage of PARP. Z-VAD-FMK partially prevented apoptosis induced by alantolactone. Alantolactone provoked the production of ROS, while NAC (a scavenger of ROS) reversed alantolactone-mediated depolarization of MMP and apoptosis. Alantolactone modulated the activities of MAPKs. As expected, cotreatment with SB203580, SP600125 or U0126 could reduced the apoptotic rate. Furthermore, alantolactone decreased the protein expressions of p-NF-kB p65 and p-STAT3, increased p-c-Jun level in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggested that alantolactone possessed anticancer activity via ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction involving MAPK pathway, and had an effect on the transcription factors of NF-kB, AP-1 and STAT3.
Induction of HO-1 through p38 MAPK/Nrf2 signaling pathway by ethanol extract of Inula helenium L. reduces inflammation in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells and CLP-induced septic mice.
Park Eun Jung,Kim Young Min,Park Sang Won,Kim Hye Jung,Lee Jae Heun,Lee Dong-Ung,Chang Ki Churl
Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays a crucial mediator in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. We recently proposed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) negatively regulates HMGB1 in inflammatory conditions. We investigated whether ethanol extract of Inula helenium L. (EIH) activates p38 MAPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in RAW264.7 cells and reduces inflammation in CLP-induced septic mice. EIH induced expression of HO-1 protein in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. EIH significantly diminished HO-1 expression in siNrf2 RNA-transfected cells. As expected, the inhibited expression of iNOS/NO, COX-2/PGE2, HMGB1 release by EIH in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells was significantly reversed by siHO-1RNA transfection. Furthermore, EIH not only inhibited NF-κB luciferase activity, phosphorylation of IκBα in LPS-activated cells but also significantly suppressed expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) in TNF-α activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The induction of HO-1 by EIH was inhibited by SB203580 but not by SP600125, PD98059, nor LY294002. Most importantly, administration of EIH significantly reduced not only increase in blood HMGB1, ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine levels but also decrease macrophage infiltrate in the liver of septic mice, which were reversed by ZnPPIX, a HO-1 inhibitor. We concluded that EIH has anti-inflammatory effect via the induction of p38 MAPK-dependent HO-1 signaling pathway.
Igalan from Inula helenium (L.) suppresses the atopic dermatitis-like response in stimulated HaCaT keratinocytes via JAK/STAT3 signaling.
Dao Thien T P,Song Kwangho,Kim Jee Young,Kim Yeong Shik
Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]
OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of igalan, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Inula helenium (L.), on inhibiting inflammation, regulating the epidermal differentiation gene expression, and reactive oxygen species scavenging in atopic dermatitis (AD)-like inflammatory keratinocytes. METHODS:HaCaT human keratinocytes were treated with igalan at indicated concentrations before being activated by a combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ or IL-4 representative for T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 cell cytokines, which are associated with AD pathogenesis. RESULTS:By inhibiting the NF-κB pathway as well as the STAT activation, igalan could downregulate several marker inflammatory genes in AD, such as TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and RANTES/CCL5. In contrast, igalan, acting as JAK inhibitor, could promote the mRNA expression levels of the genes FLG, LOR, KRT10, and DSC1, which encode for essential proteins responsible for keratinocyte differentiation, by inhibiting STAT3 signaling. Furthermore, igalan exerts its antioxidant effect through activating the Nrf2 pathway, triggering the expression of some enzymes that contribute to preventing intracellular ROS generation during inflammation. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that igalan, via suppressing JAK/STAT3 signaling, could impair the production of pro-inflammatory chemokines and enhance expression levels of several genes involved in keratinocyte differentiation in AD-like stimulated keratinocytes.
Total sesquiterpene lactones prepared from Inula helenium L. has potentials in prevention and therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.
Gao Shuang,Wang Qun,Tian Xin-Hui,Li Hui-Liang,Shen Yun-Heng,Xu Xi-Ke,Wu Guo-Zhen,Hu Zhen-Lin,Zhang Wei-Dong
Journal of ethnopharmacology
BACKGROUNDS:Inula helenium L. is an herb with anti-inflammatory properties. Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL), are considered as its active ingredients. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of SL-containing extracts of I. helenium have not been explored. Here we prepared total SLs from I. helenium (TSL-IHL), analyzed its chemical constituents, and performed cellular and animal studies to evaluate its anti-inflammatory activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The chemical profile of TSL-IHL was analyzed by HPLC-UV. Its in vitro effects on the activation of signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory genes were examined by western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively, and compared with those of AL and IAL. Its in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in adjuvant- and collagen-induced arthritis rat models. RESULTS:Chemical analysis showed that AL and IAL represent major constituents of TSL-IHL. TSL-IHL, as well as AL and IAL, could inhibit TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in b. End3 cells, suppress the expressions of MMP-3, MCP-1, and IL-1 in TNF-α-stimulated synovial fibroblasts, and IL-1, IL-6, and iNOS in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner in the range of 0.6-2.4μg/mL. Oral administration of TSL-IHL at 12.5-50mg/kg could dose-dependently alleviate the arthritic severity and paw swelling in either developing or developed phases of arthritis of rats induced by adjuvant or collagen CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated potentials of TSL-IHL in prevention and therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.
Antioxidant and anticancer activities of extract of (L.) in human U-87 MG glioblastoma cell line.
Koc Kubra,Ozdemir Ozlem,Ozdemir Aysenur,Dogru Unsal,Turkez Hasan
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
Aims:The aim of this study is to explore the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of aqueous extract from aerial parts of Inula helenium (L.) against human U-87 MG glioma cell line. Materials and Methods:The 3'-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays were used to study antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities against U-87 MG cell after 48 h exposure. In addition, to assess the oxidative effects, total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status levels were also measured. Results:Finally, the aqueous extracts displayed antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities at high concentrations tested, particularly at 200 μg/ml, without causing to oxidative stress. Conclusion:The results strengthen the evidence that I. helenium could be considered a natural resource of potential antitumor agents for brain cancer. In addition, this study is expected to expand the existing information on the anticancer activity of I. helenium and to assist in a more focused design of further research as chemotherapeutic agents.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanol extract from aerial part of Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee.
Wang Qiu-Shi,Yang Li,Cui Wen-Yao,Chen Lei,Jiang Yan-Hua
This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of the methanol extract from the aerial part of Phlomis younghusbandii (MEAP) and to explore the possible related mechanisms. Anti-inflammatory effects of MEAP were evaluated by using the ear edema test induced by dimethylbenzene and vascular permeability test induced by acetic acid. Anti-nociceptive activities of MEAP were evaluated by the chemical nociception in models of acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced hind paw licking, and by the thermal nociception in hot plate tests. Mechanisms of MEAP activities also were explored by evaluating expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS induced by LPS using real-time fluorogenic PCR and expression of COX-2 using Western blotting and an open-field test. The results indicated that the MEAP administered orally could significantly decrease ear edema induced by dimethylbenzene and increase vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Additionally, the nociceptions induced by acetic acid and formalin were significantly inhibited. The anti-nociceptive effect could not be decreased by naloxone in the formalin test, and MEAP did not affect the normal autonomic activities of mice. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS) induced by LPS were decreased obviously by treatment with MEAP. Furthermore, COX-2 expression in the spinal dorsal horns of the pain model mice induced by formalin was significantly down-regulated by MEAP. In conclusion, MEAP has significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, and the mechanisms may be related to the down-regulated expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2.
Anti-inflammatory activity of phlomisoside F isolated from Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee.
Li Qingzhong,Yang Shurong,Yang Shuling,Xin Fuzhen,Wang Meijing
This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of phlomisoside F (PMF) isolated from Phlomis younghusbandii and to explore the possible pharmacological mechanisms. Anti-inflammatory effects of PMF were evaluated by using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, dimethylbenzen-induced ear edema test, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and cotton pellet granuloma test. Furthermore, the releases of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) were determined by ELISA. To explore the potential mechanisms, expressions of iNOS and COX-2 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting assays. In addition, the expressions of nuclear p65, cytosolic p65, IκB, p38, p-p38, p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2, JNK and p-JNK were determined by western blotting assay. Our results indicated that PMF administered orally could not only significantly decrease rat paw edema in rats and ear edema in mice, but also reduce the vascular permeability in mice and granuloma weights in rats. In vitro, the releases of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β) and enzymes (iNOS and COX-2) were decreased significantly by PMF treatment in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, the LPS-induced up-regulations of nuclear p65, p38, p-p38, p-ERK1/2, JNK and p-JNK proteins in RAW 264.7 cells significantly decreased by PMF, and expressions of cytosolic p65 and IκB were obviously up-regulated after treatment with PMF. In conclusion, we suggested that the PMF is a promising potential anti-inflammatory drug, and PMF could down-regulate expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators by inhibiting the NF-κB/MAPK pathways.
Phenylethanoid glycosides of Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee ameliorate acute hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain impairment in rats.
Luan Fei,Li Maoxing,Han Keqing,Ma Qiang,Wang Jian,Qiu Yan,Yu Linhong,He Xirui,Liu Daoheng,Lv Haizhen
High altitude cerebral edema (HACE), whose development process is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response, is a life-threatening condition caused by rapid ascent speed to high altitudes. Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGCs) are primary active constituents isolated from Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee that reportedly exhibit potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGCs) from P. younghusbandii in acute hypobaric hypoxia (AHH) - stimulated HACE rats and its underlying mechanisms. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) was detected by RT-PCR and ELISA at mRNA and protein levels in brain tissues. Western blotting was carried out to measure the major protein levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, and NF-κB) in brain tissues. The oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, and GSH) were evaluated using kits. Results demonstrate that PhGCs significantly improved pathological changes in brain tissues, reduced the brain's water content, and attenuated the production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the increased oxidative stress and the decrease in anti-oxidant stress system under the AHH condition were also abrogated reversely through PhGCs treatment by elevating the levels of SOD and GSH and suppressing the accumulation of MDA. Simultaneously, there was also a significant reduction in NF-κB, IL-1β, and TNF-α protein expression levels in brain tissues, suggesting that blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway activation prevented the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these findings indicate that PhGCs may afford a protectively intervene in HACE through the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory response via the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway, indicating that PhGCs are promising agents for the treatment of acute HACE.
Protective effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinales Rosc.) on lindane-induced oxidative stress in rats.
Ahmed Rafat S,Suke Sanvidhan G,Seth Vandana,Chakraborti Ayanabha,Tripathi Ashok K,Banerjee Basu D
Phytotherapy research : PTR
The protective effect of dietary feeding of Zingiber officinales Rosc. (ginger) against lindane-induced oxidative stress was investigated in male albino rats. Oxidative stress was monitored by estimating the extent of lipid peroxidation, activities of the oxygen free radical (OFR) scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the status of the glutathione redox cycle antioxidants. Lindane administration (30 mg/kg bw orally for 4 weeks) was associated with enhanced lipid peroxidation and compromised antioxidant defenses in rats fed a normal diet. Concomitant dietary feeding of ginger (1%w/w) significantly attenuated lindane-induced lipid peroxidation, accompanied by modulation of OFR scavenging enzymes as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and the GSH dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in these rats. These findings suggest that a diet containing naturally occurring compounds is effective in exerting protective effects by modulating oxidative stress.
The effect of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinals Rosc) on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys.
Uz Ebru,Karatas Omer Faruk,Mete Emin,Bayrak Reyhan,Bayrak Omer,Atmaca Ali Fuat,Atis Omer,Yildirim Mehmet Erol,Akcay Ali
Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the possible mechanisms of ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) injury in the kidney. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible protective effect of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinals Rosc), a free radical scavenger, on renal I/R injury in rats. The protective effect of ginger against the damage inflicted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during renal I/R was investigated in Wistar albino rats using histopathological and biochemical parameters. Thirty rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups (i.e., control, sham-operated, ginger, I/R, and I/R + ginger groups, n = 6 each). The ginger and I/R + ginger groups were fed on the test diet containing 5% ginger. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia followed by reperfusion in I/R and I/R + ginger groups. At the end of the reperfusion period, rats were sacrificed, and kidney function tests, serum and tissue oxidants and antioxidants, and renal morphology were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine, and cystatin C (CYC) levels were significantly elevated in the ischemia group, but these levels remained unchanged in the ginger + I/R group compared to the I/R group. Reduction of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity was significantly improved by the treatment with ginger compared to I/R group. Administration of ginger resulted in significant reduction levels of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), NO, protein carbonyl contents (PCC) in the ginger + I/R group compared with the I/R group. Ginger supplementation in the diet before I/R injury resulted in higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lower total oxidant status (TOS) levels than I/R group. The ginger supplemented diet prior to I/R process demonstrated marked reduction of the histological features of renal injury. The findings imply that ROS play a causal role in I/R-induced renal injury, and ginger exerts renoprotective effects probably by the radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.
Heat treatments of ginger root modify but not diminish its antioxidant activity as measured with multiple free radical scavenging (MULTIS) method.
Sueishi Yoshimi,Masamoto Hiroaki,Kotake Yashige
Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition
Ginger ( Rosc.) root (or rhizome) has been reported to have antioxidant properties such as reactive oxygen species scavenging activities. Using multiple free-radical scavenging method, we have newly determined the scavenging abilities of ginger roots against five reactive oxygen species, i.e., HO, O , RO, -BuOO, and O. After heating grated ginger roots at 80°C for 2 h, nearly 50% decrease in scavenging ability was recorded against O and -BuOO. Conversely, the O scavenging ability increased by about 56% after heat treatment. Based on the antioxidant activity measurement of the ginger's components, i.e., 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, and zingerone, active species acting as antioxidant capacity of ginger was shown. Additionally, ginger's antioxidant capacity was quantitatively compared with that of rosemary extract, indicating that rosemary is peroxyl specific scavenger while ginger has higher scavenging ability against HO and O.
Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.
Li Yuxin,Hong Yan,Han Yanquan,Wang Yongzhong,Xia Lunzhu
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application.
Zingiber officinale and 6-gingerol alleviate liver and kidney dysfunctions and oxidative stress induced by mercuric chloride in male rats: A protective approach.
Joshi Deepmala,Srivastav Sunil Kumar,Belemkar Sateesh,Dixit Vaibhav A
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Mercury toxicity is an emerging problem in the world as its concentration is rising continuously due to increased industrial, medicinal and domestic uses. Exposure to mercury represents a serious challenge to humans and other living biomes. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of natural products as Zingiber officinale extract and its active compound (6-gingerol) against mercuric chloride-induced hepatorenal toxicity and oxidative stress in male rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150±10g, n=6 per group) were administered HgCl (12μmol/kg, ip; once only) the treatment of Zingiber officinale Rosc. extract (ZO: 125mg/kg, po) and 6-gingerol (GG: 50mg/kg, po) for three days after 24h of HgCl administration. Acute HgCl administration altered various biochemical parameters, including transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and cholesterol, urea, creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen contents with a concomitant decline in protein and albumin concentration in serum. In addition, a significant rise in lipid peroxidation level with concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione content and the antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase after acute HgCl exposure. Results of the present investigation clearly showed that both treatments as Zingiber officinale extract and 6-gingerol provide protection against acute mercuric chloride-intoxication by preventing oxidative degradation of a biological membrane from metal mediated free radical attacks. Biochemical data were well supported by histopathological findings. In conclusion, natural products may be an ideal choice against oxidative damage induced by mercury poisoning.
The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger ( Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.
Gholampour Firouzeh,Behzadi Ghiasabadi Fatemeh,Owji Seyed Mohammad,Vatanparast Jaafar
Avicenna journal of phytomedicine
Objective:Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger () against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods:The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Results:Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. Conclusion:In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.
Tibetan medicine Kuan-Jin-Teng exerts anti-arthritic effects on collagen-induced arthritis rats via inhibition the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and down-regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.
Xiong Hui,Ding Xin,Wang Hua,Jiang Haiqin,Wu Xinyan,Tu Chuyue,Wu Chaoqun,Pi Yang,Yang Guangzhong,Zhao Zhongqiu,Mei Zhinan
Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology
BACKGROUND:The stems of Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr commonly named "Kuan-Jin-Teng" in Chinese, have been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis as a Tibetan medicine. PURPOSE:The effects of the EtOAc fraction of ethanolic extract from the stems of T. sinensis (KJT) on the pro-inflammatory cytokines and MAPK pathway were studied in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. STUDY DESIGN:Anti-arthritic activity of KJT was investigated in CIA model. METHODS:The chemical constituents of KJT were analyzed by LC-MS and HPLC. The CIA model was established with injecting the bovine CII emulsified in Freund's adjuvant in Wistar rats. Several doses of KJT (50.0, 100.0 and 200.0 mg/kg) were administrated via oral gavage to CIA rats daily for 4 weeks. The anti-arthritic activity of KJT was investigated by clinical arthritis scoring, paw swelling inspection and hyperalgesia measurement, as well as radiological and histological analysis in CIA rats. The impacts of KJT on the activation of MAPK pathway, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17) in ankle joints, serum, and spleen in CIA rats were examined by western blot, immunohistochemical staining, ELISA, and quantitative real-time PCR respectively. Lastly, the effects of KJT on production of the nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the regulation of the phosphorylation of p38 and Erk were detected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. RESULTS:KJT significantly alleviated the paw swelling, hyperalgesia and arthritic severity, and reduced the synovial tissue proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration in the CIA rats. Moreover, KJT suppressed the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17 in ankle joints, serum, and spleen and reversed the up-regulation of the phosphorylation of p38 and Erk in CIA rats. KJT was also demonstrated to inhibit the production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), and phosphorylation of p38 and Erk in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CONCLUSION:These results suggest the mechanisms of KJT performing its anti-arthritis effect may be attributed to inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and down-regulating the MAPK signaling pathway.
Protective efficacy of Tinospora sinensis against streptozotocin induced pancreatic islet cell injuries of diabetic rats and its correlation to its phytochemical profiles.
Banerjee Anindita,Singh Siddhartha,Prasad Shilpi Kumari,Kumar Sourav,Banerjee Oly,Seal Tapan,Mukherjee Sandip,Maji Bithin Kumar
Journal of ethnopharmacology
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Tinospora sinensis Lour. (Merr.) belongs to the family Menispermaceae and its stem extract have been used traditionally in broad aspects of therapeutic remedies including debility, dyspepsia, fever, jaundice, ulcer, bronchitis, urinary disease, skin disease, liver disease and diabetes. AIM OF THE STUDY:The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effects of methanol extract of stem of Tinospora sinensis (METS) on streptozotocin induced pancreatic islet cell injuries of diabetic rats and its correlation to its phytochemical profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A high-performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify the major phytochemicals present in the METS. Diabetic rats were administered with METS at a dose of (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively orally) and standard drug Metformin (300 mg/kg) was given orally to group serving positive control. Effect of the METS on glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, antioxidant status, histopathology of pancreas and also on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis, cell cycle of pancreatic islet cells were studied in diabetic rats. RESULTS:The major phytochemicals identified and quantified by HPLC in the extract were berberine, caffeic acid, myricetin and ferulic acid. This result showed that methanol extract exhibited good antioxidant effect. The methanol extract of the plant prevented the diabetogenic effect of STZ and significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose level, glycated haemoglobin and increased insulin and C-peptide level in treated rats. METS reduced apoptosis of STZ treated islet cells by significantly decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL6), intracellular ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO) production and increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and sub-G peak area, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. CONCLUSION:The results revealed that the methanol extract of the stem of the plant possesses protective effects against diabetes and associated complications.