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    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in 190 colorectal cancer patients: a prospective registration study by the CINV study group of Japan. Tsuji Yasushi,Baba Hideo,Takeda Koji,Kobayashi Michiya,Oki Eiji,Gotoh Masahiro,Yoshida Kazuhiro,Shimokawa Mototsugu,Kakeji Yoshihiro,Aiba Keisuke Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy OBJECTIVES:Chemotherapy is an indispensable therapeutic approach for colorectal cancer both in the adjuvant and metastatic setting. Although chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most crucial adverse events, many aspects of CINV in patients with colorectal cancer remain unclear. METHODS:This multicenter, prospective, observational study analyzed the data of 190 colorectal cancer patients scheduled for moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). The patients recorded the incidence of CINV and severity of nausea by visual analogue scales daily for 7 days after receiving chemotherapy. RESULTS:All 190 patients received MEC and 99% of patients received antiemetic therapy in compliance with guidelines. Acute CINV was well controlled. 13 (6.8%) patients suffered from acute nausea and 4 (2.1%) experienced acute vomiting, whereas the prevalence of delayed CINV was relatively high. Delayed nausea occurred in 71 (37.4%) patients and delayed vomiting in 24 (12.6%). History of motion sickness was a significant independent risk factor for delayed nausea (Odd ratio 3.89, 95% confidence interval 1.49-10.19, p = 0.0056). CONCLUSIONS:The compliance with CINV guidelines in colorectal cancer chemotherapy was quite high and led to good control of chemotherapy-induced vomiting in Japan. However, the incidence of delayed nausea remained high in patients receiving MEC. 10.1080/14656566.2017.1317746
    Optimal prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting for moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: a meta-analysis. Zhang Yaxiong,Hou Xue,Zhang Rong,Chen Gang,Huang Yan,Yang Yunpeng,Zhao Yuanyuan,Fang Wenfeng,Hong Shaodong,Kang Shiyang,Zhou Ting,Zhang Zhonghan,Chen Xi,Zhang Li Future oncology (London, England) AIM:We compare neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK-1RA)-based triple regimen and conventional duplex regimen for antiemetic efficacy for patients with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). Patients & methods: Pooled risk ratios (RRs) were used to evaluate the complete response and no significant nausea. The results were separately analyzed for pure MEC regimens, carboplatin-based regimens and oxaliplatin-based regimens. RESULTS:Ten trials focused on MEC involving 2928 cancer patients using NK-1RA triple regimens or conventional duplex regimen were included. NK-1RA-based triple regimen showed significant better complete responses in overall (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.05-1.24), acute (RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.04) and delayed (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.23) phase compared with duplex regimen in patients with MEC. Similar results were found for no significant nausea. Subgroup analyses showed that triple regimen showed superior antiemetic efficacy significantly in patients with carboplatin-based chemotherapy, instead of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. CONCLUSION:NK-1RA is recommended to use in carboplatin-based chemotherapy, not oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. 10.2217/fon-2017-0712
    Effectiveness of Antiemetic Regimens for Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. Yokoe Takamichi,Hayashida Tetsu,Nagayama Aiko,Nakashoji Ayako,Maeda Hinako,Seki Tomoko,Takahashi Maiko,Takano Toshimi,Abe Takayuki,Kitagawa Yuko The oncologist BACKGROUND:It is important to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) to maintain dose intensity and patients' quality of life. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines suggest combination therapy of antiemetic agents. The growing number of antiemetic regimens, and in particular the growing use of regimens containing antagonists to the Nk-1 receptor (NK1RAs) and the antipsychotic drug olanzapine (OLZ), call for the re-evaluation of the optimal regimen for CINV. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of antiemetic regimens for highly emetogenic chemotherapy, using Bayesian network meta-analysis. METHODS:Randomized trials that compared different antiemetic regimens were included. We strictly followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. The main outcomes were the odds ratio (OR) for overall complete response (absence of vomiting). We conducted network meta-analysis within a Bayesian model to combine the direct and indirect evidence. Safety was assessed from the trial description. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:We systematically reviewed 27 randomized control trials (13,356 participants), which compared 12 different antiemetic regimens: serotonin-3 receptor antagonist (5HT3), 5HT3 + dexamethasone (Dex), palonosetron (PAL), PAL + Dex, PAL at 0.75 mg (PAL0.75), PAL0.75 + Dex, NK1RA + 5HT3 + Dex, NK1RA + PAL + Dex, an oral combination of netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) + Dex, OLZ + 5HT3 + Dex, OLZ + PAL + Dex, and OLZ + NK1RA + 5HT3 + Dex. An NK1RA + 5HT3 + Dex regimen and an NK1RA + palonosetron + Dex regimen gave a higher complete response (CR) rate than the reference regimen, 5HT3 + Dex (OR, 1.75; 95% credibility interval [95% CrI], 1.56-1.97, and OR, 2.25; 95% CrI, 1.66-3.03, respectively). A regimen containing NEPA was more effective in producing CR than conventional regimens without NEPA or olanzapine. Further analysis, based on the surface under the cumulative ranking probability curve, indicated that olanzapine-containing regimens were the most effective in producing CR. CONCLUSION:Our meta-analysis supports the conclusion that olanzapine-containing regimens are the most effective for CINV of highly emetogenic chemotherapy. We confirmed that NK1RA + PAL + Dex is the most effective of conventional regimens. Substituting olanzapine for an Nk-1 receptor antagonist may offer a less costly and more effective alternative for patients. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy often pose difficulties for patients and doctors, making it hard to continue the proper therapy and to maintain the quality of life. This article gives insights into the optimal choice of medicine to treat nausea during chemotherapy. The findings reported here provide readers with a robust efficacy ranking of antinausea medicine, which can be used as a reference for the best possible treatment. Furthermore, the 70% less costly drug, olanzapine, is suggested to be equally effective to aprepitant in reducing nausea and vomiting. The possibility of offering a cost-effective treatment to a wider range of the population is discussed. 10.1634/theoncologist.2018-0140