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    The Prognosis Role of AST/ALT (De Ritis) Ratio in Patients with Adult Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis. Yin Guangli,Man Changfeng,Liao Shengen,Qiu Hongxia Mediators of inflammation Purpose:Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) accompanied by liver involvement, characterized by hepatomegaly and increased liver enzymes, is usually associated with elevated mortality. However, the magnitude of these associations remains unknown. Our objective was to assess the associations of the aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase (AST/ALT, De Ritis) ratio with overall survival among adult patients with sHLH. Methods:A retrospective analysis was performed on 289 patients aged 18-86 years with complete serum transaminase data at diagnosis of sHLH. Multivariate Cox regression analyses and restricted cubic splines were conducted to address the association between the De Ritis ratio and the risk of mortality. Results:The median De Ritis ratio for the entire study population was 1.34 (IQR: 0.84-2.29). After a median follow-up time of 60 (range 17-227.5) days, 205 deaths occurred. After fully adjusting for hepatomegaly, albumin, fibrinogen, EBV, ferritin, etiologies, and treatment strategies, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality for the 2 st tertile and 3 st tertile were 1.2 (0.8-1.7) and 1.6 (1.1-2.2), respectively ( < 0.01 for trends). Restricted cubic spline confirmed a linear association between the log-transformed De Ritis ratio and the risk of mortality. Moreover, this trend persisted in subgroups with MHLH, hyperferrinaemia, sCD25 ≤ 20,000 ng/L, patients without EBV infection, and those received treatment. Conclusions:The De Ritis ratio is a strong and independent predictor for overall survival in patients with sHLH. As a readily available biomarker in routine clinical practice, it is used to identify patients with sHLH with inferior overall survival. 10.1155/2020/5719751
    Elevated Preoperative Serum Alanine Aminotransferase/Aspartate Aminotransferase (ALT/AST) Ratio Is Associated with Better Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Curative Treatment for Gastric Adenocarcinoma. Chen Shu-Lin,Li Jian-Pei,Li Lin-Fang,Zeng Tao,He Xia International journal of molecular sciences The level of anine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio in the serum was often used to assess liver injury. Whether the ALT/AST ratio (LSR) was associated with prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) has not been reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative LSR in patients with GA. A retrospective study was performed in 231 patients with GA undergoing curative resection. The medical records collected include clinical information and laboratory results. We investigated the correlations between the preoperative LSR and overall survival (OS). Survival analysis was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant independent prognostic factors for predicting survival. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were finally enrolled. The median overall survival was 47 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative LSR was an independent prognostic factor in GA. Patients with LSR ≤ 0.80 had a greater risk of death than those with LSR > 0.80. The LSR was independently associated with OS in patients with GA (hazard ratio: 0.610; 95% confidence interval: 0.388-0.958; p = 0.032), along with tumor stages (hazard ratio: 3.118; 95% confidence interval: 2.044-4.756; p < 0.001) and distant metastases (hazard ratio: 1.957; 95% confidence interval: 1.119-3.422; p = 0.019). Our study first established a connection between the preoperative LSR and patients undergoing curative resection for GA, suggesting that LSR was a simple, inexpensive, and easily measurable marker as a prognostic factor, and may help to identify high-risk patients for treatment decisions. 10.3390/ijms17060911
    Association between Alanine Aminotransferase/Aspartate Aminotransferase Ratio (AST/ALT Ratio) and Coronary Artery Injury in Children with Kawasaki Disease. Wang Jinxin,Li Jiawen,Ren Yue,Shi Hongying,Rong Xing,Zhang Xuting,Shao Yiping,Wu Rongzhou,Chu Maoping,Qiu Huixian Cardiology research and practice Objective:To investigate the association between the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AST/ALT ratio, AAR) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance, coronary artery lesions (CAL), and coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) in children with Kawasaki disease (KD). Design:We retrospectively studied 2678 children with KD and divided them into two groups: a low-AAR group and a high-AAR group with a median AAR of 1.13 as the cut-off point. The differences in laboratory data, clinical manifestations, and coronary artery damage rates were compared between the two groups. Results:The incidence of CAL was higher in the low-AAR group than in the high-AAR group at 2 and 3-4 weeks after illness onset ( < 0.001, respectively). The IVIG resistance rate was significantly higher in the low-AAR group than in the high-AAR group (29.94% vs 21.71%, < 0.001). The levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count, bilirubin, fibrinogen, thrombin time, D-dimer, and brain natriuretic peptide were also significantly higher in the low-AAR group compared with the high-AAR group. The levels of albumin and IgG were significantly lower in the low-AAR group compared with those of the high-AAR group. The proportion of typical KD cases in the low-AAR group was significantly higher than that in the high-AAR group. Low-AAR correlated with the risk of coronary artery damage and IVIG resistance. Conclusion:Children with KD who had low-AAR value were more likely to develop coronary artery damage and IVIG resistance. Low AAR is a risk factor for CAL, CAA, and IVIG resistance in KD. 10.1155/2020/8743548
    Can elevated concentrations of ALT and AST predict the risk of 'recurrence' of COVID-19? Chen L Z,Lin Z H,Chen J,Liu S S,Shi T,Xin Y N Epidemiology and infection 'Recurrence' of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has triggered numerous discussions of scholars at home and abroad. A total of 44 recurrent cases of COVID-19 and 32 control cases admitted from 11 February to 29 March 2020 to Guanggu Campus of Tongji Hospital affiliated to Tongji Medical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology were enrolled in this study. All the 44 recurrent cases were classified as mild to moderate when the patients were admitted for the second time. The gender and mean age in both cases (recurrent and control) were similar. At least one concomitant disease was observed in 52.27% recurrent cases and 34.38% control cases. The most prevalent comorbidity among them was hypertension. Fever and cough being the most prevalent clinical symptoms in both cases. On comparing both the cases, recurrent cases had markedly elevated concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P = 0.020) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.007). Moreover, subgroup analysis showed mild to moderate abnormal concentrations of ALT and AST in recurrent cases. The elevated concentrations of ALT and AST may be recognised as predictive markers for the risk of 'recurrence' of COVID-19, which may provide insights into the prevention and control of COVID-19 in the future. 10.1017/S0950268820002186
    The Preoperative AST/ALT (De Ritis) Ratio Represents a Poor Prognostic Factor in a Cohort of Patients with Nonmetastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma. Bezan Angelika,Mrsic Edvin,Krieger Daniel,Stojakovic Tatjana,Pummer Karl,Zigeuner Richard,Hutterer Georg C,Pichler Martin The Journal of urology PURPOSE:Aminotransaminases, which are strongly involved in cellular metabolism and cancer cell turnover, represent easily measureable, potential blood based biomarkers. We evaluated the prognostic value of the preoperatively assessed AST/ALT (De Ritis) ratio on clinically meaningful end points in a large European cohort of patients with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively evaluated clinicopathological data on 698 patients with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma operated on between 2005 and 2013 at a single tertiary academic center. The potential prognostic value of the AST/ALT ratio was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional regression models. The impact of the ratio on the predictive accuracy of the Leibovich prognosis score was determined by the Harrell c-index. RESULTS:An increased (1.26 or greater) preoperative AST/ALT ratio was statistically significantly associated with several well established prognostic factors, including pathological T stage, as well as with histological tumor necrosis (p <0.05). On multivariate analysis an increased preoperative AST/ALT ratio was an independent prognostic factor for metastasis-free survival (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.25-2.07, p <0.001) and overall survival (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.34-2.32, p <0.001). The Harrell c-index was 0.77 using the Leibovich prognosis score and 0.81 when AST/ALT was added. CONCLUSIONS:In our study cohort with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma the preoperatively assessed AST/ALT ratio represented an independent prognostic factor. This ratio might further improve the predictive accuracy of well established prognosis scores. 10.1016/j.juro.2015.01.083
    The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT): the correlation of value with underlying severity of alcoholic liver disease. Gurung R B,Purbe B,Gyawali P,Risal P Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ) BACKGROUND:Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most frequently diagnosed liver problems in the hospitalized patients in most tertiary care hospitals all over the world .The diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease is most of the time clinical. The AST/ALT ratio is a useful and reliable biochemical marker of liver injury due to alcohol. Whether the value of AST/ALT ratio correlates with clinical severity has not been studied. OBJECTIVES:To study values of AST/ALT ratio in correlation with clinical severity of illness due to alcoholic liver disease using Child-Pugh's grading. METHODS:This is a retrospective study. Inpatient records of all the patients admitted with diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease from July 2009 to 2011 June were analyzed. Data from 174 patients with the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease-alcoholic hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis were retrieved; out of 174 patients, 138 were eligible for the study. The AST/ALT ratio and Child's grading of all the patients were calculated from the documented biochemical and clinical parameters on admission. Demographic profiles of all the patients were also recorded and analyzed. The data was analyzed using software SPPSS 16 version. RESULTS:A total of 138 patients diagnosed as alcoholic liver disease since July 2009 to June 2011 were analyzed. The male-female ratio was found to be 5.34: 1.The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was found to be 47.58 ± 12.83 years. Among 138 patients, Mongolians were found to have the highest prevalence of alcoholic liver disease (38.8%), followed by Newars ( 33.6%), Brahmin and Chhetri (19.1%) and Dalit (7.2%). With respect to AST/ALT ratio and Child's grading of ALD, the mean AST/ALT ratio was found to be 3.03 ± 2.24 in those patients who had Chlild's grade C; likewise the mean AST/ALT ratio was 2.28 ± 1.14, and 1.68 ± 0.83 in patients with Child B and Child A respectively. CONCLUSION:The higher value of AST/ALT ratio is indicative of more severe liver damage due to alcohol. 10.3126/kumj.v11i3.12511
    A Nomogram Based on Aspartate Aminotransferase/Alanine Aminotransferase (AST/ALT) Ratio to Predict Prognosis After Surgery in Gastric Cancer Patients. Li Linfang,Zeng Qiuyao,Xue Ning,Wu Miantao,Liang Yaqing,Xu Qingxia,Feng Lingmin,Xing Shan,Chen Shulin Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center INTRODUCTION:Using the TMN classification alone to predict survival in patients with gastric cancer has certain limitations, we conducted this study was to develop an effective nomogram based on aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio to predict overall survival (OS) in surgically treated gastric cancer. METHODS:we retrospectively analyzed 190 cases of gastric cancer and used Cox regression analysis to identify the significant prognostic factors for OS in patients with resectable gastric cancer. The predictive accuracy of nomogram was assessed using a calibration plot, concordance index (C-index) and decision curve. This was then compared with a traditional TNM staging system. Based on the total points (TPS) by nomogram, we further divided patients into different risk groups. RESULTS:multivariate analysis of the entire cohort revealed that independent risk factors for survival were age, clinical stage and AST/ALT ratio, which were entered then into the nomogram. The calibration curve for the probability of OS showed that the nomogram-based predictions were in good agreement with actual observations. Additionally, the C-index of the established nomogram for predicting OS had a superior discrimination power compared to the TNM staging system [0.794 (95% CI: 0.749-0.839) vs 0.730 (95% CI: 0.688-0.772), < 0.05]. Decision curve also demonstrated that the nomogram was better than the TNM staging system. Based on TPS of the nomogram, we further subdivided the study cohort into 3 groups including low risk (TPS ≤ 158), middle risk (158 < TPS ≤ 188) and high risk (TPS > 188) categories. The differences in OS rate were significant among the groups. CONCLUSION:the established nomogram is associated with a more accurate prognostic prediction for individual patients with resectable gastric cancer. 10.1177/1073274820954458
    AST/ALT ratio is not an index of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C when aminotransferase activities are determinate according to the international recommendations. Guéchot Jérôme,Boisson Renée Claude,Zarski Jean-Pierre,Sturm Nathalie,Calès Paul,Lasnier Elisabeth, Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology OBJECTIVE:The aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST)/alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT) ratio is used as liver fibrosis index whereas the reported data are conflicting. In chronic hepatitis C (CHC), reported diagnostic accuracies range from none to good for significant fibrosis and to excellent for cirrhosis. Assuming that AST/ALT increases are mainly due to vitamin B6 defects since pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), active form of B6, acts as coenzyme in transamination reactions, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the AST/ALT ratio using standardized methods for AST and ALT activities, with PLP addition as recommended, in a prospective multicenter cohort of CHC patients. METHODS:ALT and AST activities were measured using the recommended IFCC methods with addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. We evaluated the AST/ALT ratio for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in a cohort of CHC patients included in a multicenter prospective study. A liver biopsy was performed in each patient and reviewed by two independent pathologists in order to determine the fibrosis stage according to Metavir classification which was the reference standard. RESULTS:AST/ALT ratio significantly increased with histological stage of liver fibrosis and there was a significant correlation between Metavir fibrosis stage and AST/ALT ratio (r=0.129, P<0.0035). The ROC curve analyses showed that the AST/ALT ratio does not discriminate significant fibrosis (F≥2) (AUROC=0.531) and had only very poor diagnostic accuracies for severe fibrosis (F≥3) (AUROC=0.584) or cirrhosis (F4) (AUROC=0.626). CONCLUSION:AST/ALT ratio is not a good and discriminative index of liver fibrosis in CHC when aminotransferase activities are determinate according to the international recommendations. 10.1016/j.clinre.2013.07.003
    Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study. Yadav Dhananjay,Choi Eunhee,Ahn Song Vogue,Baik Soon Koo,Cho Youn Zoo,Koh Sang Baek,Huh Ji Hye,Chang Yoosoo,Sung Ki-Chul,Kim Jang Young PloS one AIMS:The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40-70 years, who participated from 2005-2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008-2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. RESULTS:During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422-0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124-0.337, P<0.001), and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046-0.0143, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. 10.1371/journal.pone.0161304
    Influence of Preoperative Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Level on the Prognosis of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Chen Shu-Lin,Xue Ning,Wu Mian-Tao,Chen Hao,He Xia,Li Jian-Pei,Liu Wan-Li,Dai Shu-Qin International journal of molecular sciences The purpose of this work is to analyze preoperative serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and their effect on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical operation. These analyses were performed retrospectively in patients with NSCLC followed by surgery; participants were recruited between January 2004 and January 2008. All clinical information and laboratory results were collected from medical records. We explored the association between preoperative serum AST and recurrence-free survival (RFS), and the overall survival (OS) of NSCLC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox multivariate analysis, stratified by the AST median value, were used to evaluate the prognostic effect. A chi-squared test was performed to compare clinical characteristics in different subgroups. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were enrolled. The median RFS and OS were 22 and 59 months, respectively. The AST levels were divided into two groups, using a cut-off value of 19 U/L: High AST (>19 U/L), n = 113 vs. low AST (≤19 U/L), n = 118. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative serum AST > 19 U/L (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.685, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.493-0.994, p = 0.046 for RFS, HR = 0.646, 95% CI: 0.438-0.954, p = 0.028 for OS) was an independent prognostic factor for both RFS and OS. High preoperative serum AST levels may serve as a valuable marker to predict the prognosis of NSCLC after operation. 10.3390/ijms17091474
    De Ritis Ratio (AST/ALT) as a Significant Prognostic Factor in Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer Treated With Surgery. Lee Hakmin,Choi Young Hyo,Sung Hyun Hwan,Han Deok Hyun,Jeon Hwang Gyun,Chang Jeong Byong,Seo Seong Il,Jeon Seong Soo,Lee Hyun Moo,Choi Han Yong Clinical genitourinary cancer INTRODUCTION:We investigated the clinical prognostic value of preoperative De Ritis ratio (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) on postsurgical survival outcomes in patients with upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed the data of 623 patients who underwent radical nephrouretectomy for UTUC. Multivariate regression tests were performed to identify possible associations between adverse pathologic events and AST/ALT. The risk of postoperative progression and survival were tested using Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS:According to the receiver operator characteristic curve of AST/ALT for cancer-specific mortality, patients with AST/ALT value ≥1.5 were regarded as the high AST/ALT group, and the remaining patients formed the low AST/ALT group. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the high AST/ALT group showed worse progression-free survival (PFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (all P < .001). Elevated AST/ALT was associated with higher T stage (hazard ratio [HR], 1.577; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.077-2.311; P = .033) and higher cellular grade (HR, 1.538; 95% CI, 1.034-2.287; P = .041) in multivariate regression tests. In multivariate Cox analyses, high AST/ALT was revealed as an independent predictor of PFS (HR, 2.335; 95% CI, 1.633-3.340; P < .001), CSS (HR, 2.550; 1.689-3.851; P < .001), and overall survival (HR, 2.069; 95% CI, 1.409-3.038; P < .001). CONCLUSION:Elevated preoperative AST/ALT was a significant predictor of worse postoperative survival in patients surgically treated for UTUC. Further large prospective studies are needed for better understanding of the prognostic value of preoperative AST/ALT. 10.1016/j.clgc.2016.08.023
    AST to ALT ratio and arterial stiffness in non-fatty liver Japanese population:a secondary analysis based on a cross-sectional study. Liu Yongmei,Zhao Peiling,Cheng Mingliang,Yu Lei,Cheng Zhuo,Fan Linda,Chen Chi Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:Previous studies have revealed that triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (henceforth TG/HDL-C) is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and metabolism syndrome. However, there are fewer investigations of the correlations between the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio and brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the AST to ALT ratio and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in a Japanese population. METHODS:The present study was a cross-sectional study. A total of 646 Japanese men and women without fatty liver, aged 24-84 years old, received a health medical check-up programme including the results from baPWV inspection and various standardized questionnaires in a health examination centre in Japan. Main outcome measures included AST/ALT ratio, baPWV, fatty liver and postmenopausal status. Abdominal ultrasonography was used to diagnose fatty liver. A postmenopausal state was defined as beginning 1 year following the cessation of menses. RESULTS:After adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, BMI, SBP, DBP, AST, ALT, GGT, uric acid, fasting glucose, TC, LDL, eGFR, smoking and exercise statuses, fatty liver, alcohol consumption and ABI), a non-linear relationship was detected between AST/ALT and baPWV, which had an inflection point of 5.6. The effect sizes and the confidence intervals on the left and right sides of the inflection point were 12.7 (1.9 to 23.5) and - 16.7 (- 36.8 to 3.3), respectively. Subgroup analysis in participants with excessive alcohol consumption (more than 280 g/week) showed that AST/ALT had a negative correlation with baPWV (β = - 30.7, 95%CI (- 53.1, - 8.4)), and the P value for the interaction was less than 0.05. CONCLUSION:The relationship between AST/ALT and baPWV is non-linear. AST/ALT was positively correlated with baPWV when AST/ALT was less than 5.6. In addition, the trend was the opposite in subjects who consumed excessive amounts of alcohol. 10.1186/s12944-018-0920-4
    AST to ALT ratio and risk of hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Wang Yanan,Qiu Ke,Song Quhong,Cheng Yajun,Liu Junfeng,Liu Ming Neurological research BACKGROUND:Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication of ischemic stroke. We performed this study to determine whether aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR) was related to HT, as well as compare the predictive values of AAR, ALT and AST for HT in patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS:We included ischemic stroke patients within 7 days of onset. HT was identified by a follow-up imaging examination. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between AAR and HT. Net reclassification index (NRI) was calculated to assess the ability of AAR, AST and ALT to reclassify risks of HT. RESULTS:A total of 2042 (median age: 69 years; 63.2% males) patients were included in this study, of whom 232 (11.4%) were identified as HT. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off value for AAR to predict HT was 1.22. Higher AAR (≥1.22) was an independent predictor associated with HT (OR 1.44, 95%CI 1.06-1.97, = 0.02) after adjusting for covariates. A U-shaped dose-effect relationship was found between AAR level and HT in logistic regression model with restricted cubic splines. In addition, adding AAR to a model containing conventional risk factors significantly improved predictive power for HT (NRI: 15.4%, = 0.027), but not for ALT (NRI: 10.3%, = 0.141) or AST (NRI: 8.3%, = 0.237). CONCLUSIONS:Higher AAR was associated with an increased risk of HT after ischemic stroke. In addition, AAR might be a better biomarker for predicting HT than ALT or AST. 10.1080/01616412.2020.1796403
    AST/ALT ratio predicts the functional severity of chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Ewid Mohammed,Sherif Hossam,Allihimy Abdulaziz S,Alharbi Shaima A,Aldrewesh Dawood A,Alkuraydis Sarah A,Abazid Rami BMC research notes OBJECTIVE:Despite previous research that focused on liver transaminases as predictors of cardiovascular disease, there has been limited research evaluating the predictive value of AST/ALT ratio in patients with heart failure. We aimed to investigate AST/ALT ratio as an indicator of the functional severity in chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. RESULTS:Overall, 105 patients previously diagnosed with HFrEF from Buraidah-Al Qassim province, Saudi Arabia were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Data on study variables, including demographic data, left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA class, and AST/ALT ratio, were collected from patients' records. The patients were divided into two groups, namely group-1 (AST/ALT ratio < 1) and group-2 (AST/ALT ratio ≥ 1), to identify any differences in their cardiac function profiles. NYHA class and NT-proBNP were higher and LVEF was lower in group-2 than in group-1. We found a mild significant correlation between AST/ALT ratio and APRI, FIB-4 score, NYHA-class, and LVEF (r = 0.2, 0.25, 0.26, and - 0.24, respectively; P < 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis model and ROC curve showed that AST/ALT ratio could independently predict HFrEF functional severity with a best cut-off value of 0.9, sensitivity of 43.6%, and specificity of 81.4%. 10.1186/s13104-020-05031-3
    AST/ALT ratio as a significant predictor of the incidence risk of prostate cancer. Zhou Jiatong,He Zhaowei,Ma Shenfei,Liu Ranlu Cancer medicine BACKGROUND:To investigate the effect of serum aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase (AST/ALT) on the risk of prostate cancer. METHODS:A total of 404 patients undergoing prostate biopsy from April 2016 to July 2019 were enrolled. One hundred and ninety-four patients with prostatic cancer (PCa) were diagnosed by pathology. Two hundred and ten patients were diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of AST/ALT ratio and other factors on the incidence of PCa. RESULT:AST/ALT ratio was significantly higher in PCa than in BPH patients (OR 2.313, 95%CI 1.337-4.003, P = .002). ROC curve indicated that the best cutoff was 1.155 in predicting the incidence risk of PCa. The age of PCa patients is higher than BPH patients (OR 1.054, 95%CI 1.027-1.082, P < .001). We also found that platelets were lower in PCa than in BPH patients. Multivariate analysis showed that AST/ALT ratio could be used as an independent predictor to assess the incident risk of PCa(OR 1.043, 95%CI 1.014-1.072, P = .003). However, AST/ALT ratio did not predict the incidence in high-risk or low-risk PCa. CONCLUSION:AST/ALT ratio was an independent factor in predicting the incidence of PCa. When the level of AST/ALT ratio in serum raised, the incidence risk of PCa was significantly increased, which was helpful for the clinical diagnosis of PCa. We still needed a multicenter study to verify the role of AST/ALT ratio in the development of PCa. 10.1002/cam4.3086
    The AST/ALT (De Ritis) Ratio Predicts Survival in Patients with Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer. Knittelfelder Olivia,Delago Daniela,Jakse Gabi,Reinisch Sabine,Partl Richard,Stranzl-Lawatsch Heidi,Renner Wilfried,Langsenlehner Tanja Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) Aminotransaminases, including aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), are strongly involved in cancer cell metabolism and have been associated with prognosis in different types of cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the pre-treatment AST/ALT ratio in a large European cohort of patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OOSCC). Data from 515 patients treated for OOSCC at a tertiary academic center from 2000-2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Levels of AST and ALT were measured prior to the start of treatment. Uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied to evaluate the prognostic value of the AST/ALT ratio for cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS), survival rates were calculated. Univariate analyses showed a significant association of the AST/ALT ratio with CSS (hazard ratio (HR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-2.12; < 0.001) and OS (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.41-2.02; < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the AST/ALT ratio remained an independent prognostic factor for CSS and OS (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.12-1.88, = 0.005 and HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77, = 0.002). Applying receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal cut-off level for the AST/ALT ratio was 1.44, respectively. In multivariate analysis, an AST/ALT ratio > 1.44 was an independent prognostic factor for poor CSS and OS (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.10-2.43, = 0.014 and HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.12-2.15; = 0.008). We conclude that the AST/ALT ratio is a prognostic marker for survival in OOSCC patients and could contribute to a better risk stratification and improved oncological therapy decisions. 10.3390/diagnostics10110973
    The AST/ALT Ratio Is an Independent Prognostic Marker for Disease-free Survival in Stage II and III Colorectal Carcinoma. Scheipner Lukas,Smolle Maria Anna,Barth Dominik,Posch Florian,Stotz Michael,Pichler Martin,StÖger Herbert,Gerger Armin,Riedl Jakob Michael Anticancer research BACKGROUND/AIM:The Aspartate aminotransaminase/Alanine aminotransaminase ratio (AST/ALT ratio) has been identified as a prognostic marker for several malignancies. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of the AST/ALT ratio in a large cohort of non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients (CRC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 536 patients with stage II and III CRC, as well as available AST/ALT ratio were included in this single-center retrospective analysis. Laboratory data were measured within two weeks before histological tumor diagnosis. Co-Primary endpoints for this analysis were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:In univariate cox regression DFS was significantly shorter in patients with an elevated AST/ALT ratio (HR=1.568, 95%CI=1.10-2.23, p=0.012). In multivariable analysis, the prognostic association between an elevated AST/ALT ratio and a poor survival prevailed statistically significant (HR=1.53, 95%C=1.05-2.22, p=0.026). No statistically significant association between the AST/ALT ratio and OS was observed (HR=1.4, 95% CI=0.89-2.22, p=0.14). CONCLUSION:In this study, the serum AST/ALT ratio emerged as a valid prognostic marker for DFS in non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients at stage II and III. 10.21873/anticanres.14792
    Blood glutamate grabbing does not reduce the hematoma in an intracerebral hemorrhage model but it is a safe excitotoxic treatment modality. da Silva-Candal Andrés,Vieites-Prado Alba,Gutiérrez-Fernández María,Rey Ramón I,Argibay Bárbara,Mirelman David,Sobrino Tomás,Rodríguez-Frutos Berta,Castillo José,Campos Francisco Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Recent studies have shown that blood glutamate grabbing is an effective strategy to reduce the excitotoxic effect of extracellular glutamate released during ischemic brain injury. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of two of the most efficient blood glutamate grabbers (oxaloacetate and recombinant glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1: rGOT1) in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Intracerebral hemorrhage was produced by injecting collagenase into the basal ganglia. Three treatment groups were developed: a control group treated with saline, a group treated with oxaloacetate, and a final group treated with human rGOT1. Treatments were given 1 hour after hemorrhage. Hematoma volume (analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), neurologic deficit, and blood glutamate and GOT levels were quantified over a period of 14 days after surgery. The results observed showed that the treatments used induced a significant reduction of blood glutamate levels; however, they did not reduce the hematoma, nor did they improve the neurologic deficit. In the present experimental study, we have shown that this novel therapeutic strategy is not effective in case of ICH pathology. More importantly, these findings suggest that blood glutamate grabbers are a safe treatment modality that can be given in cases of suspected ischemic stroke without previous neuroimaging. 10.1038/jcbfm.2015.28
    Liver Fibrosis Indices and Outcomes After Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Parikh Neal S,Kamel Hooman,Navi Babak B,Iadecola Costantino,Merkler Alexander E,Jesudian Arun,Dawson Jesse,Falcone Guido J,Sheth Kevin N,Roh David J,Elkind Mitchell S V,Hanley Daniel F,Ziai Wendy C,Murthy Santosh B, Stroke Background and Purpose- Cirrhosis-clinically overt, advanced liver disease-is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke and poor stroke outcomes. We sought to investigate whether subclinical liver disease, specifically liver fibrosis, is associated with clinical and radiological outcomes in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods- We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Intracerebral Hemorrhage. We included adult patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage presenting within 6 hours of symptom onset. We calculated 3 validated fibrosis indices-Aspartate Aminotransferase-Platelet Ratio Index, Fibrosis-4 score, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Fibrosis Score-and modeled them as continuous exposure variables. Primary outcomes were admission hematoma volume and hematoma expansion. Secondary outcomes were mortality, and the composite of major disability or death, at 90 days. We used linear and logistic regression models adjusted for previously established risk factors. Results- Among 432 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, the mean Aspartate Aminotransferase-Platelet Ratio Index, Fibrosis-4, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Fibrosis Score values on admission reflected intermediate probabilities of fibrosis, whereas standard hepatic assays and coagulation parameters were largely normal. After adjusting for potential confounders, Aspartate Aminotransferase-Platelet Ratio Index was associated with hematoma volume (β, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.04-0.36]), hematoma expansion (odds ratio, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.1-2.3]), and mortality (odds ratio, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1-2.7]). Fibrosis-4 was also associated with hematoma volume (β, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.07-0.47]), hematoma expansion (odds ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.2-3.0]), and mortality (odds ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.1-3.6]). Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Fibrosis Score was not associated with any outcome. Indices were not associated with the composite of major disability or death. Conclusions- In patients with largely normal liver chemistries, 2 liver fibrosis indices were associated with admission hematoma volume, hematoma expansion, and mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028161
    A High Alanine Aminotransferase/Aspartate Aminotransferase Ratio Determines Insulin Resistance and Metabolically Healthy/Unhealthy Obesity in a General Adult Population in Korea: The Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2007-2010. Kwon Soon Sung,Lee Sang-Guk Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association AIMS:Early identification of individuals with insulin resistance (IR) and metabolically unhealthy state can help prevent various diseases and improve quality of life. In this study, we investigated a possible marker of IR and metabolic health status, alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio, and aimed to confirm its feasibility in a large population study. METHODS:A total of 16,371 adults from Korean National Health and Examination Survey were studied. Participants were divided into four groups according to their ALT/AST ratio quartiles. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance level and proportion of people with IR, impaired fasting glucose, and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes were compared for each group. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was also used to assess the usefulness of ALT/AST ratio to identify individuals with IR and metabolically unhealthy. RESULTS:In the groups with higher ALT/AST ratio, HOMA-IR level, proportion of IR, and proportion of individuals with IFG or type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher than that in those with low ALT/AST ratio. When analyzed with other factors related to IR, the data showed that the ALT/AST ratio was an independent predictor of IR (odds ratio 1.363, 95% confidential interval 1.323-1.405, p<0.001). When ROC curve analysis was done, area under curve (AUC) for identifying individuals with IR was 0.634. In addition, metabolically unhealthy individuals showed significantly higher ALT/AST ratio than metabolically healthy individuals (0.9780 vs 0.8511, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:ALT/AST ratio was well-correlated with IR, IR-related conditions, and metabolic health status. This easily accessible method to estimate IR may facilitate the early screening of IR, which can result in prevention of IR-related morbid conditions. 10.1055/a-0752-0217
    Evaluation of enzymes in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in cases of cerebrovascular accidents. Nand N,Gupta S,Sharma M,Khosla S N,Saini A S,Lal H Angiology Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were measured serially in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 22 patients with fresh stroke and an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. It was observed that levels of these enzymes in the CSF of control subjects were very low but were significantly elevated (p less than 0.001) in both serum and CSF in patients with stroke. The elevation was greater in the CSF than in the serum and was maximum during the first four days of stroke. Thereafter, the enzymatic activity declined. Of all these enzymes, GGTP in CSF correlated best with the clinical picture. It was possible to differentiate between the ischemic and hemorrhagic type of stroke on the basis of CSF levels of GGTP (greater than 60.0 units in hemorrhagic stroke). There was no correlation between GGTP levels in CSF and serum or among GOT, GPT, and GGTP in CSF. It can be concluded, therefore, that estimation of GGTP in CSF is helpful not only in predicting the degree of cerebral damage and functional outcome of the patient following stroke but also in differentiating the type of stroke. 10.1177/000331978703801004
    CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON TRANSAMINASE ACTIVITY. III. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AND SERUM TRANSAMINASE ACTIVITY IN CEREBRAL VASCULAR ACCIDENTS. CHEN J S,HSU C J [Tsa chih] [Journal of the] Alumni of the University of Takau. Gaoxiong yi xue yuan. Tong xue hui
    Elevated serum aminotransferase level as a predictor of intracerebral hemorrhage: Korea medical insurance corporation study. Kim Hyeon Chang,Kang Dae Ryong,Nam Chung Mo,Hur Nam Wook,Shim Jee Seon,Jee Sun Ha,Suh Il Stroke BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Serum aminotransferase levels are known to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, but the relation with stroke incidence is not well known. We investigated the relation between serum aminotransferase levels and the incidence of stroke. METHODS:We measured serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 108 464 Korean men, aged 35 to 59 years, in 1990 and 1992. Serum aminotransferase levels were classified into 3 categories (<35, 35 to 69, and > or =70 IU/L). The outcomes were hospital admissions and deaths from stroke subtypes (ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage [ICH], and subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]) from 1993 to 2002. RESULTS:During the 10 years, 1728 ischemic, 1051 hemorrhagic (718 ICH and 222 SAH), and 243 unspecified stroke events occurred. After adjustment for age and other traditional risk factors and according to Cox proportional-hazards models, serum aminotransferase level had an independent positive associations with ICH. However, ischemic stroke and SAH were not associated with aminotransferase levels. Compared with the level <35 IU/L, the adjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval) of ICH for an aspartate aminotransferase level of 35 to 69 and > or =70 IU/L were 1.49 (1.21 to 1.83) and 4.21 (3.06 to 5.77), respectively. The corresponding risks for alanine aminotransferase were 1.34 (1.09 to 1.65) and 2.89 (2.09 to 4.01), respectively. These associations were consistent regardless of the level of obesity, blood pressure, fasting glucose, alcohol intake, and follow-up length. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that an elevated aminotransferase level is a predictor of ICH. The biologic significance of aminotransferase level for the development of ICH merits further study. 10.1161/01.STR.0000173404.37692.9b
    Association between alanine aminotransferase and intracerebral hemorrhage in East Asian populations. Kim Hyeon Chang,Oh Sun Min,Pan Wen-Harn,Ueshima Hirotsugu,Gu Dongfeng,Chuang Shao-Yuan,Fujiyoshi Akira,Li Ying,Zhao Liancheng,Suh Il, Neuroepidemiology BACKGROUND:Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and chronic liver disease are relatively common in East Asian countries. However, the relationship between the two diseases is unclear. Thus, we investigated the association between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and ICH risk in East Asian populations. METHODS:The East Asian Network for Stroke Prevention enrolled 279,982 participants with ALT measurements from four cohort studies in Korea, Taiwan, Japan and mainland China. Among them, 1,324 ICH events and 493 ICH deaths were observed. Cox's proportional hazard regression analysis was performed in each cohort to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) after adjusting for age, blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol, smoking and alcohol intake. Combined HRs were then estimated using pooled analyses with fixed-effects models. RESULTS:The multivariate-adjusted pooled HRs (with 95% confidence interval, CI) for ICH incidence per 10 IU/l increments of ALT were 1.04 (1.03-1.04) in men and 1.01 (0.98-1.04) in women. Corresponding HRs for ICH mortality were 1.04 (1.02-1.05) in men and 1.04 (1.00-1.08) in women. The pooled HRs for ICH incidence in participants with ALT levels greater than or equal to 50 IU/l compared to those with levels less than 20 IU/l were 1.74 (1.41-2.16) in men and 1.60 (1.06-2.40) in women. The corresponding HRs for ICH mortality were 1.72 (1.21-2.44) in men and 1.63 (0.79-3.36) in women. CONCLUSIONS:An elevated ALT level was independently and significantly associated with an increased risk of ICH in East Asian men, but the association was less prominent in women. 10.1159/000353186
    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and liver dysfunction. Niizuma H,Suzuki J,Yonemitsu T,Otsuki T Stroke We evaluated liver function and coagulation parameters in 117 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (68 men and 49 women) admitted to our clinic within 24 hours after onset. Liver dysfunction was more common among men than women due to differences in alcohol consumption. Number of thrombocytes and fibrinogen concentrations were lower, especially among men with elevated concentrations of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or glutamic pyruvic transaminase and/or elevated gamma-globulin fraction. Five of the 78 patients undergoing stereotactic hematoma aspiration and one of the 39 treated nonsurgically rebled. All six of the patients who rebled were men, heavy alcohol consumers with liver dysfunction. Fibrinogen concentration was abnormally low in four of the six and at the lower end of the normal range in one. Two showed thrombocytopenia and one case showed prolonged prothrombin time. These facts suggest that liver disorders produce a state in which hemorrhage occurs more readily and that this hemorrhagic tendency may be one of the causal factors of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
    Elevated liver enzymes after nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhages. Meythaler J M,Hazlewood J,DeVivo M J,Rosner M Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence and possible etiologies of liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with acquired brain injury and to assess the impact of these abnormalities on the rehabilitative process. SETTING:University tertiary care rehabilitation center. DESIGN:Retrospective study. SUBJECTS:Fifty-six consecutive patients admitted to a brain injury unit in a 30-month period who had an intracranial hemorrhage without associated head or abdominal trauma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Liver function tests, Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, exposure to hepatotoxic drugs, antiepileptic medication serum levels, history of alcohol use, medical history, length of stay, and medical costs. RESULTS:There was an increase (from acute hospital admission to inpatient rehabilitation admission) in gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels from 42 to 147U/L (p=.0012). There was an increase in alkaline phosphatase from 83 to 125U/L (p=.0079). There was a significant relationship between the GGT level on rehabilitation admission and exposure to hepatotoxic drugs, particularly phenytoin (n=55, p=.0007). Similar findings were noted between alkaline phosphatase and phenytoin (n=55, p=.0022) and systemic steroids (n=50, p=.0277). History of alcohol use was not predictive of changes in liver function tests (p > .05). Correlation analysis revealed no detrimental effect of the elevated serum liver enzyme levels on the Rasch-converted FIM cognitive or motor admission or discharge scores or change in the scores while on rehabilitation (p > .05). All radiologic testing and hepatitis profiles were negative, and 10 of the 16 patients with follow-up laboratory tests showed improvement in their serum liver enzyme levels. CONCLUSIONS:After nontraumatic brain injury there is a characteristic pattern of enzyme elevation that statistically relates to phenytoin exposure. No additional etiologic abnormalities were found on further workup, suggesting that further evaluation should be guided by the patient's clinical status, not laboratory value alone.