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    Rough Mutant Induce Macrophage Death via Activating IRE1α Pathway of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Enhanced T4SS Secretion. Li Peng,Tian Mingxing,Bao Yanqing,Hu Hai,Liu Jiameng,Yin Yi,Ding Chan,Wang Shaohui,Yu Shengqing Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonosis, known as brucellosis. virulence relies mostly on its ability to invade and replicate within phagocytic cells. The type IV secretion system (T4SS) and lipopolysaccharide are two major virulence factors. rough mutants reportedly induce the death of infected macrophages, which is T4SS dependent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the T4SS secretion capacities of rough mutant and its smooth wild-type strain were comparatively investigated, by constructing the firefly luciferase fused T4SS effector, BPE123 and VceC. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the T4SS expression. The results showed that T4SS expression and secretion were enhanced significantly in the rough mutant. We also found that the activity of the T4SS operon promoter was notably increased in the rough mutant, which depends on quorum sensing-related regulators of VjbR upregulation. Cell infection and cell death assays revealed that deletion of in the rough mutant absolutely abolished cytotoxicity within macrophages by downregulating T4SS expression. This suggests that up-regulation of T4SS promoted by VjbR in rough mutant Δ contribute to macrophage death. In addition, we found that the rough mutant induce macrophage death via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Taken together, our study provide evidence that in comparison to the smooth wild-type strain, VjbR upregulation in the rough mutant increases transcription of the operon, resulting in overexpression of the gene, accompanied by the over-secretion of effecter proteins, thereby causing the death of infected macrophages via activating IRE1α pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting novel insights into the molecular mechanisms associated with rough mutant-induced macrophage cytotoxicity. 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00422
    eIF2α-CHOP-BCl-2/JNK and IRE1α-XBP1/JNK signaling promote apoptosis and inflammation and support the proliferation of Newcastle disease virus. Li Yanrong,Jiang Weiyu,Niu Qiaona,Sun Yingjie,Meng Chunchun,Tan Lei,Song Cuiping,Qiu Xusheng,Liao Ying,Ding Chan Cell death & disease Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe infectious disease in poultry and selectively kills tumor cells, by inducing apoptosis and cytokines secretion. In this report, we study the mechanisms underlying NDV-induced apoptosis by investigating the unfolded protein response (UPR). We found that NDV infection activated all three branches of the UPR signaling (PERK-eIF2α, ATF6, and IRE1α) and triggered apoptosis, in avian cells (DF-1 and CEF) and in various human cancer cell types (HeLa, Cal27, HN13, A549, H1299, Huh7, and HepG2). Interestingly, the suppression of either apoptosis or UPR led to impaired NDV proliferation. Meanwhile, the inhibition of UPR by 4-PBA protected cells from NDV-induced apoptosis. Further study revealed that activation of PERK-eIF2α induced the expression of transcription factor CHOP, which subsequently promoted apoptosis by downregulating BCL-2/MCL-1, promoting JNK signaling and suppressing AKT signaling. In parallel, IRE1α mediated the splicing of XBP1 mRNA and resulted in the translation and nuclear translocation of XBP1s, thereby promoting the transcription of ER chaperones and components of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Furthermore, IRE1α promoted apoptosis and cytokines secretion via the activation of JNK signaling. Knock down and overexpression studies showed that CHOP, IRE1α, XBP1, and JNK supported efficient virus proliferation. Our study demonstrates that the induction of eIF2α-CHOP-BCL-2/JNK and IRE1α-XBP1/JNK signaling cascades promote apoptosis and cytokines secretion, and these signaling cascades support NDV proliferation. 10.1038/s41419-019-2128-6