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    5-fluorouracil and other fluoropyrimidines in colorectal cancer: Past, present and future. Vodenkova Sona,Buchler Tomas,Cervena Klara,Veskrnova Veronika,Vodicka Pavel,Vymetalkova Veronika Pharmacology & therapeutics 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an essential component of systemic chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) in the palliative and adjuvant settings. Over the past four decades, several modulation strategies including the implementation of 5-FU-based combination regimens and 5-FU pro-drugs have been developed and tested to increase the anti-tumor activity of 5-FU and to overcome the clinical resistance. Despite the encouraging progress in CRC therapy to date, the patients' response rates to therapy continue to remain low and the patients' benefit from 5-FU-based therapy is frequently compromised by the development of chemoresistance. Inter-individual differences in the treatment response in CRC patients may originate in the unique genetic and epigenetic make-up of each individual. The critical element in the current trend of personalized medicine is the proper comprehension of causes and mechanisms contributing to the low or lack of sensitivity of tumor tissue to 5-FU-based therapy. The identification and validation of predictive biomarkers for existing 5-FU-based and new targeted therapies for CRC treatment will likely improve patients' outcomes in the future. Herein we present a comprehensive review summarizing options of CRC treatment and the mechanisms of 5-FU action at the molecular level, including both anabolic and catabolic ways. The main part of this review comprises the currently known molecular mechanisms underlying the chemoresistance in CRC patients. We also focus on various 5-FU pro-drugs developed to increase the amount of circulating 5-FU and to limit toxicity. Finally, we propose future directions of personalized CRC therapy according to the latest published evidence. 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2019.107447
    Colorectal cancer cell-derived CCL20 recruits regulatory T cells to promote chemoresistance via FOXO1/CEBPB/NF-κB signaling. Wang Dan,Yang Li,Yu Weina,Wu Qian,Lian Jingyao,Li Feng,Liu Shasha,Li Aitian,He Zhiang,Liu Jinbo,Sun Zhenqiang,Yuan Weitang,Zhang Yi Journal for immunotherapy of cancer BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of cancer worldwide. The tumor microenvironment plays a key role in promoting the occurrence of chemoresistance in solid cancers. Effective targets to overcome resistance are necessary to improve the survival and prognosis of CRC patients. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment that might be involved in chemoresistance in patients with CRC. METHODS:We evaluated the effects of CCL20 on chemoresistance of CRC by recruitment of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:We found that the level of CCL20 derived from tumor cells was significantly higher in Folfox-resistant patients than in Folfox-sensitive patients. The high level of CCL20 was closely associated with chemoresistance and poor survival in CRC patients. Among the drugs in Folfox chemotherapy, we confirmed that 5-FU increased the expression of CCL20 in CRC. Moreover, CCL20 derived from 5-FU-resistant CRC cells promoted recruitment of Tregs. Tregs further enhanced the chemoresistance of CRC cells to 5-FU. FOXO1/CEBPB/NF-κB signaling was activated in CRC cells after 5-FU treatment and was required for CCL20 upregulation mediated by 5-FU. Furthermore, CCL20 blockade suppressed tumor progression and restored 5-FU sensitivity in CRC. Lastly, the expression of these signaling molecules mediating chemoresistance was closely correlated with poor survival of CRC patients. CONCLUSIONS:CRC cell-secreted CCL20 can recruit Tregs to promote chemoresistance via FOXO1/CEBPB/NF-κB signaling, indicating that the FOXO1/CEBPB/NF-κB/CCL20 axis might provide a promising target for CRC treatment. 10.1186/s40425-019-0701-2
    Association of Aspirin and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs With Colorectal Cancer Risk by Molecular Subtypes. Amitay Efrat L,Carr Prudence R,Jansen Lina,Walter Viola,Roth Wilfried,Herpel Esther,Kloor Matthias,Bläker Hendrik,Chang-Claude Jenny,Brenner Hermann,Hoffmeister Michael Journal of the National Cancer Institute BACKGROUND:Regular use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for a longer period has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, CRC is a heterogenic disease, and little is known regarding the associations with molecular pathological subtypes. METHODS:Analyses included 2444 cases with a first diagnosis of CRC and 3130 healthy controls from a German population-based case control study. Tumor tissue samples were analyzed for major molecular pathological features: microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutation, and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene (KRAS) mutation. Information on past and current use of NSAIDs, including aspirin, was obtained by standardized interviews. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:Regular use of NSAIDs was associated with a reduced CRC risk if tumors were MSS (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.77), BRAF wildtype (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.78), or KRAS wildtype (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.80). Regular NSAID use was less clearly and mostly not statistically significantly associated with CRC risk reduction for MSI-high, BRAF-mutated, or KRAS-mutated CRC. In more specific analyses on MSI-high CRC, regular use of NSAIDs was associated with much stronger risk reduction in the absence of BRAF or KRAS mutations (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.65) but not with KRAS- or BRAF-mutated MSI-high CRC (Pheterogeneity < .001). Results for just aspirin use were similar. CONCLUSION:Our study suggests variation in risk reduction of CRC subtypes following regular use of NSAIDs and aspirin. Regular use of NSAIDs and aspirin may be more strongly associated with risk reduction of MSI-high CRC without KRAS or BRAF mutation. 10.1093/jnci/djy170
    Effect of a Single Aspirin Dose Prior to Fecal Immunochemical Testing on Test Sensitivity for Detecting Advanced Colorectal Neoplasms: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Brenner Hermann,Calderazzo Silvia,Seufferlein Thomas,Ludwig Leopold,Dikopoulos Nektarios,Mangold Jörg,Böck Wolfgang,Stolz Thomas,Eisenbach Thomas,Block Thomas,Kopp-Schneider Annette,Czock David,Tikk Kaja JAMA Importance:Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin are widely used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Observational studies suggested that sensitivity of fecal immunochemical tests for detecting advanced neoplasms could be increased by acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), especially among men. Objective:To evaluate the potential to increase sensitivity of fecal immunochemical tests by administering a single 300-mg oral aspirin dose 2 days before stool sampling. Design, Setting, and Participants:A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 14 gastroenterology practices and 4 hospitals in Germany, and included 2422 men and women aged 40 to 80 years scheduled for colonoscopy, with no recent use of aspirin or other drugs with antithrombotic effects (enrollment from June 2013 to November 2016, and final follow-up January 27, 2017). Interventions:Administration of a single tablet containing 300 mg of aspirin (n = 1208) or placebo (n = 1214) 2 days before fecal sampling for fecal immunochemical test. Main Outcome and Measures:The primary outcome was sensitivity of a quantitative fecal immunochemical test at 2 predefined cutoffs (10.2 and 17-μg Hb/g stool) for detecting advanced neoplasms (colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma). Results:Among 2422 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 59.6 [7.9] years; 1219, 50%, men), 2134 were included in the analysis (78% for primary screening colonoscopy, 22% for diagnostic colonoscopy). Advanced neoplasms were identified in 224 participants (10.5%), including 8 participants (0.4%) with CRC and 216 participants (10.1%) with advanced adenoma. Sensitivity was 40.2% in the aspirin group and 30.4% in the placebo group (difference 9.8%, 95% CI, -3.1% to 22.2%, P = .14) at cutoff 10.2-μg Hb/g stool and 28.6% in the aspirin and 22.5% in the placebo group (difference 6.0%, 95% CI, -5.7% to 17.5%, P = .32) at cutoff 17-μg Hb/g stool. Conclusions and Relevance:Among adults aged 40 to 80 years not using aspirin or other antithrombotic medications, administration of a single dose of oral aspirin prior to fecal immunochemical testing, compared with placebo, did not significantly increase test sensitivity for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasms at 2 predefined cutoffs of a quantitative fecal immunochemical test. Trial registration:Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien Identifier: DRKS00003252; EudraCT Identifier: 2011-005603-32/DE. 10.1001/jama.2019.4755
    Human basophils may not undergo modulation by DC-SIGN and mannose receptor-targeting immunotherapies due to absence of receptors. Das Mrinmoy,Galeotti Caroline,Stephen-Victor Emmanuel,Karnam Anupama,Kaveri Srini V,Bayry Jagadeesh The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.09.062
    Nanoformulated Codelivery of Quercetin and Alantolactone Promotes an Antitumor Response through Synergistic Immunogenic Cell Death for Microsatellite-Stable Colorectal Cancer. Zhang Jing,Shen Limei,Li Xiang,Song Wantong,Liu Yun,Huang Leaf ACS nano Microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer (CRC) is known to be resistant to immunotherapy. The combination of quercetin (Q) and alantolactone (A) was found to induce synergistic immunogenic cell death (ICD) at a molar ratio of 1:4 (Q:A). To achieve ratiometric loading and delivery, the micellar delivery of Q and A (QA-M) was developed with high entrapment efficiency and drug loading at an optimal ratio. QA-M achieved prolonged blood circulation and increased tumor accumulation for both drugs. More importantly, QA-M retained the desired drug ratio (molar ratio of Q to A = 1:4) in tumors at 2 and 4 h after intravenous injection for synergistic immunotherapy. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in murine orthotopic CRC by the treatment of QA-M compared to PBS and the combination of free drugs ( < 0.005). The combination of nanotherapy stimulated the host immune response to induce long-term tumor destruction and induced memory tumor surveillance with a 1.3-fold increase in survival median time compared to PBS ( < 0.0001) and a combination of free drugs ( < 0.0005). The synergistic therapeutic effect induced by codelivery of Q and A is capable of reactivating antitumor immunity by inducing ICD, causing cell toxicity and modulating the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment. Such a combination of Q and A with synergistic effects entrapped in a simple and safe nanodelivery system may provide the potential for scale-up manufacturing and clinical applications as immunotherapeutic agents for CRC. 10.1021/acsnano.9b02875
    Antagonistic Effects of p53 and HIF1A on microRNA-34a Regulation of PPP1R11 and STAT3 and Hypoxia-induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Cancer Cells. Li Huihui,Rokavec Matjaz,Jiang Longchang,Horst David,Hermeking Heiko Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:In colorectal tumors, hypoxia causes resistance to therapy and promotes metastasis. Loss of the tumor suppressor p53 (encoded by TP53) provides cancer cells with a selective advantage under conditions of hypoxia, but little is known about the mediators of this effect. METHODS:Isogenic colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines with different TP53 genotypes were placed under conditions of hypoxia. We examined the effects on levels and activity of microRNA-34a (MIR34A) in CRC cells. We determined the expression and localization of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 11 (PPP1R11, also called INH3, HCGV, IPP3, HCGV, TCTE5, TCTEX5, or CFAP255) in 82 human colon cancers. We analyzed data on human colorectal carcinomas from the Cancer Genome Atlas collection to determine whether expression of PPP1R11 was affected by altered level or activity of p53, markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), or MIR34A or was associated with metastasis. We determined the effects of disruption Mir34a, Mir34b, and Mir34c in ApcMin/+ mice. DLD-1 cells were transfected with small inhibitor RNAs against PPP1R1, injected into the tail veins of immune-compromised mice, and followed by noninvasive bioluminescence imaging. RESULTS:The hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit (HIF1A) directly repressed the MIR34A gene in p53-defective CRC cells, whereas expression of MIR34A was induced in p53-proficient CRC cells exposed to hypoxia. Down-regulation of MIR34A was required for hypoxia-induced EMT, invasion and migration, and activation of STAT3 in CRC cells. We identified PPP1R11, whose product inhibits PP1, as a target of MIR34A. PPP1R11 mediates phosphorylation (activation) of STAT3, so expression of MIR34A reduced activation of STAT3 in p53-deficient CRC cells. Ectopic expression of PPP1R11 in CRC cells induced EMT, invasion, and migration, which all required STAT3. Increased expression of PPP1R11 in p53-deficient CRC cells was required for hypoxia-induced EMT, invasion, migration, and resistance to 5-fluorouracil, as well as metastasis of xenograft tumors to lungs of mice. Adenomas and derived tumoroids of ApcMin/+ mice with disruption of Mir34a, Mir34b, and Mir34c had increased levels of PPP1R11. Colorectal tumors from patients had increased levels of PPP1R11 at areas of invasion, compared with other areas of the tumor; increased level PPP1R11 associated with TP53 mutations and metastasis to the liver. CONCLUSIONS:HIF1A represses, whereas p53 increases, expression of MIR34A in CRC cells. MIR34A reduces expression of PPP1R11 to prevent activation of STAT3 and inhibit the EMT and metastasis. Strategies to target this pathway might be developed to inhibit CRC metastasis and overcome resistance to therapy associated with hypoxia. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.04.017
    Timing of Aspirin and Other Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Tumor Markers and Survival. Hua Xinwei,Phipps Amanda I,Burnett-Hartman Andrea N,Adams Scott V,Hardikar Sheetal,Cohen Stacey A,Kocarnik Jonathan M,Ahnen Dennis J,Lindor Noralane M,Baron John A,Newcomb Polly A Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Purpose Regular use of aspirin is associated with improved survival for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the timing of and the subtype of CRC that would benefit the most from using aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to survival is unclear. Patients and Methods In all, 2,419 patients age 18 to 74 years with incident invasive CRC who were diagnosed from 1997 to 2008 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Detailed epidemiologic questionnaires were administered at study enrollment and at 5-year follow-up. Survival outcomes were completed through linkage to national death registries. BRAF- and KRAS-mutation status, microsatellite instability, and CpG island methylator phenotype were also evaluated. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for overall survival (OS) and CRC-specific survival. Results After a median of 10.8 years of follow-up since diagnosis, 381 deaths (100 as a result of CRC) were observed. Compared with nonusers, postdiagnostic aspirin-only users had more favorable OS (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.95) and CRC-specific survival (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.71), especially among those who initiated aspirin use (OS: HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.86; CRC-specific survival: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.80). The association between any NSAID use after diagnosis and OS differed significantly by KRAS-mutation status ( P = .01). Use of any NSAID after diagnosis was associated with improved OS only among participants with KRAS wild-type tumors (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.80) but not among those with KRAS-mutant tumors (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.96). Conclusion Among long-term CRC survivors, regular use of NSAIDs after CRC diagnosis was significantly associated with improved survival in individuals with KRAS wild-type tumors. 10.1200/JCO.2017.72.3569
    A Panel of Methylated MicroRNA Biomarkers for Identifying High-Risk Patients With Ulcerative Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer. Toiyama Yuji,Okugawa Yoshinaga,Tanaka Koji,Araki Toshimitsu,Uchida Keiichi,Hishida Asahi,Uchino Motoi,Ikeuchi Hiroki,Hirota Seiichi,Kusunoki Masato,Boland C Richard,Goel Ajay Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Methylation of specific microRNAs (miRNAs) often occurs in an age-dependent manner, as a field defect in some instances, and may be an early event in colitis-associated carcinogenesis. We aimed to determine whether specific mRNA signature patterns (MIR1, MIR9, MIR124, MIR137, MIR34B/C) could be used to identify patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who are at increased risk for colorectal neoplasia. METHODS:We obtained 387 colorectal tissue specimens collected from 238 patients with UC (152 without neoplasia, 17 with dysplasia, and 69 with UC-associated colorectal cancer [UC-CRC]), from 2 independent cohorts in Japan between 2005 and 2015. We quantified methylation of miRNAs by bisulfite pyrosequencing analysis. We analyzed clinical data to determine whether miRNA methylation patterns were associated with age, location, or segment of the colorectum (cecum, transverse colon, and rectum). Differences in tissue miRNA methylation and expression levels were compared among samples and associated with cancer risk using the Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests as appropriate. We performed a validation study of samples from 90 patients without UC and 61 patients with UC-associated dysplasia or cancer to confirm the association between specific methylation patterns of miRNAs in non-tumor rectal mucosa from patients with UC at risk of UC-CRC. RESULTS:Among patients with UC without neoplasia, rectal tissues had significantly higher levels of methylation levels of MIR1, MIR9, MIR124, and MIR137 than in proximal mucosa; levels of methylation were associated with age and duration of UC in rectal mucosa. Methylation of all miRNAs was significantly higher in samples from patients with dysplasia or CRC compared with samples from patients without neoplasia. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that methylation levels of miRNAs in rectal mucosa accurately differentiated patients with CRC from those without. Methylation of MIR137 in rectal mucosa was an independent risk factor for UC-CRC. Methylation patterns of a set of miRNAs (panel) could discriminate discriminate UC patients with or without dysplasia or CRC in the evaluation cohort (area under the curve, 0.81) and the validation cohort (area under the curve, 0.78). CONCLUSIONS:In evaluation and validation cohorts, we found specific miRNAs to be methylated in rectal mucosal samples from patients with UC with dysplasia or CRC compared with patients without neoplasms. This pattern also associated with patient age and might be used to identify patients with UC at greatest risk for developing UC-CRC. Our findings provide evidence for a field defect in rectal mucosa from patients with UC-CRC. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.08.037
    Trapping of Lipopolysaccharide to Promote Immunotherapy against Colorectal Cancer and Attenuate Liver Metastasis. Song Wantong,Tiruthani Karthik,Wang Ying,Shen Limei,Hu Mengying,Dorosheva Oleksandra,Qiu Kunyu,Kinghorn Karina A,Liu Rihe,Huang Leaf Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) The development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) is closely related to gut microbiome. Here, the impact of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the most prevalent products in the gut microbiome, on CRC immunotherapy is investigated. It is found that LPS is abundant in orthotopic CRC tissue and is associated with low responses to anti-PD-L1 mAb therapy, and clearance of Gram-negative bacteria from the gut using polymyxin B (PmB) or blockade of Toll-like receptor 4 using TAK-242 will both relieve the immunosuppressive microenvironment and boost T-cell infiltration into the CRC tumor. Further, an engineered LPS-targeting fusion protein is designed and its coding sequence is loaded into a lipid-protamine-DNA (LPD) nanoparticle system for selective expression of LPS trap protein and blocking LPS inside the tumor, and this nanotrapping system significantly relieves the immunosuppressive microenvironment and boosts anti-PD-L1 mAb therapy against CRC tumors. This LPS trap system even attenuates CRC liver metastasis when applied, suggesting the importance of blocking LPS in the gut-liver axis. The strategy applied here may provide a useful new way for treating CRC as well as other epithelial cancers that interact with mucosa microbiome. 10.1002/adma.201805007
    Colorectal cancer: Calcineurin drives CRC tumorigenesis. Thomas Hugh Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology 10.1038/nrgastro.2016.65
    19PPreclinical drug testing and clinical trial planning of palbociclib (CDK4/6 inhibitor) drug combination with a PI3K or MAPK inhibitor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Lee C L,Toomey S,Farrelly A,Hennessy B Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology 10.1093/annonc/mdz029.012
    Dietary phytochemicals in colorectal cancer prevention and treatment: A focus on the molecular mechanisms involved. Afrin Sadia,Giampieri Francesca,Gasparrini Massimiliano,Forbes-Hernández Tamara Y,Cianciosi Danila,Reboredo-Rodriguez Patricia,Zhang Jiaojiao,Manna Piera Pia,Daglia Maria,Atanasov Atanas Georgiev,Battino Maurizio Biotechnology advances Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major cancer type and leading cause of death. Unfortunately, current medical treatments are not sufficient due to lack of effective therapy, adverse side effects, chemoresistance and disease recurrence. In recent decades, epidemiologic observations have highlighted the association between the ingestion of several phytochemical-enriched foods and nutrients and the lower risk of CRC. According to preclinical studies, dietary phytochemicals exert chemopreventive effects on CRC by regulating different markers and signaling pathways; additionally, the gut microbiota plays a role as vital effector in CRC onset and progression, therefore, any dietary alterations in it may affect CRC occurrence. A high number of studies have displayed a key role of growth factors and their signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of CRC. Indeed, the efficiency of dietary phytochemicals to modulate carcinogenic processes through the alteration of different molecular targets, such as Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK (p38, JNK and Erk1/2), EGFR/Kras/Braf, TGF-β/Smad2/3, STAT1-STAT3, NF-кB, Nrf2 and cyclin-CDK complexes, has been proven, whereby many of these targets also represent the backbone of modern drug discovery programs. Furthermore, epigenetic analysis showed modified or reversed aberrant epigenetic changes exerted by dietary phytochemicals that led to possible CRC prevention or treatment. Therefore, our aim is to discuss the effects of some common dietary phytochemicals that might be useful in CRC as preventive or therapeutic agents. This review will provide new guidance for research, in order to identify the most studied phytochemicals, their occurrence in foods and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of dietary phytochemicals for the prevention or treatment of CRC by targeting several genes and signaling pathways, as well as epigenetic modifications. In addition, the results obtained by recent investigations aimed at improving the production of these phytochemicals in genetically modified plants have been reported. Overall, clinical data on phytochemicals against CRC are still not sufficient and therefore the preventive impacts of dietary phytochemicals on CRC development deserve further research so as to provide additional insights for human prospective studies. 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.11.011
    mTORC1 Inactivation Promotes Colitis-Induced Colorectal Cancer but Protects from APC Loss-Dependent Tumorigenesis. Brandt Marta,Grazioso Tatiana P,Fawal Mohamad-Ali,Tummala Krishna S,Torres-Ruiz Raul,Rodriguez-Perales Sandra,Perna Cristian,Djouder Nabil Cell metabolism Dietary habits that can induce inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are major colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors, but mechanisms linking nutrients, IBD, and CRC are unknown. Using human data and mouse models, we show that mTORC1 inactivation-induced chromosomal instability impairs intestinal crypt proliferation and regeneration, CDK4/6 dependently. This triggers interleukin (IL)-6-associated reparative inflammation, inducing crypt hyper-proliferation, wound healing, and CRC. Blocking IL-6 signaling or reactivating mTORC1 reduces inflammation-induced CRC, so mTORC1 activation suppresses tumorigenesis in IBD. Conversely, mTORC1 inactivation is beneficial in APC loss-dependent CRC. Thus, IL-6 blockers or protein-rich-diet-linked mTORC1 activation may prevent IBD-associated CRC. However, abolishing mTORC1 can mitigate CRC in predisposed patients with APC mutations. Our work reveals mTORC1 oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles in intestinal epithelium and avenues to optimized and personalized therapeutic regimens for CRC. 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.11.006
    Colorectal cancer: miR-100 and miR-125b induce cetuximab resistance in CRC. Thomas Hugh Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology 10.1038/nrgastro.2017.156
    Probiotic-derived ferrichrome inhibits colon cancer progression via JNK-mediated apoptosis. Konishi Hiroaki,Fujiya Mikihiro,Tanaka Hiroki,Ueno Nobuhiro,Moriichi Kentaro,Sasajima Junpei,Ikuta Katsuya,Akutsu Hiroaki,Tanabe Hiroki,Kohgo Yutaka Nature communications Previous reports have suggested that some probiotics inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecules involved have not yet been identified. Here, we show that the culture supernatant of Lactobacillus casei ATCC334 has a strong tumour-suppressive effect on colon cancer cells. Using mass spectrometry, we identify ferrichrome as a tumour-suppressive molecule produced by L. casei ATCC334. The tumour-suppressive effect of ferrichrome is greater than that of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and ferrichrome has less of an effect on non-cancerous intestinal cells than either of those agents. A transcriptome analysis reveals that ferrichrome treatment induces apoptosis, which is mediated by the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Western blotting indicates that the induction of apoptosis by ferrichrome is reduced by the inhibition of the JNK signalling pathway. This we demonstrate that probiotic-derived ferrichrome exerts a tumour-suppressive effect via the JNK signalling pathway. 10.1038/ncomms12365
    Intestinal PPARα Protects Against Colon Carcinogenesis via Regulation of Methyltransferases DNMT1 and PRMT6. Luo Yuhong,Xie Cen,Brocker Chad N,Fan Jie,Wu Xuan,Feng Lijin,Wang Qiong,Zhao Jie,Lu Dasheng,Tandon Mayank,Cam Maggie,Krausz Kristopher W,Liu Weiwei,Gonzalez Frank J Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Many genetic and environmental factors, including family history, dietary fat, and inflammation, increase risk for colon cancer development. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor that regulates systemic lipid homeostasis. We explored the role of intestinal PPARα in colon carcinogenesis. METHODS:Colon cancer was induced in mice with intestine-specific disruption of Ppara (Ppara), Ppara (control), and mice with disruption of Ppara that express human PPARA (human PPARA transgenic mice), by administration of azoxymethane with or without dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Colons were collected from mice and analyzed by immunoblots, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and histopathology. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analyses were performed on urine and colons. We used molecular biology and biochemical approaches to study mechanisms in mouse colons, primary intestinal epithelial cells, and colon cancer cell lines. Gene expression data and clinical features of patients with colorectal tumors were obtained from Oncomine, and human colorectal-tumor specimens and adjacent normal tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Levels of Ppara messenger RNA were reduced in colon tumors from mice. Ppara mice developed more and larger colon tumors than control mice following administration of azoxymethane, with or without DSS. Metabolomic analyses revealed increases in methylation-related metabolites in urine and colons from Ppara mice, compared with control mice, following administration of azoxymethane, with or without DSS. Levels of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) were increased in colon tumors from Ppara mice, compared with colon tumors from control mice. Depletion of PPARα reduced the expression of retinoblastoma protein, resulting in increased expression of DNMT1 and PRMT6. DNMT1 and PRMT6 decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes Cdkn1a (P21) and Cdkn1b (p27) via DNA methylation and histone H3R2 dimethylation-mediated repression of transcription, respectively. Fenofibrate protected human PPARA transgenic mice from azoxymethane and DSS-induced colon cancer. Human colon adenocarcinoma specimens had lower levels of PPARA and retinoblastoma protein and higher levels of DNMT1 and PRMT6 than normal colon tissues. CONCLUSIONS:Loss of PPARα from the intestine promotes colon carcinogenesis by increasing DNMT1-mediated methylation of P21 and PRMT6-mediated methylation of p27 in mice. Human colorectal tumors have lower levels of PPARA messenger RNA and protein than nontumor tissues. Agents that activate PPARα might be developed for chemoprevention or treatment of colon cancer. 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.05.057
    Cell type-dependent differential activation of ERK by oncogenic KRAS in colon cancer and intestinal epithelium. Brandt Raphael,Sell Thomas,Lüthen Mareen,Uhlitz Florian,Klinger Bertram,Riemer Pamela,Giesecke-Thiel Claudia,Schulze Silvia,El-Shimy Ismail Amr,Kunkel Desiree,Fauler Beatrix,Mielke Thorsten,Mages Norbert,Herrmann Bernhard G,Sers Christine,Blüthgen Nils,Morkel Markus Nature communications Oncogenic mutations in KRAS or BRAF are frequent in colorectal cancer and activate the ERK kinase. Here, we find graded ERK phosphorylation correlating with cell differentiation in patient-derived colorectal cancer organoids with and without KRAS mutations. Using reporters, single cell transcriptomics and mass cytometry, we observe cell type-specific phosphorylation of ERK in response to transgenic KRAS in mouse intestinal organoids, while transgenic BRAF activates ERK in all cells. Quantitative network modelling from perturbation data reveals that activation of ERK is shaped by cell type-specific MEK to ERK feed forward and negative feedback signalling. We identify dual-specificity phosphatases as candidate modulators of ERK in the intestine. Furthermore, we find that oncogenic KRAS, together with β-Catenin, favours expansion of crypt cells with high ERK activity. Our experiments highlight key differences between oncogenic BRAF and KRAS in colorectal cancer and find unexpected heterogeneity in a signalling pathway with fundamental relevance for cancer therapy. 10.1038/s41467-019-10954-y
    TGFβ drives immune evasion in genetically reconstituted colon cancer metastasis. Tauriello Daniele V F,Palomo-Ponce Sergio,Stork Diana,Berenguer-Llergo Antonio,Badia-Ramentol Jordi,Iglesias Mar,Sevillano Marta,Ibiza Sales,Cañellas Adrià,Hernando-Momblona Xavier,Byrom Daniel,Matarin Joan A,Calon Alexandre,Rivas Elisa I,Nebreda Angel R,Riera Antoni,Attolini Camille Stephan-Otto,Batlle Eduard Nature Most patients with colorectal cancer die as a result of the disease spreading to other organs. However, no prevalent mutations have been associated with metastatic colorectal cancers. Instead, particular features of the tumour microenvironment, such as lack of T-cell infiltration, low type 1 T-helper cell (T1) activity and reduced immune cytotoxicity or increased TGFβ levels predict adverse outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer. Here we analyse the interplay between genetic alterations and the tumour microenvironment by crossing mice bearing conditional alleles of four main colorectal cancer mutations in intestinal stem cells. Quadruple-mutant mice developed metastatic intestinal tumours that display key hallmarks of human microsatellite-stable colorectal cancers, including low mutational burden, T-cell exclusion and TGFβ-activated stroma. Inhibition of the PD-1-PD-L1 immune checkpoint provoked a limited response in this model system. By contrast, inhibition of TGFβ unleashed a potent and enduring cytotoxic T-cell response against tumour cells that prevented metastasis. In mice with progressive liver metastatic disease, blockade of TGFβ signalling rendered tumours susceptible to anti-PD-1-PD-L1 therapy. Our data show that increased TGFβ in the tumour microenvironment represents a primary mechanism of immune evasion that promotes T-cell exclusion and blocks acquisition of the T1-effector phenotype. Immunotherapies directed against TGFβ signalling may therefore have broad applications in treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer. 10.1038/nature25492
    PLK1 has tumor-suppressive potential in APC-truncated colon cancer cells. Raab Monika,Sanhaji Mourad,Matthess Yves,Hörlin Albrecht,Lorenz Ioana,Dötsch Christina,Habbe Nils,Waidmann Oliver,Kurunci-Csacsko Elisabeth,Firestein Ron,Becker Sven,Strebhardt Klaus Nature communications The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) acts as a molecular safeguard in ensuring faithful chromosome transmission during mitosis, which is regulated by a complex interplay between phosphatases and kinases including PLK1. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) germline mutations cause aneuploidy and are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Here we study the role of PLK1 in colon cancer cells with chromosomal instability promoted by APC truncation (APC-ΔC). The expression of APC-ΔC in colon cells reduces the accumulation of mitotic cells upon PLK1 inhibition, accelerates mitotic exit and increases the survival of cells with enhanced chromosomal abnormalities. The inhibition of PLK1 in mitotic, APC-∆C-expressing cells reduces the kinetochore levels of Aurora B and hampers the recruitment of SAC component suggesting a compromised mitotic checkpoint. Furthermore, Plk1 inhibition (RNAi, pharmacological compounds) promotes the development of adenomatous polyps in two independent Apc mouse models. High PLK1 expression increases the survival of colon cancer patients expressing a truncated APC significantly. 10.1038/s41467-018-03494-4
    Melatonin and 5-fluorouracil co-suppress colon cancer stem cells by regulating cellular prion protein-Oct4 axis. Lee Jun Hee,Yun Chul Won,Han Yong-Seok,Kim SangMin,Jeong Dongjun,Kwon Hyog Young,Kim Hyeongjoo,Baek Moo-Jun,Lee Sang Hun Journal of pineal research Melatonin suppresses tumor development. However, the exact relationship between melatonin and cancer stem cells (CSCs) is poorly understood. This study found that melatonin inhibits colon CSCs by regulating the PrP -Oct4 axis. In specimens from patients with colorectal cancer, the expressions of cellular prion protein (PrP ) and Oct4 were significantly correlated with metastasis and tumor stages. Co-treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and melatonin inhibited the stem cell markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and ALDH1A1 by downregulating PrP . In this way, tumor growth, proliferation, and tumor-mediated angiogenesis were suppressed. In colorectal CSCs, PRNP overexpression protects Oct4 against inhibition by 5-FU and melatonin. In contrast, Nanog, Sox2, and ALDH1A1 have no such protection. These results indicate that PrP directly regulates Oct4, whereas it indirectly regulates Nanog, Sox2, and ALDH1A1. Taken together, our findings suggest that co-treatment with anticancer drug and melatonin is a potential therapy for colorectal cancer. Furthermore, PrP maintains cancer stemness during tumor progression. Therefore, targeting the PrP -Oct4 axis may prove instrumental in colorectal cancer therapy. 10.1111/jpi.12519
    Melatonin synergizes the chemotherapeutic effect of 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer by suppressing PI3K/AKT and NF-κB/iNOS signaling pathways. Gao Yue,Xiao Xiangsheng,Zhang Changlin,Yu Wendan,Guo Wei,Zhang Zhifeng,Li Zhenglin,Feng Xu,Hao Jiaojiao,Zhang Kefang,Xiao Bingyi,Chen Miao,Huang Wenlin,Xiong Shunbin,Wu Xiaojun,Deng Wuguo Journal of pineal research 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in colon cancer treatment, but has a narrow therapeutic index limited by its toxicity. Melatonin exerts antitumor activity in various cancers, but it has never been combined with 5-FU as an anticolon cancer treatment to improve the chemotherapeutic effect of 5-FU. In this study, we assessed such combinational use in colon cancer and investigated whether melatonin could synergize the antitumor effect of 5-FU. We found that melatonin significantly enhanced the 5-FU-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration and invasion in colon cancer cells. We also found that melatonin synergized with 5-FU to promote the activation of the caspase/PARP-dependent apoptosis pathway and induce cell cycle arrest. Further mechanism study demonstrated that melatonin synergized the antitumor effect of 5-FU by targeting the PI3K/AKT and NF-κB/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling. Melatonin in combination with 5-FU markedly suppressed the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT, IKKα, IκBα, and p65 proteins, promoted the translocation of NF-κB p50/p65 from the nuclei to cytoplasm, abrogated their binding to the iNOS promoter, and thereby enhanced the inhibition of iNOS signaling. In addition, pretreatment with a PI3K- or iNOS-specific inhibitor synergized the antitumor effects of 5-FU and melatonin. Finally, we verified in a xenograft mouse model that melatonin and 5-FU exerted synergistic antitumor effect by inhibiting the AKT and iNOS signaling pathways. Collectively, our study demonstrated that melatonin synergized the chemotherapeutic effect of 5-FU in colon cancer through simultaneous suppression of multiple signaling pathways. 10.1111/jpi.12380
    MVP-mediated exosomal sorting of miR-193a promotes colon cancer progression. Teng Yun,Ren Yi,Hu Xin,Mu Jingyao,Samykutty Abhilash,Zhuang Xiaoying,Deng Zhongbin,Kumar Anil,Zhang Lifeng,Merchant Michael L,Yan Jun,Miller Donald M,Zhang Huang-Ge Nature communications Exosomes are emerging mediators of intercellular communication; whether the release of exosomes has an effect on the exosome donor cells in addition to the recipient cells has not been investigated to any extent. Here, we examine different exosomal miRNA expression profiles in primary mouse colon tumour, liver metastasis of colon cancer and naive colon tissues. In more advanced disease, higher levels of tumour suppressor miRNAs are encapsulated in the exosomes. miR-193a interacts with major vault protein (MVP). Knockout of MVP leads to miR-193a accumulation in the exosomal donor cells instead of exosomes, inhibiting tumour progression. Furthermore, miR-193a causes cell cycle G1 arrest and cell proliferation repression through targeting of Caprin1, which upregulates Ccnd2 and c-Myc. Human colon cancer patients with more advanced disease show higher levels of circulating exosomal miR-193a. In summary, our data demonstrate that MVP-mediated selective sorting of tumour suppressor miRNA into exosomes promotes tumour progression. 10.1038/ncomms14448
    A Peptide Encoded by a Putative lncRNA HOXB-AS3 Suppresses Colon Cancer Growth. Huang Jin-Zhou,Chen Min,Chen De,Gao Xing-Cheng,Zhu Song,Huang Hongyang,Hu Min,Zhu Huifang,Yan Guang-Rong Molecular cell A substantial fraction of eukaryotic transcripts are considered long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which regulate various hallmarks of cancer. Here, we discovered that the lncRNA HOXB-AS3 encodes a conserved 53-aa peptide. The HOXB-AS3 peptide, not lncRNA, suppresses colon cancer (CRC) growth. Mechanistically, the HOXB-AS3 peptide competitively binds to the ariginine residues in RGG motif of hnRNP A1 and antagonizes the hnRNP A1-mediated regulation of pyruvate kinase M (PKM) splicing by blocking the binding of the ariginine residues in RGG motif of hnRNP A1 to the sequences flanking PKM exon 9, ensuring the formation of lower PKM2 and suppressing glucose metabolism reprogramming. CRC patients with low levels of HOXB-AS3 peptide have poorer prognoses. Our study indicates that the loss of HOXB-AS3 peptide is a critical oncogenic event in CRC metabolic reprogramming. Our findings uncover a complex regulatory mechanism of cancer metabolism reprogramming orchestrated by a peptide encoded by an lncRNA. 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.09.015
    The Adaptor Protein CARD9 Protects against Colon Cancer by Restricting Mycobiota-Mediated Expansion of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells. Wang Tingting,Fan Chaogang,Yao Anran,Xu Xingwei,Zheng Guoxing,You Yun,Jiang Changying,Zhao Xueqiang,Hou Yayi,Hung Mien-Chie,Lin Xin Immunity The adaptor protein CARD9 links detection of fungi by surface receptors to the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Mice deficient in CARD9 exhibit dysbiosis and are more susceptible to colitis. Here we examined the impact of Card9 deficiency in the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Treatment of Card9 mice with AOM-DSS resulted in increased tumor loads as compared to WT mice and in the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in tumor tissue. The impaired fungicidal functions of Card9 macrophages led to increased fungal loads and variation in the overall composition of the intestinal mycobiota, with a notable increase in C. tropicalis. Bone marrow cells incubated with C. tropicalis exhibited MDSC features and suppressive functions. Fluconazole treatment suppressed CAC in Card9 mice and was associated with decreased MDSC accumulation. The frequency of MDSCs in tumor tissues of colon cancer patients correlated positively with fungal burden, pointing to the relevance of this regulatory axis in human disease. 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.08.018
    Stem cell functionality is microenvironmentally defined during tumour expansion and therapy response in colon cancer. Lenos Kristiaan J,Miedema Daniël M,Lodestijn Sophie C,Nijman Lisanne E,van den Bosch Tom,Romero Ros Xavier,Lourenço Filipe C,Lecca Maria C,van der Heijden Maartje,van Neerven Sanne M,van Oort Anita,Leveille Nicolas,Adam Ronja S,de Sousa E Melo Felipe,Otten Joy,Veerman Patrick,Hypolite Guillaume,Koens Lianne,Lyons Scott K,Stassi Giorgio,Winton Douglas J,Medema Jan Paul,Morrissey Edward,Bijlsma Maarten F,Vermeulen Louis Nature cell biology Solid malignancies have been speculated to depend on cancer stem cells (CSCs) for expansion and relapse after therapy. Here we report on quantitative analyses of lineage tracing data from primary colon cancer xenograft tissue to assess CSC functionality in a human solid malignancy. The temporally obtained clone size distribution data support a model in which stem cell function in established cancers is not intrinsically, but is entirely spatiotemporally orchestrated. Functional stem cells that drive tumour expansion predominantly reside at the tumour edge, close to cancer-associated fibroblasts. Hence, stem cell properties change in time depending on the cell location. Furthermore, although chemotherapy enriches for cells with a CSC phenotype, in this context functional stem cell properties are also fully defined by the microenvironment. To conclude, we identified osteopontin as a key cancer-associated fibroblast-produced factor that drives in situ clonogenicity in colon cancer. 10.1038/s41556-018-0179-z
    Inhibition of Hematopoietic Cell Kinase Activity Suppresses Myeloid Cell-Mediated Colon Cancer Progression. Poh Ashleigh R,Love Christopher G,Masson Frederick,Preaudet Adele,Tsui Cary,Whitehead Lachlan,Monard Simon,Khakham Yelena,Burstroem Lotta,Lessene Guillaume,Sieber Oliver,Lowell Clifford,Putoczki Tracy L,O'Donoghue Robert J J,Ernst Matthias Cancer cell Aberrant activation of the SRC family kinase hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) triggers hematological malignancies as a tumor cell-intrinsic oncogene. Here we find that high HCK levels correlate with reduced survival of colorectal cancer patients. Likewise, increased Hck activity in mice promotes the growth of endogenous colonic malignancies and of human colorectal cancer cell xenografts. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages of the corresponding tumors show a pronounced alternatively activated endotype, which occurs independently of mature lymphocytes or of Stat6-dependent Th2 cytokine signaling. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic reduction of Hck activity suppresses alternative activation of tumor-associated macrophages and the growth of colon cancer xenografts. Thus, Hck may serve as a promising therapeutic target for solid malignancies. 10.1016/j.ccell.2017.03.006
    Silencing of Intestinal Glycoprotein CD98 by Orally Targeted Nanoparticles Enhances Chemosensitization of Colon Cancer. Xiao Bo,Viennois Emilie,Chen Qiubing,Wang Lixin,Han Moon Kwon,Zhang Yuchen,Zhang Zhan,Kang Yuejun,Wan Ying,Merlin Didier ACS nano Colon cancer is among the most widely occurring cancer types, leading to considerably high mortality rate. The current chemotherapy achieves only limited success, and more effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Human colonic biopsy specimens indicate increased expression of CD98 in patients with colon cancer, suggesting that CD98 might be a potential therapeutic target and/or a receptor for targeted drug delivery in colon cancer treatment. Herein, we coloaded CD98 siRNA (siCD98) and camptothecin (CPT) into CD98 Fab'-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs). The resultant Fab'-siCD98/CPT-NPs showed good monodispersity with an average diameter of approximately 270 nm and a ζ-potential of around -24 mV. These NPs mediated efficient drug delivery to the target cancer cells and tumor tissues, producing much better anticancer and antimigration effects compared to other relevant NPs. Mouse models with orthotopic colon tumors were treated with NP-embedded hydrogel, which revealed that Fab'-siCD98/CPT-NPs exhibited a therapeutic efficacy significantly better than that of single drug-loaded NPs or nonfunctionalized siCD98/CPT-NPs. This study indicates that the Fab'-siCD98/CPT-NP/hydrogel system is able to realize specific release of NPs in the colonic lumen and enable drugs (siCD98 and CPT) to be internalized into target cells, demonstrating a notable potential for clinical applications in colon-cancer-targeted combination therapy. 10.1021/acsnano.7b08499
    Antiproliferative effect of p-Coumaric acid targets UPR activation by downregulating Grp78 in colon cancer. Sharma Sharada H,Rajamanickam Vinothkumar,Nagarajan Sangeetha Chemico-biological interactions p-CA is a naturally occurring phenolic acid present in most plants and in all commonly consumed vegetables and fruits. Here we demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of the food borne phytochemical p-CA both in vitro and in vivo models of colon cancer using growth rate and tumor incidence as endpoints. Glucose regulated protein (GRP78) induction and UPR activation plays a key role in oncogenic progression, therefore increased dependence of cancer cells on these UPR signaling pathways for survival can be exploited for anti-cancer research. Hence we investigated the effect of p-CA on Grp78 a molecular chaperone often upregulated in colon cancer and its impact on unfolded protein response (UPR). Administration of the procarcinogen 1,2- dimethylhydrazine (DMH) causes Grp78 upregulation and tumor adaptation via UPR activation. The adaptive activity of UPR activates antiapoptotic NF-κB that results in upregulation of the markers of inflammation and angiogenesis. Supplementation of p-CA downregulated Grp78 and activated UPR mediated apoptosis both in in vitro and in vivo models of colon cancer. Further we observed that p-CA significantly reduced inflammation by decreasing the expression of cytokines COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 as analyzed by q-PCR and also reduced the expression of p-p65 and p-IκBα as analyzed by western blot. Further mechanistic insights revealed that p-CA inhibits Grp78 upregulation in cancer cells through activation of PERK-eIF2α-ATF-4-CHOP pathway that culminates in apoptosis inducing effect of p-CA. 10.1016/j.cbi.2018.06.001
    Screening of Differentiation-Specific Molecular Biomarkers for Colon Cancer. Qi Lu,Ding Yanqing Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology BACKGROUND/AIMS:Owing to the lack of effective molecular markers to evaluate colon cancer differentiation grade, screening of effective molecular markers for the diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer is of great significance. This study is a screening study for molecular markers related to the differentiation of colon using the tissue-specific genes of colon. METHODS:This study compared the expression profiles of colon cancer at various differentiation grades and screened the down-regulated genes associated with decreased differentiation. IL22RA1 gene was derived from the intersection of obtained gene and colon tissue-specific genes. We used DriverDB and The Human Protein Atlas to analyze the expression level of IL22RA1 in various tissue cells, also used Kaplan-Meier method to analyze the correlation between IL22RA1 and the survival of colon cancer patients, and then used the ROC curve to analyze the specificity and sensitivity of IL22RA1 diagnosis of differentiated colon cancer. RESULTS:We found that IL22RA1 gene expression was progressively down-regulated in high-differentiated, moderate-differentiated, low-differentiated, and undifferentiated colon cancer tissues. Both RNA and protein levels of IL22RA1 were higher in colon tissues and colon cancer tissues than in other normal and cancer tissues. Comparison of IL22RA1 expression in different cancer cells found that IL22RA1 expression was significantly higher in CACO-2 colon cancer cells than in other cancer cells. Survival analysis showed that IL22RA1 gene expression was positively correlated with the overall survival rate of colon cancer patients (P=0.0224). ROC curve analysis revealed that IL22RA1 expression had good specificity and sensitivity to stage II colon cancer. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that IL22RA1 serves as a specific molecular marker for the differentiation of colon cancer. 10.1159/000489660
    Sirtuin 6 inhibits colon cancer progression by modulating PTEN/AKT signaling. Tian Junhong,Yuan Leilei Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Decreased expression of the tumor suppressor sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) protein plays a role in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SIRT6 and its underlying mechanism in colon cancer progression. As shown by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), SIRT6 expression was down-regulated in colon cancer tissues and different colon cancer cell lines, and down-regulation of SIRT6 showed a negative correlation with the overall survival of colon cancer patients. To assess the effects of SIRT6 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and migration, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), flow cytometry, transwell, and wound healing assays were carried out, respectively. Results demonstrated that over-expression of SIRT6 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration and enhanced cell apoptosis. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and Western blotting showed that up-regulation of SIRT6 increased the combined quantity of PTEN with SIRT6 proteins, and promoted the expression of PTEN and PIP2, as well as the stability of PTEN. SIRT6 also reduced the ubiquitination of PTEN and decreased protein levels of AKT1, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3), mTOR, cyclin d1, and c-myc. In addition, compared with cells over-expressed SIRT6, cell apoptosis was repressed and cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were enhanced in cells with SIRT6 over-expression and PTEN knockdown. In conclusion, the present study confirms that SIRT6 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in colon cancer by modulating PTEN/AKT signaling, which may provide a novel target for the treatment of colon cancer. 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.070
    miR-378 suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer cells by inhibiting SDAD1. Zeng Mingxi,Zhu Linlin,Li Liangping,Kang Changming Cellular & molecular biology letters BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the growth and metastasis of colon cancer. It is known that one set of miRNAs are dysregulated in colon cancer cells, but the mechanism of their role in cancer development is still largely unknown. Our study focuses on the role of miR-378 in colon cancer cells. METHODS:Human colon cancer tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues were collected from patients diagnosed in pathological examinations. In addition, human colon cancer cell lines LoVo, CaCo2, SW1116, SW480 and HCT-116, and a normal colonic mucosa cell line NCM460 were included. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect the miR-378 level in the clinical tissues and cell lines. In SW480 and HCT-116, miR-378 was artificially overexpressed or suppressed. Cell viability and proliferation were measured using MTT and colony formation assays, and apoptosis was detected via annexin V-PI staining and flow cytometry analysis. The transwell technique was applied to detect the migration and invasion of the colon cancer cells, and their epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was evaluated by detecting EMT-associated markers using Western blotting. Bioinformatics methods were used to predict the potential targets of miR-378, and luciferase reporter assays were performed to conform the direct binding between miR-378 and its target mRNA. The activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was evaluated by detecting the key factors through Western blotting. RESULTS:We found that miR-378 expression was low in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-378 not only inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis, but also inhibits migration and invasion by inhibiting the EMT of colon cancer cells. SDAD1 is a direct target gene of miR-378, and knockdown of SDAD1 suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. We also confirmed that miR-378 alleviated the malignant phenotypes of colon cancer cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. CONCLUSION:miR-378 inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer cells by targeting SDAD1, defining miR-378 as a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer. 10.1186/s11658-017-0041-5
    Insulin promotes progression of colon cancer by upregulation of ACAT1. Chen Xin,Liang Huiling,Song Qibin,Xu Ximing,Cao Dedong Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:Insulin resistant and the progression of cancer is closely related. The aim of this study was to  investigate the effect of insulin on the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells and its underlying mechanism. METHODS:Colon carcinoma tissues from the 80 cases of colon cancer patients were collected. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase1 (ACAT1), and we analyzed the correlation between hyperglycemia and ACAT1, hyperglycemia and metastasis. CCK8 assay and transwell assay were used to investigate the effect of different concentrations of insulin and ACAT1siRNA on human colon cancer cell line HT-29. ACAT1 mRNA expression and protein level in HT-29 cells were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. RESULTS:Biopsies from patients with colon carcinoma showed hyperglycemia links ACAT1, lymph nodes metastasis and distant metastasis. Insulin markedly promoted cell proliferation and migration in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Moreover, ACAT1mRNA expression and protein level were increased by insulin. ACAT1siRNA resulted in a complete inhibition of the ACAT1 mRNA expression. Consequently insulin-triggered cell proliferation and migration on colon cancer cells were inhibited. CONCLUSION:The progression of colon cancer has a positive correlation with hyperinsulinemia. Insulin-triggered cell proliferation and metastatic effects on colorectal cancer cells are mediated by ACAT1. Therefore, insulin could promote colon cancer progression by upregulation of ACAT1, which maybe is a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer. 10.1186/s12944-018-0773-x
    High expression of Tob1 indicates poor survival outcome and promotes tumour progression via a Wnt positive feedback loop in colon cancer. Li Dandan,Xiao Li,Ge Yuetan,Fu Yu,Zhang Wenqing,Cao Hanwei,Chen Binbin,Wang Haibin,Zhan Yan-Yan,Hu Tianhui Molecular cancer Tob1, a Tob/BTG anti-proliferative protein family member, functions as a tumour suppressor in many cancers. Here, we reveal a unique oncogenic role of Tob1 in colon cancer. Tob1 expression was upregulated during colon cancer progression, was significantly correlated with tumour size and tumour differentiation, and was a prognostic indicator of colon cancer. Unlike in other cancers, where nuclear Tob1 performs anticancer activity, Tob1 is predominantly localized in the cytosol of colon cancer cells, where this protein binds and stabilizes β-catenin to activate Wnt/β-catenin signalling, which in turn enhances Tob1 expression, thus forming a positive feedback loop to promote cell proliferation. Moreover, Tob1 deficiency led to reduced tumourigenesis in AOM/DSS-treated and Apc mice. Our findings provide important insights into a previously unrecognized oncogenic role of Tob1 in colon cancer and suggest that Tob1 is an adverse prognostic factor and therapeutic target for colon cancer. 10.1186/s12943-018-0907-9
    Anticarcinogenic activity of Muntingia calabura leaves methanol extract against the azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats involved modulation of the colonic antioxidant system partly by flavonoids. Md Nasir Nur Liana,Kamsani Noorsyaza Eddrina,Mohtarrudin Norhafizah,Othman Fezah,Md Tohid Siti Farah,Zakaria Zainul Amiruddin Pharmaceutical biology CONTEXT:Leaves of Muntingia calabura (Elaeocarpaceae) are widely used in traditional medical practice; scientific findings show various pharmacological activities. However, its anticancer effect has not been investigated thoroughly yet. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to study the chemoprevention effects of MEMC against azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer and to examine the involvement of endogenous antioxidants Materials and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into five groups (n = 7), were injected intraperitoneally once weekly for 2 weeks with 15 mg/kg AOM, except for the normal group (received saline). The animals were then administered orally for 8 weeks with 8% Tween-80 (vehicle; normal group), 8% Tween-80 (vehicle; cancer group) or, 50, 250 or 500 mg/kg MEMC. After treatments, colon samples were collected from each rat for the histopathological analysis, quantification of aberrant crypt foci formed and determination of colon antioxidant levels. MEMC was also subjected to HPLC analysis. RESULTS:The extract exerted significant (p < 0.05): (i) anti-carcinogenesis activity, indicated by a decrease in the total aberrant crypt formation; (ii) antioxidant activity by increasing the colon tissue antioxidant markers [i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)] and reducing the oxidant marker (i.e., malonaldehyde (MDA) levels in comparison with the cancer group. HPLC analysis demonstrated the presence of rutin. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:Muntingia calabura leaves exert anticancer effect against AOM-induced colon cancer possibly via the action of flavonoids on the colon tissue antioxidant activity. 10.1080/13880209.2017.1371769
    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein is a prognostic factor and biomarker of colon cancer and promotes cell proliferation by activating the Akt pathway. Liu Ting-Ting,Liu Xi-Sheng,Zhang Meng,Liu Xue-Ni,Zhu Fu-Xiang,Zhu Fang-Ming,Ouyang Si-Wen,Li Shan-Bao,Song Chen-Long,Sun Hui-Min,Lu Su,Zhang Yu,Lin Jun,Tang Hua-Mei,Peng Zhi-Hai Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology PURPOSE:Recent studies have determined that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) plays a vital role in carcinogenesis. We sought to clarify the role of COMP in colon cancer. METHODS:We investigated gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Tissue microarrays (TMA) containing paired samples from 253 patients with colon cancer were subjected to immunostaining. COMP levels in serum of colon cancer patients and healthy donors were measured with ELISA. We established COMP-knockout cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and COMP-overexpressing cells using lentiviral vectors to detect the effects of COMP on colon cancer cells using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), colony formation, apoptosis detection kit, and tumorigenesis assays in nude mice. RESULTS:The analysis of TCGA dataset and the results of the TMA suggested that COMP expression levels were significantly higher in cancer tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, high COMP expression was correlated with the poor outcome of colon cancer patients. COMP levels in the sera of preoperative patients with colon cancer were much higher than those in healthy donors and were significantly reduced after colectomy. Colon cancer cells without COMP were defective with respect to the ability to proliferate, colony formation, the ability to resist 5-Fluorouracil-induced apoptosis and the growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Contrasting results were observed in COMP overexpressed cells. COMP promoted colon cancer cell proliferation partially through the activation of PI3K/ Akt/ mTOR/ p70S6K pathway. CONCLUSIONS:COMP may be a novel prognostic indicator and biomarker and also a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer. 10.1007/s00432-018-2626-4
    Utility of G protein-coupled receptor 35 expression for predicting outcome in colon cancer. Ali Haytham,AbdelMageed Manar,Olsson Lina,Israelsson Anne,Lindmark Gudrun,Hammarström Marie-Louise,Hammarström Sten,Sitohy Basel Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine The utility of mRNA and protein determinations of G protein-coupled receptor 35, that is, GPR35a (GPR35 V1) and GPR35b (GPR35 V2/3), as indicators of outcome for colon cancer patients after curative surgery was investigated. Expression levels of V1 and V2/3 GPR35, carcinoembryonic antigen and CXCL17 mRNAs were assessed in primary tumours and regional lymph nodes of 121 colon cancer patients (stage I-IV), colon cancer cell lines and control colon epithelial cells using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of G protein-coupled receptor 35 was investigated by two-colour immunohistochemistry and immunomorphometry. GPR35 V2/3 mRNA, but not V1 mRNA, was expressed in colon cancer cell lines, primary colon tumours and control colon epithelial cells. Haematoxylin and eosin positive (H&E(+)), but not H&E(-), lymph nodes expressed high levels of GPR35 V2/3 mRNA (<0.0001). GPR35b and carcinoembryonic antigen proteins were simultaneously expressed in many colon cancer tumour cells. Kaplan-Meier and hazard ratio analysis revealed that patients with lymph nodes expressing high levels of GPR35 V2/3 mRNA and, in particular, in the group of patients with lymph nodes also expressing carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA, had a short disease-free survival time, 67 months versus 122 months at 12-year follow-up (difference: 55 months,  = 0.001; hazard ratio: 3.6,  = 0.002). In conclusion, high level expression of G protein-coupled receptor 35 V2/3 mRNA in regional lymph nodes of colon cancer patients is a sign of poor prognosis. 10.1177/1010428319858885
    SERPINA3 Silencing Inhibits the Migration, Invasion, and Liver Metastasis of Colon Cancer Cells. Cao Long-Lei,Pei Xu-Feng,Qiao Xu,Yu Jie,Ye Hui,Xi Chang-Lei,Wang Pei-Yun,Gong Zhi-Lin Digestive diseases and sciences OBJECTIVE:To investigate the impact of SERPINA3 on the migration, invasion, and liver metastasis of colon cancer cells. METHODS:Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to determine SERPINA3 expression in the cancer and adjacent normal tissues of 131 patients suffering from colon cancer. In vitro experiment, colon cancer cells with low (HT-29P), intermediate (KM-12C), and high (HT-29LMM, KM-12L4) metastatic potential were obtained to examine SERPINA3 expression levels. Besides, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western Blot were performed to detect SERPINA3 expression in HT-29LMM and KM-12L4 cells transfected with SERPINA3 siRNA; Wound-healing and Transwell assays to measure cell migration and invasion, respectively; and ELISA to detect MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. In vivo experiment, mice with liver metastasis of colon cancer were established to observe the effect of SERPINA3 silencing on liver metastasis. Immunohistochemical assay was applied to evaluate the expressions of Serpina3, Mmp-2, Mmp-9, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna) in liver metastasis tissues. RESULTS:SERPINA3 in colon cancer tissues was higher than in adjacent normal tissues, which was associated with patients' clinicopathological features. Besides, SERPINA3 expression showed a rising trend in low, intermediate, and high metastatic potential colon cancer cells. After KM-12L4 and HT-29LMM cells transfected with SERPINA3 siRNA, the migration and invasive ability of cells, as well as the expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were all decreased. Moreover, SERPINA3 siRNA could not only reduce live metastasis of mice, but also down-regulate the expression of Mmp-2 and Mmp-9 in liver metastasis tissues. CONCLUSION:SERPINA3 silencing could inhibit the migration, invasion, and liver metastasis of colon cancer cells. 10.1007/s10620-018-5137-x
    Identification of pinostilbene as a major colonic metabolite of pterostilbene and its inhibitory effects on colon cancer cells. Sun Yue,Wu Xian,Cai Xiaokun,Song Mingyue,Zheng Jinkai,Pan Che,Qiu Peiju,Zhang Lijuan,Zhou Shuangde,Tang Zhonghai,Xiao Hang Molecular nutrition & food research SCOPE:Pterostilbene (PTE) is a resveratrol derivative mainly found in blueberries, and it has been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in multiple animal models. To shed light on the mechanism of PTE in inhibiting colon carcinogenesis, we investigated the PTE metabolites in the mouse colon and in the human colon cancer cells. METHODS AND RESULTS:CD-1 mice were fed PTE-containing diet for 3 weeks, and colonic content and colonic mucosa were collected and subjected to LC-MS analysis. Pinostilbene (PIN) was identified as a major metabolite of PTE in the mouse colon. Importantly, the level of PIN was found to be approximately equivalent to that of PTE in the colonic mucosa. PIN significantly inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells, i.e., HCT116 and HT29. These inhibitory effects were similar to those produced by PTE. Moreover, under physiologically relevant conditions, 20 and 40 μM of PIN caused cell cycle arrest at S phase and induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. These effects were associated with profound modulation of signaling proteins related with cell proliferation and programmed cell death. CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrated that PIN is a major metabolite of PTE in the colon of mice fed with PTE, and PIN may play important roles in the anti-colon cancer effects elicited by orally administered PTE. 10.1002/mnfr.201500989