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    [Inhibition effect of osthole on proliferation of rat chondrocytes]. Ding Dao-fang,Wei Song-pu,Li Xiao-feng,Zhang Xiao-gang,Zhan Hong-sheng,Duan Tie-li,Cao Yue-long Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of osthole on chondrocyte proliferation in vitro. METHODS:Primary rat chondrocytes were isolated from the femoral head of newborn rats using collagenase digestion and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The proliferation of primary chondrocytes was assessed in second-passage cultures using cell counting kit-8 and the growth curve was drawn. Type II procollagen gene (Col2a1) expression in chondrocytes was also identified using cell immunofluorescence assay. The second-passage chondrocytes were divided into five groups, including control group and osthole groups at 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 μmol/L. The growth property of rat chondrocytes was observed after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture with osthole at corresponding dose. Both protein and mRNA expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 was measured by Western blot and polymerase chain reaction methods. RESULTS:The second-passage chondrocytes were viable and showed Col2a1 expression in the cytoplasm. The proliferation of rat chondrocytes was inhibited by osthole in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, there were significant decreases in both protein and mRNA expression of PCNA and cyclin D1 in the osthole groups compared with the control group. CONCLUSION:Osthole exhibits inhibitory effect on proliferation of rat chondrocytes by down-regulating PCNA and cyclin D1 expression. 10.3736/jcim20121213
    Osthole inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells. Ding Yong,Lu Xiongwei,Hu Xiaopeng,Ma Jie,Ding Huan International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of osthole on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and apoptosis. METHOD:Cell counting Kit-8 assay was performed to establish the effects of osthole on osteosarcoma MG-63 cell proliferation. Annexin V-FITC/PI was performed to analyze the apoptotic rate of the cells. RESULT:The inhibitory effects of osthole on the expression of BCL-2, BAX, and caspase-3 were detected by Western blotting. Osthole inhibited the growth of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. Western blotting demonstrated that osthole downregulated the expressions of BCL-2 and caspase-3 and upregulated the expression of BAX in human osteosarcoma cells. CONCLUSION:Osthole can inhibit osteosarcoma cell proliferation and induced apoptosis effectively in a dose-dependent manner through downregulating the expression of BCL-2 and caspase-3 proteins levels and upregulating the expression of BAX proteins levels. 10.5414/CP201923
    [Effect of osthole on proliferation of neonatal rat osteoblast and the relative mechanism research]. Li Ling-Hui,Ding Dao-Fang,Du Guo-Qing,Gong Hao,Wang Hui-Hao,Zhan Hong-Sheng Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of osthole on proliferation of neonatal rat osteoblast and the mechanism. METHODS:Ten 24 hours old SD rats were executed by dislocating. The cranium of rats were removed and cut into blocks of 1 mm x 1 mm size. After digested by trypsin for 15 min, the cranium were digested by type I collagenase for one hour two times. The mixed cells were cultured in thermostat incubator with 5% CO2 under the condition of 37 degrees C. To identify the cells, ALP staining and alizarin red staining were performed after cultured 48 h and 28 d. The osteoblasts were randomly divided into five groups. Cells were treated with osthole at concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 0 micromol/L. CCK-8 method was used to evaluate the proliferation after 24 h,48 h and 72 h. The expression of PCNA and beta-catenin protein were detected through the method of Western Blot after one week. RESULTS:The cells had irregular shapes and showed typical features of osteoblast. The results of ALP staining and alizarin red staining were both positive. CCK-8 detection showed that the osthole with final concentration of 100 micromol/L inhibited the proliferation of osteoblast after 24 h, while the osthole with final concentrations of 50 micromol/L and 25 micromol/L displayed the inhibition effect after 48 h. The osthole of 12.5 micromol/L had no obvious influence on the proliferation of osteoblast. The result of Western Blot showed that osthole reduced the expression of PCNA and beta-catenin protein in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION:The osthole with final concentrations of 100, 50, 25 micromol/L inhibited the proliferation of osteoblast (P < 0.05). The osthole with final concentrations of 12.5 micromol/L had no obvious influence on the proliferation of osteoblast (P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate that osthole may inhibit the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in osteoblast.
    Osthole inhibits osteoclasts formation and bone resorption by regulating NF-κB signaling and NFATc1 activations stimulated by RANKL. Ma Yong,Wang Lining,Zheng Suyang,Xu Jiake,Pan Yalan,Tu Pengcheng,Sun Jie,Guo Yang Journal of cellular biochemistry Chinese herbal medicine Fructus Cnidii has an outstanding effect on chronic lumbar pain and impotence, also has been used against osteoporosis with high frequency. Yet, the mechanisms of osthole, a derivative of Fructus Cnidii, on osteoclasts remains barely known. In this study, it was found out that osthole (10 mol/L, 10 mol/L) had the influence of inhibiting osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activities induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), rather than affecting the viability of osteoclast-like cells. Furthermore, osthole could also inhibit the messenger RNA expressions of c-Src, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, β3-Integrin, matrix metallopeptidase 9, and cathepsin K. The results of the mechanistic study indicated that osthole regulated the nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activations following the RANKL stimulation. These findings suggested that the inhibitory effects of osthole were associated with restraining the activations of NFATc1 and NF-κB induced by RANKL. Thus osthole can be used as a potential treatment for abnormal bone-resorption related diseases. 10.1002/jcb.28886
    The effect of the coumarin-like derivative osthole on the osteogenic properties of human periodontal ligament and jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets. Gao Li-Na,An Ying,Lei Ming,Li Bei,Yang Hao,Lu Hong,Chen Fa-Ming,Jin Yan Biomaterials Cell sheet engineering is a scaffold-free delivery concept that has been shown to improve mesenchymal stem cell-mediated regeneration of injured or pathologically damaged periodontal tissues in preclinical studies and several clinical trials. However, the best strategy for cell sheet production remains to be identified. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of osthole, a coumarin-like derivative extracted from Chinese herbs, on the cell sheet formation and osteogenic properties of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (JBMMSCs). Patient-matched PDLSCs and JBMMSCs were isolated, and an appropriate concentration of osthole for cell culture was screened for both cell types in terms of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Next, the best mode of osthole stimulation for inducing the formation of sheets by each cell type was selected by evaluating the amount of their extracellular matrix (ECM) protein production as well as osteogenic-related gene expression. Furthermore, both PDLSC and JBMMSC sheets obtained from each optimized technique were transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice to evaluate their capacity for ectopic bone regeneration. The results revealed that 10(-5) m/L osthole significantly enhanced the proliferation of both PDLSCs and JBMMSCs (P < 0.05), although for JBMMSCs, there was no concentration-related change among the four established osthole groups (P > 0.05). In addition, 10(-5) m/L osthole was the best concentration to promote the ALP activities of both cells (P < 0.01). Based on both the production of ECM proteins (collagen type I, integrin β1, and fibronectin) and the expression of osteogenic genes (ALP, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and osteocalcin (OCN)), the provision of 10(-5) m/L osthole throughout the entire culture stage (10 days) for PDLSCs or at the early stage (first 3 days) for JBMMSCs was the most effective osthole administration mode for cell sheet formation (P < 0.05). The results of in vivo transplantation showed that osthole-mediated PDLSC and JBMMSC sheets formed more new bone than those obtained without osthole intervention (P < 0.001). Our data suggest that a suitable concentration and mode of osthole stimulation may enhance ECM production and positively affect cell behavior in cell sheet engineering. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.09.017
    [Inhibition of osthole for resorption of rats femur tissue in vitro]. Zhou Jian,Ren Xue-mei,Ma Xiao-ni,Gao Yu-hai,Yan Li-juan,Shi Wen-gui,Chen Ke-ming Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology OBJECTIVE:To investigate osthole effect on femoral tissue resorption activity of rat in vitro. METHODS:Six SD rats weighted (80 ± 5) g were used to isolate and culture femoral tissue (diaphyses and metaphysis) in vitro. The cultured tissue were devided into control group, estradiol group and osthole group. The femoral tissue was treated with final concentration of 1 x 10(-5) mol/L osthole and 1 x 10(-8) mol/L estradiol culture in vitro at 48 hours after cultured. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (StrACP) activity, glucose and Lactic acid content, StrACP, MCSF (Macrophage colony stimulating factor) and CTSK (Cathepsin K) mRNA was detected by Real-Time RT-PCR were detected. RESULTS:Concetration of Alkaline phosphatase activity were 2226 and 2498 in 1 x 10(-5) mol/L osthole and 1 x 10(-8) mol/L estradiol respectively. As compared with control group, the activity of StrACP of 1 x 10(-5) mol/L osthole and 1 x 10(-8) mol/L estradiol were inhibited at 6, 9, 12 days (P < 0.05); under treatment of in l x 10(-5) mol/L osthole, the content of Lactic acid were increased and the content of glucose were decreased at 3, 6, 9 days (P < 0.05); StrACP, MCSF and CTSK mRNA expression level were inhibited at 6, 9 days (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Osthole can inhibit bone resorption and raise the level of nutrition metabolism of femurs tissue.
    Osthole Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Catabolism in Rat Chondrocytes and Cartilage Tissue. Du Guoqing,Song Yi,Wei Lei,Li Linghui,Wang Xuezong,Xu Qinguang,Zhan Hongsheng,Cao Yuelong,Zheng Yuxin,Ding Daofang Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology BACKGROUND/AIMS:Cartilage destruction is thought to be the major mediator of osteoarthritis. Recent studies suggest that inhibition of subchrondral bone loss by anti-osteoporosis (OP) drug can protect cartilige erosion. Osthole, as a promising agent for treating osteoporosis, may show potential in treating osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Osthole affects the proliferation and catabolism of rat chondrocytes, and the degeneration of cartilage explants. METHODS:Rat chondrocytes were treated with Osthole (0 μM, 6.25 μM, 12.5 μM, and 25 μM) with or without IL1-β (10ng/ml) for 24 hours. The expression levels of type II collagen and MMP13 were detected by western Blot. Marker genes for chondrocytes (A-can and Sox9), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), aggrecanases (ADAMTS5) and genes implicated in extracellular matrix catabolism were evaluated by qPCR. Cell proliferation was assessed by measuring proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression and fluorescence activated cell sorter. Wnt7b/β-catenin signaling was also investigated. Cartilage explants from two-week old SD rats were cultured with IL-1β, Osthole and Osthole plus IL-1β for four days and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis was assessed with toluidine blue staining and Safranine O/Fast Green FCF staining, collagen type II expression was detected by immunofuorescence. RESULTS:Osthole reduced expression of chondrocyte markers and increased expression of MMP13, ADAMTS5 and MMP9 in a dose-dependent manner. Catabolic gene expression levels were further improved by Osthole plus IL-1β. Osthole inhibited chondrocyte proliferation. GAG synthesis and type II collagen were decreased in both the IL-1β groups and the Osthole groups, and significantly reduced by Osthole plus IL-1β. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggested that Osthole increases the catabolism of rat chondrocytes and cartilage explants, this effect might be mediated through inhibiting Wnt7b/β-catenin pathway. 10.1159/000430208
    Potential Anticancer Properties of Osthol: A Comprehensive Mechanistic Review. Shokoohinia Yalda,Jafari Fataneh,Mohammadi Zeynab,Bazvandi Leili,Hosseinzadeh Leila,Chow Nicholas,Bhattacharyya Piyali,Farzaei Mohammad Hosein,Farooqi Ammad Ahmad,Nabavi Seyed Mohammad,Yerer Mükerrem Betül,Bishayee Anupam Nutrients Cancer is caused by uncontrolled cell proliferation which has the potential to occur in different tissues and spread into surrounding and distant tissues. Despite the current advances in the field of anticancer agents, rapidly developing resistance against different chemotherapeutic drugs and significantly higher off-target effects cause millions of deaths every year. Osthol is a natural coumarin isolated from Apiaceaous plants which has demonstrated several pharmacological effects, such as antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We have attempted to summarize up-to-date information related to pharmacological effects and molecular mechanisms of osthol as a lead compound in managing malignancies. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane library, ScienceDirect and Scopus were searched for in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on anticancer effects of osthol. Osthol exerts remarkable anticancer properties by suppressing cancer cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Osthol's protective and therapeutic effects have been observed in different cancers, including ovarian, cervical, colon and prostate cancers as well as chronic myeloid leukemia, lung adenocarcinoma, glioma, hepatocellular, glioblastoma, renal and invasive mammary carcinoma. A large body of evidence demonstrates that osthol regulates apoptosis, proliferation and invasion in different types of malignant cells which are mediated by multiple signal transduction cascades. In this review, we set spotlights on various pathways which are targeted by osthol in different cancers to inhibit cancer development and progression. 10.3390/nu10010036
    Osthole Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Migration and Invasion via PTEN/Akt Pathways in Osteosarcoma. Wang Lu,Yang Lei,Lu Ying,Chen Yingzhun,Liu Tianhua,Peng Yanli,Zhou Yuhong,Cao Yang,Bi Zhenggang,Liu Tianyi,Liu Zhenhong,Shan Hongli Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology BACKGROUND/AIMS:Osteosarcoma is the second highest cause of cancer-related death in children and adolescents. Majority of osteosarcoma patients (90%) show metastasis. Previous reports revealed that osthole showed antitumor activities via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. However, the potential effects and detailed molecular mechanisms involved remained unclear. METHODS:Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay in osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and SAOS-2. Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. The effects of migration and invasion were evaluated by wound healing assay and transwell assays. Moreover, the level of proteins expression was determined by Western blot. RESULTS:The cell viability of MG63 and SAOS-2 were markedly inhibited by osthole in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested and the ability of migration and invasion was obviously reduced when cells were exposed to osthole. Moreover, enzymes involved in PTEN/Akt pathway were regulated such as PTEN and p-Akt proteins. Furthermore, osthole inhibited the tumor growth in vivo. CONCLUSION:Our study unraveled, for the first time, the ability of osthole to suppress osteosarcoma and elucidated the regulation of PTEN/Akt pathway as a signaling mechanism for the anti-tumor action of osthole. These findings indicate that osthole may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of osteosarcoma. 10.1159/000445573
    An Inhibitory Role of Osthole in Rat MSCs Osteogenic Differentiation and Proliferation via Wnt/β-Catenin and Erk1/2-MAPK Pathways. Hu Hongyang,Chen Min,Dai Guangzu,Du Guoqing,Wang Xuezong,He Jie,Zhao Yongfang,Han Dapeng,Cao Yuelong,Zheng Yuxin,Ding Daofang Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology BACKGROUND/AIMS:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are responsible for new bone formation during adulthood. Accumulating evidences showed that Osthole promotes the osteogenic differentiation in primary osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Osthole exhibits a potential to stimulate the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and the underlying mechanism. METHODS:MSCs were treated with a gradient concentration of Osthole (6.25 µM, 12.5 µM, and 25 µM). Cell proliferation was assessed by western blotting with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Cyclin D1 antibodies, fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), and cell counting kit 8 (CCK8). MSCs were cultured in osteogenesis-induced medium for one or two weeks. The osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was estimated by Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin red staining, Calcium influx, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The underlying mechanism of Osthole-induced osteogenesis was further evaluated by western blotting with antibodies in Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/Akt, BMPs/smad1/5/8, and MAPK signaling pathways. RESULTS:Osthole inhibited proliferation of rat MSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Osthole suppressed osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs by down-regulating the activities of Wnt/β-catenin and Erk1/2-MAPK signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Osthole inhibits the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs, which might be mediated through blocking the Wnt/β-catenin and Erk1/2-MAPK signaling pathways. 10.1159/000445590
    Osteoprotective effects of osthole in a mouse model of 5/6 nephrectomy through inhibiting osteoclast formation. Li Xiaofeng,Xue Chunchun,Wang Libo,Tang Dezhi,Huang Jian,Zhao Yongjian,Chen Yan,Zhao Dongfeng,Shi Qi,Wang Yongjun,Shu Bing Molecular medicine reports The present study aimed to investigate the effects of osthole on osteoclast formation and bone loss in a mouse model of 5/6 nephrectomy. The mice in control and osthole groups were treated 1 month following 5/6 nephrectomy with either a placebo or osthole, respectively. At 2 months post‑nephrectomy, the L4 vertebrae were harvested. The bone mineral density (BMD) of cancellous bone was measured using micro‑CT and tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was performed to evaluate osteoclast formation. Immunohistochemistry staining and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to detect the expression of nuclear factor of activated T‑cells, cytoplasmic‑1 (NFATc‑1), c‑Fos, cathepsin K, Trap, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9), osteoprotegerin (Opg) and receptor activator for nuclear factor‑κB ligand (Rankl). Bone marrow cells were cultured with osthole, and osteoclast formation was shown by TRAP staining. Primary calvaria osteoblasts were cultured with osthole, and expression levels of Opg and Rankl were detected. Compared with the sham group, the BMD of mice in model group was significantly reduced. The numbers of osteoclasts and the expression levels of NFATc‑1, c‑Fos, cathepsin K and Mmp9 were significantly increased. Compared with the control group, the mice in the osthole group exhibited increased BMD of the L4 vertebrae, a reduction in osteoclast numbers and decreased expression levels of NFATc‑1, c‑Fos, cathepsin K and Mmp9. In vitro experiments also showed that osteoclast formation was decreased following treatment with osthole. Osteoprotegerin (Opg)/receptor activator for nuclear factor‑κB ligand (Rankl) was upregulated by osthole treatment in the L4 vertebrae and in primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. Osthole inhibited osteoclast formation and partially reversed the bone loss induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in mice through the upregulation of OPG/RANKL. 10.3892/mmr.2016.5687
    Osthole Promotes Endochondral Ossification and Accelerates Fracture Healing in Mice. Zhang Zhongrong,Leung Wing Nang,Li Gang,Lai Yau Ming,Chan Chun Wai Calcified tissue international Osthole has been found to restore bone mass in preclinical osteoporotic models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of osthole on bone fracture repair in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse femoral fractures and administrated orally with 20 mg/kg osthole and vehicle solvent daily from week 1 post-operation. Fracture callus were analyzed by plain radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Results demonstrated that osthole treatment enhanced removal of cartilage and bony union during reparative stage without significant interfering on remodeling process. In vivo molecular imaging showed bone formation rate of the treatment group was almost twofold of control group at week 2 post-operation. Osthole augmented the expression of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type X in hypertrophic chondrocytes as well as expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase in osteoblastic cells, indicating it promoted mineralization of hypertrophic cartilage and woven bone growth simultaneously during endochondral healing. In summary, osthole promotes endochondral ossification via upregulation of maturation osteogenic marker genes in chondrocytes and subsequently accelerates fracture repair and bony fusion. 10.1007/s00223-016-0189-4
    Osthole improves function of periodontitis periodontal ligament stem cells via epigenetic modification in cell sheets engineering. Sun Jin,Dong Zhiwei,Zhang Yang,He Xiaoning,Fei Dongdong,Jin Fang,Yuan Lin,Li Bei,Jin Yan Scientific reports Inflammatory microenvironment causes the change of epigenetic modification in periodontal ligament stem cells derived from periodontitis tissues (P-PDLSCs), which results in defective osteogenic differentiation compared to cells from healthy tissues. It's urgent to explore therapeutic strategies aimed at epigenetic targets associated with the regenerative ability of PDLSCs. Osthole, a small-molecule compound extracted from Chinese herbs, has been documented to promote osteogenesis and cell sheets formation of healthy PDLSCs. However, whether osthole shows same effect on P-PDLSCs and the mechanism of promotive effect is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Osthole could restore defective osteogenic differentiation of P-PDLSCs via epigenetic modification. We demonstrated that 10 Mol/L of Osthole was the best concentration for osteogenic differentiation and proliferation of P-PDLSCs. Mechanistically, we also found that Osthole upregulated MOZ and MORF, histone acetylases that specifically catalyze acetylation of Histone3 lisine9 (H3K9) and Histone3 lisine14 (H3K14), which are key regulators in osteogenic differentiation of P-PDLSCs. Furthermore, Osthole treatment improved cell sheet formation and enhanced the bone formation of PDLSC sheets in animal models of periodontitis. Our study suggests that Osthole is a promising drug to cure periodontitis via regulating epigenetic modification in cell sheets engineering. 10.1038/s41598-017-05762-7
    Inhibition of osteolysis after local administration of osthole in a TCP particles-induced osteolysis model. Lv Shumin,Zhang Yun,Yan Ming,Mao Hongjiao,Pan Cailing,Gan Mingxiao,Fan Jiawen,Wang Guoxia International orthopaedics PURPOSE:Wear debris-induced osteolysis and aseptic loosening are the most frequent late complications of total joint arthroplasty leading to revision of the prosthesis. However, no effective measures for the prevention and treatment of particles-induced osteolysis currently exist. Here, we investigated the efficacy of local administration of osthole on tricalcium phosphate (TCP) particles-induced osteolysis in a murine calvarial model. METHODS:TCP particles were implanted over the calvaria of ICR mice, and established TCP particles-induced osteolysis model. On days one, four, seven, ten and thirteen post-surgery, osthole (10 mg/kg) or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were subcutaneously injected into the calvaria of TCP particles-implanted or sham-operated mice. Two weeks later, blood, the periosteum and the calvaria were collected and processed for bone turnover markers, pro-inflammatory cytokine, histomorphometric and molecular analysis. RESULTS:Osthole (10 mg/kg) markedly prevented TCP particles-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in a mouse calvarial model. Osthole also inhibited the decrease of serum osteocalcin level and calvarial alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and prevented the increase in the activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K in the mouse calvaria. Furthermore, osthole obviously reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the periosteum. Western blotting demonstrated TCP particles caused a remarkable endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in the mouse calvaria, which was obviously blocked by osthole treatment. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that local administration of osthole inhibits TCP particles-induced osteolysis in the mouse calvarial in vivo, which may be mediated by inhibition of the ER stress signaling pathway, and it will be developed as a new drug in the prevention and treatment of destructive diseases caused by prosthetic wear particles. 10.1007/s00264-015-3021-2
    Osthole Promotes Bone Fracture Healing through Activation of BMP Signaling in Chondrocytes. Wang Pinger,Ying Jun,Luo Cheng,Jin Xing,Zhang Shanxing,Xu Taotao,Zhang Lei,Mi Meng,Chen Di,Tong Peijian,Jin Hongting International journal of biological sciences Osthole is a bioactive coumarin derivative and has been reported to be able to enhance bone formation and improve fracture healing. However, the molecular mechanism of Osthole in bone fracture healing has not been fully defined. In this study we determined if Osthole enhances bone fracture healing through activation of BMP2 signaling in mice. We performed unilateral open transverse tibial fracture procedure in 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice which were treated with or without Osthole. Our previous studies demonstrated that chondrocyte BMP signaling is required for bone fracture healing, in this study we also performed tibial fracture procedure in Cre-negative and conditional knockout (KO) mice ( ) to determine if Osthole enhances fracture healing in a BMP2-dependent manner. Fracture callus tissues were collected and analyzed by X-ray, micro-CT (μCT), histology, histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), biomechanical testing and quantitative gene expression analysis. In addition, mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells were cultured with or without Osthole and the expression levels of chondrogenic marker genes were examined. The results demonstrated that Osthole promotes bone fracture healing in wild-type (WT) or Cre control mice. In contrast, Osthole failed to promote bone fracture healing in conditional KO mice. In the mice receiving Osthole treatment, expression of cartilage marker genes was significantly increased. We conclude that Osthole could promote bone strength and enhance fracture healing by activation of BMP2 signaling. Osthole may be used as an alternative approach in the orthopaedic clinic for the treatment of fracture healing. 10.7150/ijbs.19986
    Osthole Enhances Osteogenesis in Osteoblasts by Elevating Transcription Factor Osterix via cAMP/CREB Signaling In Vitro and In Vivo. Zhang Zhong-Rong,Leung Wing Nang,Li Gang,Kong Siu Kai,Lu Xiong,Wong Yin Mei,Chan Chun Wai Nutrients Anabolic anti-osteoporotic agents are desirable for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Osthole is a coumarin derivative extracted from the medicinal herbs (L.) Cusson and Maxim.f. Osthole has been reported with osteogenic and anti-osteoporotic properties, whereas the underlying mechanism of its benefit still remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the osteopromotive action of osthole on mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and on mouse femoral fracture repair, and to explore the interaction between osthole-induced osteopromotive effect and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) elevating effect. Osthole treatment promoted osteogenesis in osteoblasts by enhancing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization. Oral gavage of osthole enhanced fracture repair and increased bone strength. Mechanistic study showed osthole triggered the cAMP/CREB pathway through the elevation of the intracellular cAMP level and activation of the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Blockage of cAMP/CREB downstream signals with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT5720 partially suppressed osthole-mediated osteogenesis by inhibiting the elevation of transcription factor, osterix. In conclusion, osthole shows osteopromotive effect on osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. Osthole-mediated osteogenesis is related to activation of the cAMP/CREB signaling pathway and downstream osterix expression. 10.3390/nu9060588
    The in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of osthole, the major natural coumarin from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss, via the blocking of the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK/p38 pathways. Fan Huaying,Gao Zhenfang,Ji Kai,Li Xin,Wu Jingbao,Liu Yue,Wang Xuekai,Liang Haiyue,Liu Yanan,Li Xiaoting,Liu Pan,Chen Daquan,Zhao Feng Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the intestines and is difficult to cure once diagnosed. The efficacy of the current clinical treatment for UC is limited. Common anti-inflammatory drugs are prone to adverse effects, while novel biological agents are expensive, although tolerated by patients. Therefore, an urgency exists to find more safe and effective drugs to treat UC. Osthole is an active constituent isolated from the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss. Osthole has anti-inflammatory activities and offers certain intestinal protection. These characteristics indicate that osthole has the potential to inhibit UC. PURPOSE:The study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of osthole in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. METHODS:In in vitro experiments, mouse monocyte-macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated by 1 μg/ml LPS to produce inflammatory mediators. Griess reagent was used to determine Nitric Oxide (NO) production, and ELISA kits were used to determine the levels of PGE TNF-α, and IL-6. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of osthole were detected using western blot. In in vivo experiments, UC was induced via the intragastric administration of 3.5% DSS to BALB/C mice for 7 days. During the experiment, clinical signs and body weight were monitored and recorded daily to calculate the DAI score. At the end of the experiment, the colon lengths were measured. The colonic histopathological lesions were evaluated. MPO activity and TNF-α levels were determined using the corresponding kits. The protein expression of TNF-α and NF-κB pathways were analysed using western blot. RESULTS:In an in vitro study, osthole inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The results of western blot showed that osthole inhibited the expression of iNOS, COX-2, p38 MAPK and IκB α in RAW 264.7 cells. On this basis, in DSS-induced UC mice, it was found that osthole relieved the symptoms of UC by inhibiting weight loss, colon shortening and the DAI score, and simultaneously alleviating colon tissue lesions. It was also found that osthole reduced the levels of TNF-α in serum and colon tissues and effectively inhibited the activity of MPO. The western blot results showed that osthole reduced the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-IκB α and increased the content of IκB α in colon tissues. CONCLUSION:Osthole exerted anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK/p38 pathways. Additionally, osthole possesses therapeutic potential in the treatment of UC. 10.1016/j.phymed.2019.152864
    Coumarins from Cnidium monnieri (L.) and their proliferation stimulating activity on osteoblast-like UMR106 cells. Meng F,Xiong Z,Sun Y,Li F Die Pharmazie The proliferation of various fractions of alcoholic extracts from fruits of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss (umbelifera) were screened using the osteoblast-like UMR106 cells in vitro. The chloroform fraction from the crude extract was found to have the most stimulating activity. Three coumarins (osthole, bergapten and imperatorin) were isolated from this fraction by activity-guided assay, and their effects on osteoblastic proliferation were investigated. Osthole, a major pharmacologically active constituent, significantly promoted the cells' activity. Bergapten and imperatorin were less effective than osthole. These results suggested Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss extracts might have potential activity against osteoporosis, and its chloroform fraction might contain active constituents stimulating osteoblasts.
    Coumarins from Cnidium monnieri and their antiosteoporotic activity. Zhang Qiaoyan,Qin Luping,He Weidong,Van Puyvelde Luc,Maes Dominick,Adams An,Zheng Hanchen,De Kimpe Norbert Planta medica Bioactivity-guided fractionation has led to the successful isolation of antiosteoporotic components, i. e., osthole, imperatorin and bergapten from an ethanolic extract of the fruits of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson. Among them, osthole was determined as the major compound possessing antiosteoporotic activity. Further study showed that osthole not only promoted the proliferation and activity of alkaline phosphatase of osteoblasts in neonatal calvaria cultures, but also inhibited the bone resorption by decreasing the formation, differentiation and TRAP activity of osteoclasts derived from rat marrow cells. 10.1055/s-2006-951724
    Natural products for treatment of osteoporosis: The effects and mechanisms on promoting osteoblast-mediated bone formation. An Jing,Yang Hao,Zhang Qian,Liu Cuicui,Zhao Jingjing,Zhang Lingling,Chen Bo Life sciences Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic bone disease characterized by a reduction in bone mass, bone quality, and microarchitectural deterioration. An imbalance in bone remodeling that is caused by more osteoclast-mediated bone resorption than osteoblast-mediated bone formation results in such pathologic bone disorder. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have long been used to prevent and treat osteoporosis and have received extensive attentions and researches at home and abroad, because they have fewer adverse reactions and are more suitable for long-term use compared with chemically synthesized medicines. Here, we put the emphasis on osteoblasts, summarized the detailed research progress on the active compounds derived from TCM with potential anti-osteoporosis effects and their molecular mechanisms on promoting osteoblast-mediated bone formation. It could be concluded that TCM with kidney-tonifying, spleen-tonifying, and stasis-removing effects all have the potential effects on treating osteoporosis. The active ingredients derived from TCM that possess effects on promoting osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation include flavonoids, glycosides, coumarins, terpenoids (sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids), phenolic acids, phenols and others (tetrameric stilbene, anthraquinones, diarylheptanoids). And it was confirmed that the bone formation effect induced by the above natural products was regulated by the expressions of bone specific matrix proteins (ALP, BSP, OCN, OPN, COL I), transcription factor (Runx2, Cbfa1, Osx), signal pathways (MAPK, BMP), local factors (ROS, NO), OPG/RANKL system of osteoblasts and estrogen-like biological activities. All the studies provided theoretical basis for clinical application, as well as new drug research and development on treating osteoporosis. 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.01.024
    The effect of the major components of Fructus Cnidii on osteoblasts in vitro. Zhang Wenping,Ma Dongming,Zhao Qiduo,Ishida Torao Journal of acupuncture and meridian studies In traditional Chinese medicine, the cause of weak bones or bone loss is generally regarded as a result of kidney deficiency. Fructus Cnidii (FC), which is also known as She-Chuang-Zi, is a traditional herb that has been claimed to have kidney warming effects that invigorate Yang. In this study, we tried to determine the bone production-inducing effect of FC on osteoblastic cells in vitro using osthole, the main component of FC. Osteoblasts were isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat calvaria using the tissue piece culture method and treated with various concentrations of osthole ranging from 2.5 to 640 microg/mL, together with a blank control. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bone nodules were measured. The cells were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining, the Gomori Calcium-Cobalt method and immunofluorescent staining. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (or MTT) assay, ALP assay, and bone nodule results indicated significantly enhanced osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation at concentrations of osthole ranging from 40 to 320 microg/mL. Concentrations lower than 40 microg/ mL seemed less effective, and cytotoxicity to osteoblasts was observed at concentrations higher than 320 microg/mL. These results indicate that osthole is effective at inducing osteoblastic bone formation through the up-regulation of ALP activity. FC is a Chinese herb used to treat lumbar pain in clinical practice. Further studies concerning the effects and mechanism of osthole on osteoporotic patients and animals should be performed, as these studies may lead to the development of a drug treatment for osteoporosis in the future. 10.1016/S2005-2901(10)60005-2
    Effects of Plants on Osteogenic Differentiation and Mineralization of Periodontal Ligament Cells: A Systematic Review. Costa Cláudio Rodrigues Rezende,Amorim Bruna Rabelo,de Magalhães Pérola,De Luca Canto Graziela,Acevedo Ana Carolina,Guerra Eliete Neves Silva Phytotherapy research : PTR This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. The included studies were selected using five different electronic databases. The reference list of the included studies was crosschecked, and a partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using GRADE. After a two-step selection process, eight studies were identified. Six different types of plants were reported in the selected studies, which were Morinda citrifolia, Aloe vera, Fructus cnidii, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Centella asiatica, and Epimedium species. They included five types of isolated plant components: acemannan, osthole, hesperetin, asiaticoside, and icariin. In addition, some active substances of these components were identified as polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The studies demonstrated the potential effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation, mineral deposition, and gene and protein expression. Four studies showed that periodontal ligament cells induce mineral deposition after plant treatment. Although there are few studies on the subject, current evidence suggests that plants are potentially useful for the treatment of periodontal diseases. However, further investigations are required to confirm the promising effect of these plants in regenerative treatments. 10.1002/ptr.5568
    [Quantitative study on the effect of osthole on proximal tibiae in ovariectomized (OVX) rats]. Li C Y,Wu T,Li Q N,Lin B Y,Liang N C,Huang L F,Cui L Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica Thirty-one 3-month-old Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, basal control (group 1, killed at the begining), aging control (group 2), ovariectomized (OVX, group 3), OVX with nilestriol treatment group (group 4) and OVX with osthole treatment group (group 5). Group 2 and group 3 ig with water 5 ml.kg-1 and group 5 ig with osthole 6.7 mg.kg-1, all once a day for 6 d; group 4 ig with nilestriol 1 mg.kg-1, once a week. After 12 weeks, all rats were killed. The proximal tibiae of rats were processed to undecalcified sections at 20 microns thickness for histomorphometric analysis. OVX was shown to reduce markedly the trabecular bone mass (%Tb. Ar-59%) due to increase of bone turnover with the result that bone resorption exceeded bone formation, as compared with aging controls. In contrast, treatment of OVX rats with Osthole and nilestriol increased significantly the trabecular area (increased 68% and 27.1% compared with that of OVX respectively). Our results indicate that osthole and nilestriol treatment provides protection against osteoporosis in OVX rats. The protective mechanism of osthole and nilestriol involves supression of bone turnover, but the effects of osthole is lower than that of nilestriol (trabecular area decreased 55% more in osthole group than that with nilestriol treatment). Our finding may provide theoretical evidence for the clinical use of osthole or nilestriol for treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.
    Effects of osthole on postmenopausal osteoporosis using ovariectomized rats; comparison to the effects of estradiol. Li Xiao Xia,Hara Ichie,Matsumiya Teruhiko Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin The purpose of this study was to examine effects of osthole on postmenopausal osteoporosis using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. All of the rats were divided into sham and OVX groups. At 2 weeks post-operation, the sham-operated rats received solvent vehicle (97% corn oil and 3% ethanol, 1.0 ml/kg, subcutaneously); the OVX rats were divided into three groups which were treated with solvent vehicle (same the sham rats, 1.0 ml/kg, subcutaneously), 17beta-estradiol (30 microg/kg, subcutaneously) or osthole (9.0 mg/kg, orally) 5 d/week for 4 weeks, respectively. In OVX rats, the increases of body weight, spleen and thymus weight were significantly decreased and the atrophy of uterus was preserved by 17beta-estradiol treatment, but not by osthole. Treatment with either 17beta-estradiol or osthole significantly protected cancellous bone loss owing to estrogen deficiency and significantly increased the maximal load in the femoral neck of OVX rats. In addition, the increases of serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels caused by ovariectomy were all significantly suppressed by 17beta-estradiol. However, only urinary DPD was significantly reduced by osthole and no change was found in serum OC. Our results demonstrate that osthole may be just as effective as 17beta-estradiol in suppressing bone loss due to ovariectomy but osthole perhaps does not work through the estrogen pathway. 10.1248/bpb.25.738
    Osthole improves aspects of spatial performance in ovariectomized rats. Hsieh Ming-Tsuen,Hsieh Chia-Ling,Wang Wen-Hsin,Chen Chia-Sheng,Lin Chun-Ju,Wu Chi-Rei The American journal of Chinese medicine The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effects of Cnidiuim monnieri L. Cusson (CM) and osthole, a constituent of CM, on the spatial performance deficit in scopolamine (SCOP)-treated or ovariectomized (OVA) rats. CM improved the deficit of spatial performance, and reversed the lower plasma estradiol levels caused by SCOP in female rats. In addition, osthole (3 and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) improved the performance deficit in OVA rats. It (10 and 30 micrograms/brain, icv) also improved the performance deficit caused by SCOP in intact female rats, and at 30 micrograms/brain improved the deficit in OVA rats. However, osthole did not alter the latency swum to reach the visible target in SCOP-treated and OVA rats. Accordingly, we suggested that osthole is an active constituent of CM, and possesses ameliorating effects on the spatial performance deficits in SCOP-treated female rats or OVA rats. The action mechanism of the effects of osthole on performance deficits was related to the estrogen-like properties and activating the central cholinergic neuronal system. 10.1142/S0192415X04001758
    [Inhibitory acting mechanism of psoralen-osthole on bone metastasis of breast cancer--an expatiation viewing from OPG/RANKL/RANK system]. Sheng Liu,Wu Chun-Yu,Chen Xu-feng Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine OBJECTIVE:To find the optimal proportion of Composite Fructus Psoralea and Fructus Cnidii (CFPC) for inhibiting the bone metastasis of breast cancer by way of exploring its acting mechanism viewing from OPG/RANKL/RANK system. METHODS:The human bone metastasis of breast cancer model was established by injecting tumor cells of MDA-MB-231BO cell line into the left cardiac ventricle of nude mice. The modeled mice were randomly divided into seven groups: the blank group administered with normal saline by gastrogavage, the positive control group with zoledronic acid via peritoneal injection, and the 5 tested group with CFPC in different proportions of Fructus Psoralea and Fructus Cnidii, i.e., (A, 4:0; B, 3:1; C, 1:1; D, 1:3, and E 0:4), given by gastric infusion. The treatment started from 1 week after modeling and lasted for six weeks. By the end of the experiment, the metastatic foci in bone were imaged by radionuclide tracing method and X-ray photograph, and separated for detecting gene and protein expressions of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL), interleukin-8 (IL-8), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF) by Real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. RESULTS:Inhibition of bone metastasis gene was displayed to some extent in all the tested groups treated with CFPC, showing an increased level of OPG mRNA expression (It was 60.343 +/- 6.274 in the tested group C), and decreased mRNA expressions of IL-8, PTHrP, MCSF, RANKL (218.010 +/- 12.802, 232.399 +/- 14.354, 319.831 +/- 5.322, and 195.701 +/- 4. 862, respectively in the tested group C). The optimal effect was shown in the tested group C, showing significant difference to that in the blank group (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the OPG in the bone metastatic foci could be up-regulated and protein expressions of RANKL/IL-8/PTHrP/MCSF down-regulated in all the tested groups. The optimal effect was shown in the tested group C, with significant difference from those of the normal saline group. CONCLUSION:CFPC could inhibit the bone metastasis of breast cancer through activating OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway. Among different proportions of Fructus Psoralea and Fructus Cnidii, 1:1 was the best one.
    Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity of selected osthole derivatives. Zimecki Michał,Artym Jolanta,Cisowski Wojciech,Mazol Irena,Włodarczyk Maciej,Gleńsk Michał Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung. C, Journal of biosciences From osthole [7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-chromen-2-one] (I), obtained by selective extraction of Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W. Koch roots, ostholic acid (II) was synthetized as a result of its oxidation with chromium trioxide. From ostholic acid, through its chloride, four amides were obtained: the morpholide 1, the p-chloro-benzylamide 2, the piperidine 3 and the N-methyl-piperazide 4. Except for 1, other compounds have not been described before. The amides 1-4 and their precursor osthole (I) were tested for their potential activities in selected immunological assays. The compounds showed moderate inhibitory activity in the humoral immune response to sheep erythrocytes in mice in vitro, and 4 was the most suppressive. The effects of 1 and 3 on concanavalin A- and pokeweed mitogen-induced mouse splenocyte proliferation were inhibitory and those of 4 stimulatory. The compounds were also tested for their activity on tumour necrosis factor a and interleukin 6 production, induced by lipopolysaccharide, in cultures of rat peritoneal cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compounds 1, 3 and 4 inhibited tumour necrosis factor a (rat cells), whereas compound 2 stimulated the production of both cytokines. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were also strongly inhibitory on tumour necrosis factor a production in human blood cells (73, 78 and 80% inhibition at 10 microg/ml, respectively). On the other hand, 2 and 4 stimulated the interleukin 6 production (2- to 3-fold stimulation). In addition, 2 and 4 suppressed the carrageenan-induced inflammation in mice (56.5% and 68.3% inhibition, respectively). In summary, the compounds predominantly displayed suppressive and antiinflammatory activities in the investigated models. 10.1515/znc-2009-5-610
    Osthole-mediated cell differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein-2/p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway in human osteoblast cells. Kuo Po-Lin,Hsu Ya-Ling,Chang Cheng-Hsiung,Chang Jiunn-Kae The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics The survival of osteoblast cells is one of the determinants of the development of osteoporosis in patients. Osthole (7-methoxy-8-isopentenoxycoumarin) is a coumarin derivative present in many medicinal plants. By means of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and type I collagen, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we have shown that osthole exhibits a significant induction of differentiation in two human osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and hFOB. Induction of differentiation by osthole was associated with increased bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 production and the activations of SMAD1/5/8 and p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 kinases. Addition of purified BMP-2 protein did not increase the up-regulation of ALP activity and osteocalcin by osthole, whereas the BMP-2 antagonist noggin blocked both osthole and BMP-2-mediated ALP activity enhancement, indicating that BMP-2 production is required in osthole-mediated osteoblast maturation. Pretreatment of osteoblast cells with noggin abrogated p38 activation but only partially decreased ERK1/2 activation, suggesting that BMP-2 signaling is required in p38 activation and is partially involved in ERK1/2 activation in osthole-treated osteoblast cells. Cotreatment of p38 inhibitor SB203580 [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole] or p38 small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression inhibited osthole-mediated activation of ALP but only slightly affected osteocalcin production. In contrast, the production of osteocalcin induced by osthole was inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 (2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone) or by expression of an ERK2 siRNA. These data suggest that BMP-2/p38 pathway links to the early phase, whereas ERK1/2 pathway is associated with the later phase in osthole-mediated differentiation of osteoblast cells. In this study, we demonstrate that osthole is a promising agent for treating osteoporosis. 10.1124/jpet.105.085092
    The importance of the prenyl group in the activities of osthole in enhancing bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption in vitro. Zhai Yuan-Kun,Pan Ya-Lei,Niu Yin-Bo,Li Chen-Rui,Wu Xiang-Long,Fan Wu-Tu,Lu Ting-Li,Mei Qi-Bing,Xian Cory J International journal of endocrinology Osteoporosis treatment always aimed at keeping the balance of bone formation and bone resorption. Recently, prenyl group in natural products has been proposed as an active group to enhance the osteogenesis process. Osthole has both the prenyl group and bone-protective activities, but the relationship is still unknown. In this study we found that osthole exerted a potent ability to promote proliferation and osteogenic function of rat bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts, including improved cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, enhanced secretion of collagen-I, bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and osteopontin, stimulated mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix, OPG (osteoprotegerin), RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand), and the ratio of OPG/RANKL, as well as increasing the formation of mineralized nodules. However, 7-methoxycoumarin had no obvious effects. Osthole also inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption to a greater extent than 7-methoxycoumarin, as shown by a lower tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and lower number and smaller area of resorption pits. Our findings demonstrate that osthole could be a potential agent to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption, and the prenyl group plays an important role in these bone-protective effects. 10.1155/2014/921954
    [Effect of Osthol on the proliferation and differentiate of osteoblasts in vitro]. Ming Lei-Guo,Ge Bao-Feng,Chen Ke-Ming,Ma Hui-Ping,Zhai Yuan-Kun,Zhou Jian,Li Zhi-Feng Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of Osthol on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts of rats (rat calvarial osteoblasts, ROB) cultured in vitro. METHODS:The neonatal SD rat skull was segregated, and enzyme digestion was used to obtain bone cells which were cultured in MEM containing 10% FBS. The medium was changed every three days, and serial subcultivation was performed when cells covered with 90% of the culture dish. The Osthol was added to 96-well plates with final concentration of 1 x 10(-4) mol/L, 1 x 10(-5) mol/L, 1 x l0(-6) mol/L and 1 x10(-7) mol/L, and MTT method was used to evaluate the proliferation. Differentiation analysis: the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined at the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days separately after osteogenic induction culture. The synthesis of type I collagen was observed using immunohistochemical method at the 8th day. The ALP stain was performed at the 12th day. The alizarin red staining was done and calcified nodules was counted at the 14th day. RESULTS:The Osthol with final concentration of 1 x 10(-4) mo/L inhibit the proliferation of ROB. The Osthol with final concentration of 1 x 10(-5) mol/L had no obvious influence on the proliferation of ROB, but it significantly promoted the activity of ALP, enhanced the synthesis of collagen type I and increased the number of calcified nodules. CONCLUSION:The Osthol with final concentration of 1 x 10(-5) mol/L can promote differentiation and maturation of ROB, which may be active ingredients of Chinese drugs for the osteoporosis prophylaxis.
    Osthol, a coumarin isolated from common cnidium fruit, enhances the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts in vitro. Ming Lei-Guo,Zhou Jian,Cheng Guo-Zheng,Ma Hui-Ping,Chen Ke-Ming Pharmacology The effect of osthol on osteoblasts was investigated in primary osteoblastic cells isolated from newborn Wistar rats. Osthol was supplemented into cultured medium at 10⁻⁷, 10⁻⁶, 10⁻⁵ and 10⁻⁴ mol/l, respectively. No stimulating effect was found on cell proliferation, but 10⁻⁵ mol/l osthol caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Osteogenic differentiation markers were examined over a period of time at this concentration, and compared with control cells that were not supplemented with osthol. The results showed that the ALP activity, osteocalcin secretion and calcium deposition level in cells treated with osthol were 1.52, 2.74 and 2.0 times higher, respectively, than in the control cells. Results of ALP histochemical staining and mineralized bone nodule assays both showed that the number and area achieved in osthol-treated cells were 1.53-fold higher than in control cells. The gene expression of the growth and transcription factors basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), runt-related gene 2 (Runx-2) and osterix, which are associated with bone development, were also investigated. The increase in mRNA expression was 1.94, 1.74, 1.68, 1.83 and 2.31 times, respectively, higher compared to the control. Furthermore, osthol increased the protein expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and type I collagen. p38MAPK protein and collagen in osthol-treated cells were 1.42 and 1.58 times higher in osthol-treated cells compared to the control. The results of these studies support the conclusion that osthol significantly enhances the osteogenic differentiation of cultured osteoblasts. The results also indicated that osthol could stimulate the osteoblastic differentiation of rat calvarial osteoblast cultures by the BMP-2/p38MAPK/Runx-2/osterix pathway and that osthol may be used as an important compound in the development of new antiosteoporosis drugs. 10.1159/000328776
    [Effect of osthole on bone metabolism in rat femoral tissues in vitro]. Zhou Jian,Ge Bao-feng,Zhen Ping,Ma Xiao-ni,Yan Li-juan,Guo Xiao-Yu,Cheng Kui,Gao Yu-Hai,Shi Wen-Gui,Chen Ke-ming Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of osthole on bone metabolism in rat femoral tissues in vitro. METHODS:The rat femoral tissues were isolated in vitro. The optimal concentrations of ostehole (1×10(-5) mol/L) and estradiol (1×10(-8) mol/L) (the positive control) were selected by alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP). The ALP and calcium levels were detected by commmerical regents, and the expressions of osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, runx-related gene 2, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 mRNA were determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULT:The osthole (1×10(-5) mol/L) significantly increased the activity of ALP, calcium level as well as the expressions of osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, runx-related gene-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 mRNA in rat femoral tissues in vitro. CONCLUSION:Osthole can improve calcium level and ALP activity and regulate the bone metabolism-related genes in rat femoral tissues. 10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.2013.05.014
    [Effect of osthol on apoptosis and bone resorption of osteoclasts cultured in vitro]. Ming Lei-Guo,Wang Ming-Gang,Chen Ke-Ming,Zhou Jian,Han Gui-Qiu,Zhu Rui-Qing Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica This study is to investigate the effect of osthol on osteoclasts' activity, bone resorption as well as apoptosis in vitro, and explore the mechanism of osthol in preventing osteoporosis. Osteoclasts were separated from long-limb bones of new born rabbits, cultured in 24-well plate with glass slices and bone slices, and treated by 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) osthol. Osteoclasts were identified by observing live cells with phase contrast microscope, HE staining, TRAP staining and toluidine blue staining of bone resorption pits. The numbers of bone resorption pits were counted as well as the surface area of bone resorption on bone slice. Osteoclasts were stained with acridine orange to detect the cell apoptosis. The ratio of apoptotic osteoclasts was observed under fluorescence microscope. The gene expression of RANKL, OPG, TRAP and p-JNK1/2 protein expression were examined using real time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Comparing with the control group without osthol, the rates of apoptotic osteoclasts increased obviously and the number and area of bone resorption pits decreased evidently with 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) osthol. There is significant difference between control group and experiment group treated by 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) osthol. Therefore, the osthol through RANK+RANKL/TRAF6/Mkk/JNK signal pathway inhibits the osteoclasts activity, enhances osteoclasts apoptotic and inhibits the bone resorption.
    The naturally derived small compound Osthole inhibits osteoclastogenesis to prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. Zhao Dongfeng,Wang Qiang,Zhao Yongjian,Zhang Hao,Sha Nannan,Tang Dezhi,Liu Shufen,Lu Sheng,Shi Qi,Zhang Yan,Dong Yufeng,Wang Yongjun,Shu Bing Menopause (New York, N.Y.) OBJECTIVE:This study was to determine the bone protective effects and underlying mechanisms of Osthole (OT) in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We found that the inhibitory effects of OT on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-activated osteoclastogenesis are responsible for its bone protective effects in OVX mice. METHODS:Eight-week-old mice were ovariectomized and OT (10 mg/kg/d) was intraperitoneally administrated to OVX mice 7 days after the surgery and were sacrificed at the end of the 3 months. Osteoclasts were generated from primary bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) to investigate the inhibitory effects of OT. The activity of RANKL-activated signaling was simultaneously analyzed in vitro and in vivo using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and PCR assays. RESULTS:OT dose dependently inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in BMM cultures. OT administration attenuated bone loss (mg Ha/cm: 894.68 ± 33.56 vs 748.08 ± 19.51, P < 0.05) in OVX mice. OT inhibits osteoclastogenesis (Oc.N/per view area: 72 ± 4.3 vs 0.8 ± 0.4, P < 0.05) and bone resorption activity (bone resorbed percentages %, 48.56 ± 7.25 vs 3.25 ± 1.37, P < 0.05) from BMMs. Mechanistically, OT inhibited the expressions of nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1) and c-Fos. Moreover, OT suppressed the expression of RANKL-induced osteoclast marker genes, including matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), Cathepsin K (Ctsk), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and carbonic anhydrase II (Car2). CONCLUSIONS:OT inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and prevents bone loss in OVX mice. Our findings revealed that OT is a potential new drug for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. 10.1097/GME.0000000000001150
    Osthole stimulates osteoblast differentiation and bone formation by activation of beta-catenin-BMP signaling. Tang De-Zhi,Hou Wei,Zhou Quan,Zhang Minjie,Holz Jonathan,Sheu Tzong-Jen,Li Tian-Fang,Cheng Shao-Dan,Shi Qi,Harris Stephen E,Chen Di,Wang Yong-Jun Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Osteoporosis is defined as reduced bone mineral density with a high risk of fragile fracture. Current available treatment regimens include antiresorptive drugs such as estrogen receptor analogues and bisphosphates and anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, neither option is completely satisfactory because of adverse effects. It is thus highly desirable to identify novel anabolic agents to improve future osteoporosis treatment. Osthole, a coumarin-like derivative extracted from Chinese herbs, has been shown to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, but its effect on bone formation in vivo and underlying mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we found that local injection of Osthole significantly increased new bone formation on the surface of mouse calvaria. Ovariectomy caused evident bone loss in rats, whereas Osthole largely prevented such loss, as shown by improved bone microarchitecture, histomorphometric parameters, and biomechanical properties. In vitro studies demonstrated that Osthole activated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, increased Bmp2 expression, and stimulated osteoblast differentiation. Targeted deletion of the beta-catenin and Bmp2 genes abolished the stimulatory effect of Osthole on osteoblast differentiation. Since deletion of the Bmp2 gene did not affect Osthole-induced beta-catenin expression and the deletion of the beta-catenin gene inhibited Osthole-regulated Bmp2 expression in osteoblasts, we propose that Osthole acts through beta-catenin-BMP signaling to promote osteoblast differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that Osthole could be a potential anabolic agent to stimulate bone formation and prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. 10.1002/jbmr.21
    Osthole inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer. Wu Chunyu,Sun Zhenping,Guo Baofeng,Ye Yiyi,Han Xianghui,Qin Yuenong,Liu Sheng Oncotarget Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from , exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potential mechanism of this inhibition. In the murine model of breast cancer osseous metastasis, mice that received osthole developed significantly less bone metastases and displayed decreased tumor burden when compared with mice in the control group. Osthole inhibited breast cancer cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Additionally, it also regulated OPG/RANKL signals in the interactions between bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts) and cancer cells. Besides, it also inhibited TGF-β/Smads signaling in breast cancer metastasis to bone in MDA-231BO cells. The results of this study suggest that osthole has real potential as a therapeutic candidate in the treatment of breast cancer patients with bone metastases. 10.18632/oncotarget.17024
    Osthole improves therapy for osteoporosis through increasing autophagy of mesenchymal stem cells. Zheng Xuedan,Yu Yang,Shao Binyi,Gan Ning,Chen Liang,Yang Deqin Experimental animals Osteoporosis is a common skeletal disorder resulting in elevated fracture risk. Improvement of osteogenic differentiation is thought to be the top priority in osteoporosis treatment projects. Significant characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), especially attractive ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, have made them alternatives for osteoporosis treatment. However, therapeutic effect with BMMSCs remains to be improved. Here, osthole, a bioactive simple coumarin derivative extracted from many medicinal plants, was introduced to pre-stimulate BMMSCs and then applied in osteoporosis therapy. The results showed that osthole-treated-BMMSCs (OBMMSCs) brought a better outcome than BMMSCs alone in estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis model. And elevated autophagy level was suggested to be the underlying mechanism of the ability of osthole to promote osteoblast differentiation, which is indicated by the upregulation of protein and mRNA expression level of autophagy-associated genes, Beclin1 and LC3. We concluded from these experiments that OBMMSCs are more effective than BMMSCs in osteoporosis treatment maybe through upregulation level of autophagy level induced by osthole. 10.1538/expanim.18-0178