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    Biomarkers for monitoring intestinal health in poultry: present status and future perspectives. Ducatelle Richard,Goossens Evy,De Meyer Fien,Eeckhaut Venessa,Antonissen Gunther,Haesebrouck Freddy,Van Immerseel Filip Veterinary research Intestinal health is determined by host (immunity, mucosal barrier), nutritional, microbial and environmental factors. Deficiencies in intestinal health are associated with shifts in the composition of the intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), leakage of the mucosal barrier and/or inflammation. Since the ban on growth promoting antimicrobials in animal feed, these dysbiosis-related problems have become a major issue, especially in intensive animal farming. The economical and animal welfare consequences are considerable. Consequently, there is a need for continuous monitoring of the intestinal health status, particularly in intensively reared animals, where the intestinal function is often pushed to the limit. In the current review, the recent advances in the field of intestinal health biomarkers, both in human and veterinary medicine are discussed, trying to identify present and future markers of intestinal health in poultry. The most promising new biomarkers will be stable molecules ending up in the feces and litter that can be quantified, preferably using rapid and simple pen-side tests. It is unlikely, however, that a single biomarker will be sufficient to follow up all aspects of intestinal health. Combinations of multiple biomarkers and/or metabarcoding, metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, metaproteomic and metabolomic approaches will be the way to go in the future. Candidate biomarkers currently are being investigated by many research groups, but the validation will be a major challenge, due to the complexity of intestinal health in the field. 10.1186/s13567-018-0538-6
    Effects of Anthocyanin on Intestinal Health: A Systematic Review. Verediano Thaísa Agrizzi,Stampini Duarte Martino Hércia,Dias Paes Maria Cristina,Tako Elad Nutrients Intestinal health relies on the association between the mucosal immune system, intestinal barrier and gut microbiota. Bioactive components that affect the gut microbiota composition, epithelial physical barrier and intestinal morphology were previously studied. The current systematic review evaluated evidence of anthocyanin effects and the ability to improve gut microbiota composition, their metabolites and parameters of the physical barrier; this was conducted in order to answer the question: "Does food source or extract of anthocyanin promote changes on intestinal parameters?". The data analysis was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines with the search performed at PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus databases for experimental studies, and the risk of bias was assessed by the SYRCLE tool. Twenty-seven studies performed in animal models were included, and evaluated for limitations in heterogeneity, methodologies, absence of information regarding allocation process and investigators' blinding. The data were analyzed, and the anthocyanin supplementation demonstrated positive effects on intestinal health. The main results identified were an increase of and a decrease of , an increase of short chain fatty acids production, a decrease of intestinal pH and intestinal permeability, an increase of the number of goblet cells and tight junction proteins and villi improvement in length or height. Thus, the anthocyanin supplementation has a potential effect to improve the intestinal health. PROSPERO (CRD42020204835). 10.3390/nu13041331
    Structural changes in mulberry (Morus Microphylla. Buckl) and chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) anthocyanins during simulated in vitro human digestion. Kim Inhwan,Moon Joon Kwan,Hur Sun Jin,Lee Jihyun Food chemistry Mulberry and chokeberry are rich sources of anthocyanins. In this study, the effect of the anthocyanin composition on the anthocyanin profile changes during in vitro digestion (mimicking the physiological conditions) was investigated by UHPLC-(ESI)-qTOF and UHPLC-(ESI)-QqQ. The antioxidant activity before and after in vitro digestion was elucidated. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside were dominant in mulberry and chokeberry, respectively. Moreover, the loss of cyanidin-3-O-galactoside in the chokeberry extract after digestion was greater than that of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside in the mulberry extract. After digestion, phenolic acids including protocatechuic acid and various cyanidin conjugates were newly formed because of decomposition and changes in the cyanidin-glycosides. The phenolic acid and cyanidin conjugate levels varied depending on the cyanidin glycoside sources in the colonic fraction. Finally, antioxidant activity before and after digestion was higher in the chokeberry extract than in the mulberry extract. Moreover, this activity continuously decreased until intestinal digestion but increased in the colonic fraction. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126449
    Cyanidin-3-glucoside as a possible biomarker of anthocyanin-rich berry intake in body fluids of healthy humans: a systematic review of clinical trials. Nutrition reviews CONTEXT:Anthocyanins are phenolic compounds found in berries. They exhibit promising health benefits in humans, but no accurate biomarkers of berry intake have been identified thus far. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this systematic review is to propose a biomarker of anthocyanin-rich berry intake in human plasma and urine. DATA SOURCES:PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched from January 2008 to January 2019. STUDY SELECTION:Databases were searched for human intervention studies that assessed the presence of anthocyanins in human body fluids using high-throughput techniques. Non-English articles and studies publishing targeted analyses were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION:Ten clinical trials, in which 203 phenolic compounds were identified, were included and assessed qualitatively. The following criteria were used to identify biomarkers of berry intake: frequency, plausibility, dose-response, time response, robustness, reliability, stability, analytical performance, and reproducibility. Sensitivity and specificity of potential biomarkers were determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS:Of the 203 phenolic compounds identified in human samples, the anthocyanin cyanidin-3-glucoside was the molecule found most frequently in urine (58.06%) and plasma (69.49%). Cyanidin-3-glucoside fulfills the essential criterion of plausibility as well as the dose-response, time response, stability, and analytical performance criteria. Its positive predictive value is 74% (P = 0.210) in plasma, which is acceptable, and 61.7% (P = 0.402) in urine. CONCLUSIONS:Current evidence suggests that cyanidin-3-glucoside is a potential biomarker of anthocyanin-rich berry intake in plasma and urine of healthy humans. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018096796. 10.1093/nutrit/nuz083
    Cranberry anthocyanin as an herbal medicine lowers plasma cholesterol by increasing excretion of fecal sterols. Wang Lijun,Zhu Hanyue,Zhao Yimin,Jiao Rui,Lei Lin,Chen Jingnan,Wang Xiaobo,Zhang Zhengnan,Huang Yu,Wang Tiejie,Chen Zhen-Yu Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Interest in using herbal medicines to treat the hypercholesterolemia is increasing. Cranberry extract could decrease plasma cholesterol, however, the active ingredients and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. HYPOTHESIS:The present study was to test the hypothesis that cranberry anthocyanins (CrA) were at least one of the active ingredients responsible for the cholesterol-lowering activity of cranberry fruits via a mechanism of increasing fecal sterol excretion. METHODS:Forty-four hamsters were randomly divided into five groups and fed one of the five diets, namely a non-cholesterol control diet (NCD), a high-cholesterol control diet (HCD), a HCD diet supplemented with a low dose of 1% CrA (CL), a HCD diet supplemented with a high dose of 2% CrA (CH), and a HCD diet supplemented with 0.5% cholestyramine as a positive control drug (P-CTL), respectively, for six weeks. Plasma lipoprotein cholesterol was quantified using the enzymatic kits, while the gene expressions of transporters, enzymes and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism were quantified using the quantitative RT-PCR. Fecal sterols were quantified using gas chromatography (GC). RESULTS:Plasma total cholesterol and aorta atherosclerotic plaque decreased dose-dependently with the increasing amounts of CrA added into diets. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in excretion of both neutral and acidic sterols. CrA had no effect on the mRNA levels of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein (NPC1L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP binding cassette transporter 5 (ABCG5) as well as hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase (HMG-CoA-R), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), LDL receptor (LDL-R), and Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). CONCLUSION:CrA as an herbal medicine could favorably modify the lipoprotein profile in hamsters fed a high cholesterol diet by enhancing excretion of fecal neutral and acidic sterols, most likely not mediated by interaction with genes of transporters, enzymes and proteins involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism. 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.11.008
    The Efficacy of Administering Fruit-Derived Polyphenols to Improve Health Biomarkers, Exercise Performance and Related Physiological Responses. Kashi Daniel S,Shabir Akbar,Da Boit Mariasole,Bailey Stephen J,Higgins Matthew F Nutrients Polyphenols are secondary metabolites involved in a myriad of critical processes in plants. Over recent decades, special attention has been paid to the anti-oxidative role of fruit-derived polyphenols in the human diet, with evidence supporting the contribution of polyphenols in the prevention of numerous non-communicable disease outcomes. However, due to the low concentration in biological fluids in vivo, the antioxidant properties of polyphenols seem to be related to an enhanced endogenous antioxidant capacity induced via signaling through the nuclear respiratory factor 2 pathway. Polyphenols also seem to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and have been shown to enhance vascular function via nitric oxide mediated mechanisms. Consequently, there is rationale to support fruit-derived polyphenol supplementation to enhance exercise performance, possibly via improved muscle perfusion. Fruit-derived polyphenol supplementation in exercise studies have included a variety of fruits, e.g., New Zealand blackcurrant, pomegranate, and cherry, in the form of extracts (multicomponent or purified), juices and infusions to varying degrees of benefit. For example, research has yet to link the health-related benefits of black elderberry ( L.) ingestion to exercise performance in spite of the purported health benefits associated with black elderberry provision in vitro and in vivo models, which has been attributed to their high antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content. This review summarizes the existing evidence supporting a beneficial effect of fruit-derived polyphenols on various biological processes and outlines the potential for black elderberry ingestion to improve nitric oxide production, exercise performance, and the associated physiological responses before-, during- and post-exercise. 10.3390/nu11102389
    Health benefits of cyanidin-3-glucoside as a potent modulator of Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress. Rahman Sofia,Mathew Shimy,Nair Pooja,Ramadan Wafaa S,Vazhappilly Cijo George Inflammopharmacology Berries are natural sources of anthocyanins, especially cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and exhibit significant antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective effects against various oxidative stress-induced disorders. C3G and its metabolites possess higher absorption and bioavailability, and interaction with gut microbiota may enhance their health benefits. Various in vitro studies have shown the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mitigating potential of C3G. However, in in vivo models, C3G exerts its cytoprotective properties by regulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) pathway. Despite existing reports stating various health benefits of C3G, its antioxidant potential by modulating the Nrf2 pathway remains less identified. This review discusses the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response of C3G in modulating oxidative stress against DNA damage, apoptosis, carcinogen toxicity, and inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, we have reviewed the recent clinical trial data to establish cross talk between a berry-rich diet and disease prevention. 10.1007/s10787-021-00799-7
    Effect of purple sweet potato leaves consumption on exercise-induced oxidative stress and IL-6 and HSP72 levels. Chang Wen-Hsin,Hu Shene-Pin,Huang Ying-Fen,Yeh Tzu-Shao,Liu Jen-Fang Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of purple sweet potato leaves (PSPL) consumption on oxidative stress markers in a healthy, nontrained, young male population after completing a running exercise protocol. A crossover design was applied, with 15 subjects participating in a two-step dietary intervention period. Each subject was given a high- (PSPL group) or low-polyphenol (control group) diet for 7 days with a 14-day washout period. After each dietary intervention period, all subjects performed 1 h of treadmill running at a speed corresponding to 70% of each subject's individual maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)). Blood samples were taken before exercise and at 0, 1, and 3 h after exercise. Compared with the control group, PSPL consumption significantly increased plasma total polyphenols concentration and total antioxidant power (i.e., the ferric-reducing ability of plasma) in the PSPL group. The markers of oxidative damage, plasma TBARS and protein carbonyl, significantly decreased. Plasma IL-6 concentration also decreased. However, no significant difference was found in HSP72 levels between the two groups. These findings indicate that consuming a high-polyphenol diet for 7 days can modulate antioxidative status and decrease exercise-induced oxidative damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. 10.1152/japplphysiol.00205.2010
    In vivo immunomodulatory effects of dietary purple sweet potato after immunization in chicken. Hanieh Hamza,Gerile Chaogetu,Narabara Kiyoaki,Gu Zhigang,Abe Asaki,Kondo Yasuhiro Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho This study was intended to determine the modulatory effects of dietary supplementation of purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batats Poir., PSP) on the immune response of chickens. PSP was included in a basal starter diet by 1% (PSP(L)) or 3% (PSP(H)) and continually fed. Newcastle disease (NDV) vaccine, Brucella abortus (BA) and sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were used for chicken immunization. Antibody titers against these antigens were used to estimate humoral immunity. Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferations of splenocytes, thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), ratios of CD4- and CD8-single positive and CD4-CD8-double negative (DN) cells in splenocytes, were both used to indicate cellular immunity. Relative weights of spleen, thymus and bursa and white blood cell (WBC) counts were studied. PSP(H) increased anti-NDV (P < 0.05), anti-BA (P < 0.01) and anti-SRBC titers (P < 0.05) in response to secondary immunization, whereas PSP(L) increased titers of anti-BA (P < 0.05) and anti-SRBC (P < 0.01). Proliferations of splenocytes and thymocytes were augmented with PSP(L) (P < 0.05). PSP(H)-treated chickens had lower (P < 0.05) ratios of CD4-single positive lymphocytes. Proliferation of PBL, weights of lymphoid organs and WBC counts were not affected. These results suggest that dietary PSP supplementation could enhance the immune response after immunization in chickens. 10.1111/j.1740-0929.2009.00715.x
    Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato attenuate dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes and reducing COX-2 and iNOS expression. Hwang Yong Pil,Choi Jae Ho,Yun Hyo Jeong,Han Eun Hee,Kim Hyung Gyun,Kim Jin Young,Park Bong Hwan,Khanal Tilak,Choi Jun Min,Chung Young Chul,Jeong Hye Gwang Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Anthocyanins of the purple sweet potato exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities via a multitude of biochemical mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways involved in the actions of anthocyanin-induced antioxidant enzymes against chronic liver injury are not fully understood. We examined whether an anthocyanin fraction (AF) from purple sweet potato may prevent dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver injury by inducing antioxidants via nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathways and by reducing inflammation. Treatment with AF attenuated the DMN-induced increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. It also prevented the formation of hepatic malondialdehyde and the depletion of glutathione and maintained normal glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the livers of DMN-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, AF increased the expression of Nrf2, NADPH:quinine oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and GSTα, which were reduced by DMN, and decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. An increase in the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was observed in the DMN-induced liver injury group, but AF inhibited this translocation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AF increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 and at the same time decreases the expression of inflammatory mediators in DMN-induced liver injury. These data imply that AF induces antioxidant defense via the Nrf2 pathway and reduces inflammation via NF-κB inhibition. 10.1016/j.fct.2010.10.002
    Regulatory effect of non-starch polysaccharides from purple sweet potato on intestinal microbiota of mice with antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Bie Nana,Duan Shengquan,Meng Meng,Guo Mingzhu,Wang Chunling Food & function Antibiotic treatment causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), which is usually accompanied by disorders of the intestinal flora, aggravating the patient's condition. Recently, more attention has been devoted to the ability of plant polysaccharides to improve the body's flora and enhance immunity. However, reports on whether purple sweet potato polysaccharides (PSPPs) can improve AAD are scarce. This study aimed to extract a non-starch polysaccharide from purple sweet potato and analyze its structure and ability to regulate the intestinal flora of mice with AAD. The diarrhea model was established via intragastric administration of lincomycin and different concentrations of PSPPs (0.1 g kg-1, 0.2 g kg-1, and 0.4 g kg-1) to Balb/C mice. The results showed that PSPP was a pyran polysaccharide with 1 → 2, 1 → 2, 6, 1 → 4, 1 → 4, 6 glycosidic bonds in an α-configuration. In vivo experiments showed that PSPP could relieve diarrhea and improve the structural damage in the ileum caused by lincomycin hydrochloride. In addition, treatment with PSPPs decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α but increased the level of IL-10 in the intestines of mice (p < 0.01). The results of 16S rRNA sequencing showed that PSPPs changed the composition and diversity of the intestinal flora of mice with AAD. In addition, PSPP treatment increased the content of short-chain fatty acids (p < 0.01). These results revealed that PSPPs regulated the intestinal flora, balanced fatty acid metabolism, and relieved the symptoms of diarrhea to a certain extent in mice. 10.1039/d0fo03465g
    [Effect of purple sweet potato on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats]. Chen Wei-ping,Mao Tong-jun,Fan Lin,Zhou Yu-han,Yu Jing,Jin Yun,Hou Peng-chao Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of purple sweet potato on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. METHODS:Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, high-fat control group, high purple sweet potato groups, low purple sweet potato group. The rats were fed with different diets for 6w respectively. RESULTS:Serum TC, TG levels were significantly lower in high dosage group than in high-fat control group; while only serum TG was significantly lower in low dosage group than in high-fat control group, these changes started at the third week and lasted to the end of experiment. Serum LDL-C and AI levels were significantly lower in high and low dosage group than in high-fat control group, whereas, serum HDL-C was significantly higher than that in high-fat control group at w3 and lasted to the end of experiment. Serum SOD was significantly higher in high and low dosage group than in high-fat control group, whereas, serum MDA was significantly lower than that in high-fat control group at w6. CONCLUSION:Purple sweet potato can decrease serum lipids and reduce hepatic oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. 10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2011.04.003
    Stability and Quality of Anthocyanin in Purple Sweet Potato Extracts. Chen Chin-Chia,Lin Chi,Chen Min-Hung,Chiang Po-Yuan Foods (Basel, Switzerland) Because of the high nutritional value of anthocyanin in purple sweet potatoes (TN57), the stability and quality of anthocyanin in purple sweet potatoes during and after the processing were investigated in this study. First of all, the extraction methods with different parameters, such as temperature, time, solid-liquid ratio, pH value, and solvent were employed to get better extraction efficiencies. After that, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) were used to evaluate the anti-oxidation ability of the extracts. Lastly, the thermal degradation kinetics and photodegradation were used to obtain important degradation factors including the content of anthocyanin residue, degradation index (DI), color parameters, reaction rate (k), and chromatic aberration (ΔE). We found that the extraction condition as using 60% ethanol with 1% citric acid under 80 °C for 40 min was optimal for purple sweet potatoes, which obtained antioxidant capacity as 333 μM TE DPPH, 376 μM TE ABTS, and 593.6 μM TE ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The results indicate that the most important parameter for the stability of anthocyanin in the purple sweet potato extract (PSPAE) was the pH value rather than temperature. In addition, there was no significant difference in chromatic aberration between the light and dark storage conditions under 37 °C. Thus, PSPAE has the potential to be developed as health foods and drinks rich in anthocyanin. 10.3390/foods8090393
    Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Purple Sweet Potato Extract in LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Virus-Induced Murine Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Kim Ok-Kyung,Nam Da-Eun,Yoon Ho-Geun,Baek Sun Jung,Jun Woojin,Lee Jeongmin Journal of medicinal food The immunomodulatory effects of a dietary supplement of purple sweet potato extract (PSPE) in LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-induced immune-deficient mice were investigated. Mice were divided into six groups: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg), purple sweet potato water extract (PSPWE) (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of PSPE 300 mg/kg), PSP10EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 10% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg), and PSP80EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 80% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg). Dietary supplementation began on the day of LP-BM5 MuLV infection and continued for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of PSPE inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy and attenuated the suppression of T- and B-cell proliferation and T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine imbalance in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. Dietary supplement of PSPE increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The data suggest that PSPE may ameliorate immune dysfunction due to LP-BM5 MuLV infection by modulating antioxidant defense systems. 10.1089/jmf.2014.3274
    Characterisation and stability of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato P40. Xu Jianteng,Su Xiaoyu,Lim Soyoung,Griffin Jason,Carey Edward,Katz Benjamin,Tomich John,Smith J Scott,Wang Weiqun Food chemistry Purple-fleshed sweet potato P40 has been shown to prevent colorectal cancer in a murine model. This study is to identify anthocyanins by using HPLC/MS-MS and assess the stability during various cooking conditions. P40 possesses a high content of anthocyanins up to 14 mg/g dry matter. Total 12 acylated anthocyanins are identified. Top three anthocyanins, e.g., cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3-caffeoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6"-caffeoyl-6"-feruloylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, account for half of the anthocyanin contents. Over 80% of anthocyanins measured by acid hydrolysis were cyanidin derivatives, indicating P40 is unique when compared with other purple-fleshed sweet potatoes that usually contain more peonidin than cyanidin. Steaming, pressure cooking, microwaving, and frying but not baking significantly reduced 8-16% of total anthocyanin contents. Mono-acylated anthocyanins showed a higher resistance against heat than di- and non-acylated. Among of which, cyanidin 3-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside exhibited the best thermal stability. The stable acylated and cyanidin-predominated anthocyanins in P40 may provide extra benefits for cancer prevention. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.123
    Purple sweet potato color inhibits endothelial premature senescence by blocking the NLRP3 inflammasome. Sun Chunhui,Fan Shaohua,Wang Xin,Lu Jun,Zhang Zifeng,Wu Dongmei,Shan Qun,Zheng Yuanlin The Journal of nutritional biochemistry Purple sweet potato color (PSPC), flavonoids isolated from purple sweet potato, has been well demonstrated for the pharmacological properties. In the present study, we attempt to explore whether the antisenescence was involved in PSPC-mediated protection against endothelium dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and, if involved, what are the possible mechanisms. The results showed that atherogenesis and endothelial senescence in the thoracic aorta were promoted in mice with prediabetes; meanwhile, PSPC attenuated the deterioration of vascular vessel and inhibited the endothelial senescence. Diabetes mellitus is a documented high-risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Studies show that D-galactose (D-gal) promotes endothelial cell senescence in vitro. In our study, we have determined that PSPC could suppress the D-gal-induced premature senescence and the abnormal endothelial function, discovered in the early stages of atherosclerosis induced by T2DM. We have discovered that the PSPC down-regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and the NLRP3 inflammasome functions. Furthermore, the premature senescence induced by D-gal was inhibited after attenuation of ROS and deactivation of NLRP3 inflammasomes. However, once the NLRP3 inflammasomes are overactivated, PSPC could not restrain cell senescence. These data imply that the beneficial effects of PSPC on diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction and senescence are mediated through ROS and NLRP3 signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for the prevention of endothelial senescence-related cardiovascular diseases. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2015.04.012
    The Effects of Curcuma longa L., Purple Sweet Potato, and Mixtures of the Two on Immunomodulation in C57BL/6J Mice Infected with LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Retrovirus. Park Soo-Jeung,Lee Dasom,Lee Minhee,Kwon Han-Ol,Kim Hyesook,Park Jeongjin,Jeon Woojin,Cha Minseok,Jun Suhwa,Park Kwangjin,Lee Jeongmin Journal of medicinal food The immune response is stimulated to protect the body from external antigens and is controlled by several types of immune cells. In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of Curcuma longa L., purple sweet potato, and mixtures of the two (CPM) were investigated in C57BL/6 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Mice were divided into seven groups as follows: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of C. longa L. (C; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of C 189 mg/kg body weight), the original powder of purple sweet potato (P; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of P 1811 mg/kg body weight), CPM Low (CPL; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 2 g/kg body weight), and CPM High (CPH; LP-BM5 MuLV infection+CPM 5 g/kg body weight). Dietary supplementation lasted for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of CPM inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly and inhibited reduction of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and II. Moreover, CPM reduced the decrease in T- and B cell proliferation, reduced the population of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, and remedied the unbalanced production of T helper-1 (Th1)/T helper-2 (Th2) cytokines in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. In addition, CPM inhibited reduction of phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages and decreased serum levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and immunoglobulin G (IgG). These results suggest that CPM had a positive effect on immunomodulation in C57BL/6 mice induced by LP-BM5 leukemia retrovirus infection. 10.1089/jmf.2017.4093
    Anthocyanidin-containing compounds occur in the periderm cell walls of the storage roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Philpott Martin,Ferguson Lynnette R,Gould Kevin S,Harris Philip J Journal of plant physiology Anthocyanins, which are O-glycosylated derivatives of anthocyanidins, are responsible for the red, blue and purple coloration of many organs of angiosperms where they have previously been reported to occur in vacuoles and cytoplasm. However, bright-field microscopy of sections of the storage roots of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) clone 99N1/222, which contains high concentrations of anthocyanins, showed that the walls of the periderm cork cells (skin), but not those of the adjacent parenchyma cells, were coloured bright red/purple. In situ absorption spectra of the periderm cell walls were similar to those of methanolic solutions of anthocyanins. Dry cell-wall preparations obtained from the periderm and parenchyma tissues were coloured deep reddish-brown and white, respectively. Pigment was extracted from the periderm cell-wall preparation by treating with 1 M NaOH. Acid hydrolysis of this extract followed by HPLC indicated the presence of the anthocyanidins cyanidin and peonidin. It is concluded that the periderm cell walls contain covalently bound anthocyanidin-containing compounds, possibly anthocyanins. 10.1016/j.jplph.2008.12.007
    Comparison of the in vitro gastrointestinal bioavailability of acylated and non-acylated anthocyanins: Purple-fleshed sweet potato vs red wine. Oliveira Hélder,Perez-Gregório Rosa,de Freitas Victor,Mateus Nuno,Fernandes Iva Food chemistry Acylated anthocyanins from purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) have been reported to have multiple benefits to human health. Although, the bioavailability of these anthocyanins remains unknown. In the present study, a characterization of the gastrointestinal bioavailability of PFSP anthocyanins was assayed and compared with the bioavailability of Red Wine anthocyanins. Acylated anthocyanins showed higher resistance to overall simulated digestions when compared to less complex anthocyanins from Red wine, with degradation at the intestinal level of about 30% and 45%, respectively. Transport rates of absorption of acylated anthocyanins were not dependent on the cell type. However, a higher transport efficiency was observed in gastric cells (8%) when compared to the intestinal cells (5%). Glucose and proteins, but not starch, decreased the transport efficiency of anthocyanins in about 3-7% in gastric cells and 2-3% in intestinal cells. These results bring new insights and lay the groundwork for further research on acylated anthocyanins bioavailability. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.09.159
    Purple sweet potato anthocyanin attenuates fat-induced mortality in Drosophila melanogaster. Wang Lijun,Li Yuk Man,Lei Lin,Liu Yuwei,Wang Xiaobo,Ma Ka Ying,Zhang Chengnan,Zhu Hanyue,Zhao Yimin,Chen Zhen-Yu Experimental gerontology A high fat diet induces the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), accelerates the ageing process and causes a greater mortality in Drosophila melanogaster. Purple sweet potato is rich in antioxidant anthocyanin. The purpose of the present study was to examine if supplementation of purple sweet potato anthocyanin (PSPA) could reduce the mortality of fruit flies fed a high-fat diet. Results showed that the mean lifespan of fruit flies was shortened from 56 to 35days in a dose-dependent manner when lard in the diet increased from 0% to 20%. PSPA supplementation partially attenuated the lard-induced mortality. The maximum lifespan and 50% survival time were 49 and 27days, respectively, for the 10% lard control flies, in contrast, these parameters increased to 57 and 30days in the PSPA-supplemented fruit flies. Similarly, addition of lard into diet increased the total body LPO, while addition of PSPA partially attenuated its increase. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that PSPA-supplemented diet significantly up-regulated the mRNA of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Rpn11, compared with the control lard diet. The western blot analysis also demonstrated that PSPA supplementation was associated with up-regulation protein mass of SOD1, SOD2, and CAT. In addition, PSPA supplementation could restore the climbing ability of fruit flies fed a 10% lard diet. We could conclude that the lifespan-prolonging activity of PSPA was potentially mediated by modulating the genes of SOD, CAT and Rpn11. 10.1016/j.exger.2016.06.006
    Purple sweet potato color attenuates high fat-induced neuroinflammation in mouse brain by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB activation. Li Jian,Shi Zhao,Mi Yongjie Molecular medicine reports Purple sweet potato color (PSPC) is a natural anthocyanin pigment that is derived from purple sweet potato storage roots. PSPC possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti‑inflammatory and neuroprotective effects; however, the detailed effects of PSPC on high‑fat diet (HFD)‑induced neuroinflammation remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PSPC has a protective role in HFD‑associated neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and to provide novel insight into the mechanisms of the action. C57BL 6J mice were maintained on a normal diet (10 kcal% fat), a HFD (60 kcal% fat), a HFD with PSPC (700 mg/kg/day) or PSPC alone, which was administrated over 20 weeks. Open field and step‑through tests were used to evaluate the effects of HFD and PSPC on mouse behavior and memory function. Western blotting and ELISA analyses were used to assess the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinase and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB). The results demonstrated that PSPC treatment was able to significantly improve the HFD‑induced impairment of mouse behavior and memory function, and suppressed the increase in body weight, fat content, hyperlipemia and the level of endotoxin. PSPC treatment also markedly decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase‑2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6, and increased the level of IL‑10 in the HFD‑treated mouse brain. In addition, PSPC inhibited the HFD‑induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK), c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, and the activation of NF‑κB. These findings indicated that PSPC treatment may alleviate HFD‑induced neuroinflammation in the mouse brain by inhibiting ERK, JNK, p38 and NF-κB activation. 10.3892/mmr.2018.8440
    In vitro and in vivo hypoglycemic effects of cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, an anthocyanin isolated from purple-fleshed sweet potato. Jang Hwan-Hee,Kim Heon-Woong,Kim Su-Yeon,Kim Sang-Mi,Kim Jung-Bong,Lee Young-Min Food chemistry Anthocyanins are major components of purple sweet potatoes (PSP) with antioxidant, anti-obesity, and antidiabetic activity. In this study, we evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of 12 individual anthocyanins purified from PSP (Korean variety Shinzami). We separated the anthocyanins using liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS). Three anthocyanins were selected through a radical scavenging activity test. We examined whether individual anthocyanins inhibited glucose secretion in HepG2 cells (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Additionally, we determined the effect of each anthocyanin on fasting blood glucose levels in 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a 60% high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Mice were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after oral administration of anthocyanins (80 mg/kg), an anthocyanin-rich-fraction (80 mg/kg), positive control (metformin, 80 mg/kg), and distilled water (control). Cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside (PEAK9) was the main PSP anthocyanin that inhibited hepatic glucose secretion and reduced blood glucose. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.08.010
    Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in sweet potato after heat treatment. Kim Min Young,Lee Byong Won,Lee Hyeong-Un,Lee Yu Young,Kim Mi Hyang,Lee Jin Young,Lee Byoung Kyu,Woo Koan Sik,Kim Hyun-Joo Journal of the science of food and agriculture BACKGROUND:The ability of heat treatment with a soaking solvent to increase soluble phenolic compounds due to the liberation or breakdown of the cell matrix has been investigated in various plants. This study investigated the changes in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of 12 sweet potato cultivars after heat treatment with distilled water or prethanol A. RESULTS:The highest total polyphenol content (134.67 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract residue) and flavonoid content (65.43 mg catechin equivalents/g extract residue) was observed in the 'Jami' (JM) cultivar after heat treatment with prethanol A. Higher polyphenol and flavonoid content was generally observed in the purple sweet potato cultivars. Salicylic acid was the major phenolic acid, followed by protocatechuic acid or chlorogenic acid in almost all untreated sweet potato cultivars. The salicylic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid content of the sweet potatoes increased after the heat treatment, whereas the protocatechuic acid and chlorogenic acid content decreased. The highest 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity levels were observed in the JM cultivar subjected to heat treatment with prethanol A (48.15 and 80.00 mg TE/g extract residue, respectively). CONCLUSION:These results suggest that heat treatment with a soaking solvent is an efficient method to enhance the antioxidant characteristics of Korean sweet potato cultivars. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry. 10.1002/jsfa.9968
    Anti-inflammatory properties and gut microbiota modulation of an alkali-soluble polysaccharide from purple sweet potato in DSS-induced colitis mice. Sun Jian,Chen Hong,Kan Juan,Gou Yarun,Liu Jun,Zhang Xin,Wu Xiaonan,Tang Sixue,Sun Rui,Qian Chunlu,Zhang Nianfeng,Niu Fuxiang,Jin Changhai International journal of biological macromolecules In this study, the potential effects of a novel alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASPP) from purple sweet potato on colonic histopathology, inflammation and microbiota composition in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice were evaluated. The results indicated that ASPP restored the immune organ indices, increased colon length, improved colonic histopathology in colitis mice as well as inhibited the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in colonic tissue and serum. Moreover, 16S rRNA phylogenetic sequencing revealed that ASPP ameliorated the compositions and functions of gut microbiota in DSS-induced colitis mice. It was found that Parasutterella, Desulfovibrio, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillus, Erysipelotrichaceae, Bacteroidetes were the key bacteria associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). Taken together, ASPP alleviated colonic inflammation via blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines; meanwhile ASPP could modulate the structure of gut microbiota in DSS-induced colitis mice. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.03.053
    Biotransformation of anthocyanins from two purple-fleshed sweet potato accessions in a dynamic gastrointestinal system. Kubow Stan,Iskandar Michèle M,Sabally Kebba,Azadi Behnam,Sadeghi Ekbatan Shima,Kumarathasan Premkumari,Das Dharani Dhar,Prakash Satya,Burgos Gabriela,Zum Felde Thomas Food chemistry Cooked, milled purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) accessions, PM09.812 and PM09.960, underwent digestion in a dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model that simulates gut digestive conditions to study the bioaccessibility and biotransformation of anthocyanins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed accession-dependent variations in anthocyanin release and degradation. After 24h, more anthocyanin species were detected in the small intestinal vessel relative to other vessels for accession PM09.960 whereas more species appeared in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was increased in the small intestinal vessel for PM09.960 and in the ascending colonic vessel for accession PM09.812, corresponding to the appearance of a majority of anthocyanins for each accession. These results show that intestinal and colonic microbial digestion of PFSP leads to an accession-dependent pattern for anthocyanin bioaccessibility and degradation. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.06.105
    Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts. Sugata Marcelia,Lin Chien-Yih,Shih Yang-Chia BioMed research international Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. 10.1155/2015/768093
    Purple Sweet Potato Polyphenols Differentially Influence the Microbial Composition Depending on the Fermentability of Dietary Fiber in a Mixed Culture of Swine Fecal Bacteria. Kilua Aldrine,Nomata Riri,Nagata Ryuji,Fukuma Naoki,Shimada Kenichiro,Han Kyu-Ho,Fukushima Michihiro Nutrients The prevalence of many chronic diseases which have been associated with poor nutrition may be reduced by the positive modulation of colonic microbiota. In this study, we assess the effects of purple sweet potato polyphenols (PSP) in a mixed culture of swine fecal bacteria during in vitro colonic fermentation using pig colonic digest. Jar fermenters were used to conduct a small scale in vitro colonic fermentation experiments under the anaerobic condition for 48 h. Jar fermenters were assigned to one of the following groups: Cellulose, cellulose + PSP, inulin, and inulin + PSP. The present study revealed that the polyphenolic content of purple sweet potato could modulate the colonic microbiota by differentially increasing the population of beneficial bacteria and decreasing the pathogenic bacteria depending on cellulose and inulin. Accordingly, PSP might be a material conducive for improving the conditions for the fermentation of partly-fermentable dietary fiber. Besides, PSP was also responsible for the drastic reduction of putrefactive products, especially -cresol to a significant level. Our results suggest that PSP could alter the microbial composition depending upon the fermentability of dietary fiber and has the potential to maintain a stable and healthy colonic environment that will ultimately alleviate chronic diseases development and confer health benefits to the host. 10.3390/nu11071495
    An analytical pipeline to compare and characterise the anthocyanin antioxidant activities of purple sweet potato cultivars. Hu Yijie,Deng Liqing,Chen Jinwu,Zhou Siyu,Liu Shuang,Fu Yufan,Yang Chunxian,Liao Zhihua,Chen Min Food chemistry Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is rich in anthocyanin pigments, which are valuable constituents of the human diet. Techniques to identify and quantify anthocyanins and their antioxidant potential are desirable for cultivar selection and breeding. In this study, we performed a quantitative and qualitative chemical analysis of 30 purple sweet potato (PSP) cultivars, using various assays to measure reducing power radical-scavenging activities, and linoleic acid autoxidation inhibition activity. Grey relational analysis (GRA) was applied to establish relationships between the antioxidant activities and the chemical fingerprints, in order to identify key bioactive compounds. The results indicated that four peonidin-based anthocyanins and three cyanidin-based anthocyanins make significant contributions to antioxidant activity. We conclude that the analytical pipeline described here represents an effective method to evaluate the antioxidant potential of, and the contributing compounds present in, PSP cultivars. This approach may be used to guide future breeding strategies. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.133
    Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweet potato leaves. Su Xiaoyu,Griffin Jason,Xu Jingwen,Ouyang Ping,Zhao Zhihui,Wang Weiqun Heliyon As phytochemical-enriched edible greens, sweet potato () leaves have become popular. However, the profile and content of phytochemicals in sweet potato leaves are mostly unknown. We previously bred a purple-fleshed sweet potato P40 that demonstrated cancer prevention due to high levels of anthocyanins in the tuberous roots. The objectives of this study were to identify and quantify anthocyanins in P40 leaves when compared with the white-fleshed Bonita and orange-fleshed Beauregard. The mature leaves of P40 at 6-week vine stage were collected and extracted for anthocyanin analysis by HPLC-MS/MS. Fourteen anthocyanins, including a novel anthocyanin (peonidin 3-caffeoyl-p-coumaryl sophoroside-5-glucoside), were identified and quantitated. The contents of anthocyanins in P40 leaves (32.7 ± 2.9 mg/kg DW) were much lower than that in the root (13,100 ± 70 mg/kg DW). Furthermore, anthocyanin contents in P40 leaves were even lesser than those of the orange-fleshed Beauregard (334 ± 60.9 mg/kg DW) and white-fleshed Bonita (563 ± 50.4 mg/kg DW). Total phenolic contents as measured by Folin-Ciocalteu were 36.8 ± 4.8 mg GAE/g DW in the leaves of P40, but 41.2 ± 5.0 mg GAE/g DW in Beauregard and 46.7 ± 2.1 mg GAE/g DW in Bonita. No anthocyanin was detectable in the stem of these three sweet potato varieties. Taken together, this study reports for the first time the profile and content of anthocyanins in the leaves of three sweet potato varieties with a new anthocyanin identified. The unexpected lower levels of anthocyanins in the purple-fleshed sweet potato leaves when compared with either the counterpart tuberous roots or the control white-fleshed and orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties advanced our existing knowledge and also validated a diverse phenotype of anthocyanin biosynthesis between sweet potato leaves and roots. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01964
    The anti-inflammatory potential of protein-bound anthocyanin compounds from purple sweet potato in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Jiang Tian,Zhou Jian,Liu Wei,Tao Wen,He Jingren,Jin Weiping,Guo Heng,Yang Ning,Li Yubao Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) Interaction between proteins and anthocyanins spontaneously occurs in most of food systems, resulting the formation of protein-bound anthocyanin compounds, and the interactions between anthocyanins and proteins might impact activity of anthocyanins. In the present study, predominant anthocyanin compounds in free anthocyanin compounds from purple sweet potato (FAC-PSP) were identified and protein in protein-bound anthocyanin compounds from purple sweet potato (p-BAC-PSP) were assayed. Furthermore, the effects of pre-treatment of cells with p-BAC-PSP and FAC-PSP on cell viability, inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, cytokines and gene expression were determined in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. The results revealed 17 protein groups and pigmented polymers in p-BAC-PSP, and 3 different anthocyanins in FAC-PSP. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the anti-inflammatory effect between p-BAC-PSP and FAC-PSP. p-BAC-PSP significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS, thereby suppressing the release of NO and TNF-α. Moreover, p-BAC-PSP markedly inhibited LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Further analysis revealed that p-BAC-PSP suppressed both LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the nuclear translocation of activator protein-1 (AP-1). Our research suggested that naturally occurring p-BAC-PSP has the potential to be a dietary supplement with anti-inflammatory effect, which would meaningful from the actual utilization points of view for purple sweet potato production industry. 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109647
    Research Advances of Purple Sweet Potato Anthocyanins: Extraction, Identification, Stability, Bioactivity, Application, and Biotransformation. Li Aoran,Xiao Ruoshi,He Sijia,An Xiaoyu,He Yi,Wang Chengtao,Yin Sheng,Wang Bin,Shi Xuewei,He Jingren Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Purple sweet potato anthocyanins are kinds of natural anthocyanin red pigments extracted from the root or stem of purple sweet potato. They are stable and have the functions of anti-oxidation, anti-mutation, anti-tumor, liver protection, hypoglycemia, and anti-inflammation, which confer them a good application prospect. Nevertheless, there is not a comprehensive review of purple sweet potato anthocyanins so far. The extraction, structural characterization, stability, functional activity, application in the food, cosmetics, medicine, and other industries of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato, together with their biotransformation in vitro or by gut microorganism are reviewed in this paper, which provides a reference for further development and utilization of anthocyanins. 10.3390/molecules24213816
    Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and polar metabolites from colored sweet potato ( L.) tubers. Park Soo-Yun,Lee So Young,Yang Jung Wook,Lee Joon-Seol,Oh Sung-Dug,Oh Seonwoo,Lee Si Myung,Lim Myung-Ho,Park Soon Ki,Jang Jae-Seon,Cho Hyun Suk,Yeo Yunsoo Food science and biotechnology We determined the phytochemical diversity, including carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and phenolic acids, in sweet potatoes ( L.) with distinctive flesh colors (white, orange, and purple) and identified hydrophilic primary metabolites. Carotenoid content was considerably higher in orange-fleshed sweet potatoes, wherein β-carotene was the most plentiful, and anthocyanins were detected only in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes. The levels of phenolic acids and flavonoids were relatively higher in purple-fleshed sweet potatoes than those in the other two varieties. Forty-one primary and 18 secondary metabolite profiles were subjected to multivariate statistical analyses, which fully distinguished among the varieties and separated orange- and purple-fleshed sweet potatoes from white-fleshed sweet potatoes based on the high levels of sugars, sugar alcohols, and secondary metabolites. This is the first study to determine comprehensive metabolic differences among different color-fleshed sweet potatoes and provides useful information for genetic manipulation of sweet potatoes to influence primary and secondary metabolism. 10.1007/s10068-016-0041-7
    [Purple sweet potato anthocyanins attenuates steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet combined with carbon tetrachloride in rats]. Mi Wei,Han Fulei,Liang Jie,Liang Yanan,Guan Baichu,Xu Hao Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research OBJECTIVE:To explore the mechanism of purple sweet potato anthocyanins through NF-κB pathway in attenuating steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet combined with carbon tetrachloride in rats. METHODS:Seventy male rats were randomly divided into control group( n = 10) and high-fat diet group( n = 60), models were prepared by highfat diet and intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride and olive oil( 50 : 50) 2 mL/kg, two times a week. After 10 weeks of feeding, the weight variations of all rats were tested before and after modeling. The colorimetric technique was used to test the concentration of serum ALT, AST, TG, and TC. A total of 58 rats were succeeded in modeling, the random choice of 50 rats were divided into model group, purple sweet potato anthocyanin low dose group( 60 mg/kg), middle dose group( 120 mg/kg), high dose group( 240 mg/kg), positive drug group( 150 mg/kg), 10 rats in each group. After 8 weeks of continuous administration, the method of colorimetric technique was used to test the concentration of ALT, AST, TG, TC, HDL and LDL. The method of ELISA kit was used to test the levels of the pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β and the levels of the anti-inflammatory IL-4, IL-13. The Real-time PCR was used to test the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-13, PPAR-γ and HMGB-1 mRNA of rats liver. The western blotting method was adopted to test the level of IκB phosphorylation in liver tissues as well as the PPAR-γ and HMGB-1 protein expression. RESULTS:After modeling, the body weight of rats increased( P < 0. 05), the concentration of serum insulin AST, ALT, TG, TC, and LDL all increased significantly( P < 0. 05), the concentration of HDL decreased obviously( P < 0. 05). Compared with control group, the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB-1 in model group were increased significantly( P < 0. 05), the expression of IL-4, IL-13 and PPAR-γ were decreased significantly( P < 0. 05), the expression of pIκB and NF-κB in the model group increased significantly( P < 0. 05). Compared with the model group, the expression level of NF-κB in the high dose purple sweet potato anthocyanin group decreased obviously, and the phosphorylation degree of IκB decreased( P < 0. 05), the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB-1 in liver tissue was significantly decreased( P < 0. 05), and the mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-13 and PPAR-γ were significantly increased( P < 0. 05). The purple sweet potato anthocyanin low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group and positive drugs group all improved the above indexes in different degrees. The effect of the high dose group was significantly higher than that of the low dose and medium dose group, but equivalent to that of the positive drug group. CONCLUSION:Purple sweet potato anthocyanins through NF-κB pathway have a role in attenuating steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet combined with carbon tetrachloride in rats.
    Effects of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No. 8) on the serum uric acid level and xanthine oxidase activity in hyperuricemic mice. Zhang Zi-Cheng,Su Guan-Hua,Luo Chun-Li,Pang Ya-Lu,Wang Lin,Li Xing,Wen Jia-Hao,Zhang Jiu-Liang Food & function This study was aimed at evaluating the hypouricemic effect of the anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE). In vitro, APSPE has been proved to significantly inhibit XO activity in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, APSPE could not only inhibit the XO activity in mouse liver, but also reduce the serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic mice and affect the expression of mRNA levels of related renal transporters, such as mURAT1, mGLUT9, mOAT1 and mOCTN2. Moreover, APSPE could effectively regulate BUN and Cr levels to normal and decrease the inflammatory cellular influx in the tubule of the hyperuricemic mice. This study indicates the potential clinical utility of APSPE as a safe and effective anti-hyperuricemia bioactive agent or functional food. 10.1039/c5fo00499c
    Effect of Cutting Styles on Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Stored Fresh-Cut Sweet Potato ( ) Cultivars. Dovene Atigan Komlan,Wang Li,Bokhary Syed Umar Farooq,Madebo Miilion Paulos,Yonghua Zheng,Jin Peng Foods (Basel, Switzerland) The effect of cutting styles (slice, pie, and shred) on the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of purple and yellow flesh sweet potato cultivars during six days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. The results indicated that the sliced and pie samples showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) on the firmness, weight loss, and vitamin C content compared with the whole sweet potato in both cultivars during storage. The pie sample exhibited the highest wound-induced phenolic, flavonoid, and carotenoid accumulation and DPPH radical scavenging activity among the cuts in both cultivars. Moreover, the shredded sample showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity but lower total phenolic and flavonoid content and the lowest antioxidant activity among the samples. Thus, the finding of this study revealed that pie-cut processing has potential in improving the quality and increasing the antioxidant activity of fresh-cut purple and yellow flesh sweet potato cultivars while shredding accelerated the quality deterioration of both sweet potato cultivars. 10.3390/foods8120674
    Fractionation, enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant activity of bioactives from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Esatbeyoglu Tuba,Rodríguez-Werner Miriam,Schlösser Anke,Winterhalter Peter,Rimbach Gerald Food chemistry Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is mainly cultivated in Asia. The deep purple color of purple sweet potato (PSP) is due to the high content of acylated anthocyanins. In the present study, PSP-derived polyphenols were identified using HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS analyses. After concentration of the polyphenols from PSP, preparative separation into two fractions, designated anthocyanins (AF) and copigments (CF), was carried out using adsorptive membrane chromatography. In enzyme inhibitory assays, all PSP samples inhibited the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase. Additionally, the cell signaling cellular antioxidant properties of the PSP extracts were investigated in cultured cells. PSP induced the transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the expression of genes encoding heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Furthermore, PSP enhanced cellular glutathione concentrations and decreased lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Overall, these results suggest that PSP extracts exhibit enzyme inhibitory and cellular antioxidant properties, especially PSP CF. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.077
    Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Profiles, Cellular Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities in Ten Varieties of Sweet Potato () Storage Roots. Sun Yiming,Pan Zhijun,Yang Chunxian,Jia Zhenzhen,Guo Xinbo Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Sweet potato is the sixth most important crop widely cultivated around the world with abundant varieties. Different varieties gain different phenolic profiles which has drawn researchers' attention for its unique health benefits. Our study evaluated the phenolic profiles, total and cellular antioxidant activities, antiproliferative activities, and cytotoxicity in 10 cultivated varieties of sweet potato in different colours. Among fourteen metabolites detected in our study, hyperoside, ferulic acid and caffeic acid were considered as prominent in SPSRs. According to the principle component analysis, phytochemical composition of HX22, YS15 and YS7 was quite similar. The results also evidenced that purple-fleshed varieties, such as YS43, YZ7 and YY153, have higher total phenolics content and corresponding stronger total antioxidant capacities as well as cellular antiproliferative activities against human liver cancer HepG2 cells than other varieties. The extremely significant correlation between phenolics and total antioxidant activity was also revealed by Pearson correlation analysis ( < 0.05). However, no significant relevance was found between intracellular antioxidant activity and total phenolic content or flesh colour of sweet potatoes. 10.3390/molecules24244476
    A comparative metabolomics study of flavonoids in sweet potato with different flesh colors (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam). Wang Aimin,Li Rensai,Ren Lei,Gao Xiali,Zhang Yungang,Ma Zhimin,Ma Daifu,Luo Yonghai Food chemistry To study the diversity and cultivar-specific of phytochemicals in sweet potato, Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry was used to analyze the metabolic profiles of five sweet potato cultivars exhibiting different flesh colors: purple, yellow/orange, and white. A total of 213 metabolites, including 29 flavonoids and 27 phenolic acids, were characterized. The flavonoid profiles of the five different cultivars were distinguished using PCA, the results suggested the flesh color accounted for the observed metabolic differences. In addition to anthocyanins, quinic acids and ferulic acids were the prominent phenolic acids, O-hexoside of quercetin, chrysoeriol were the prominent flavonoids in sweet potato tubers, and they were all higher in the OFSP and PFSP than WFSP. The main differential metabolic pathways between the OFSP, PFSP and the WFSP included those relating to phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. This study provides new insights into the differences in metabolite profiles among sweet potatoes with different flesh colors. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.125
    Protective Effects of Anthocyanin Extract from Purple Sweet Potato ( L.) on Blood MDA Levels, Liver and Renal Activity, and Blood Pressure of Hyperglycemic Rats. Herawati Ervika Rahayu Novita,Santosa Umar,Sentana Suharwadji,Ariani Dini Preventive nutrition and food science There has been a dynamic progression in the study of purple sweet potatoes, particularly in regard to their antioxidant compounds, such as anthocyanins. Antioxidants can reduce oxidative stress due to hyperglycemia, therefore research into the protective effects of hyperglycemia is essential. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potatoes on blood malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, liver and renal activity, and blood pressure in hyperglycemic rats. Anthocyanin from purple sweet potato (APSP) was extracted with ethanol-citric acid 3% solvent. Twenty-four rats were split into four experimental groups: (i) healthy rats; (ii) hyperglycemic rats without anthocyanin treatment; (iii) hyperglycemic rats treated with APSP extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg; and (iv) hyperglycemic rats treated with APSP extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Rats received treatment for 35 days. The results showed that consumption of APSP significantly reduced levels of MDA in the blood, and liver and renal systems. APSP could reduce the urea and creatinine levels, which are indicative of improved renal function. In addition, APSP could decrease serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase levels, indicative of protective activity of the extract on liver, and decrease systolic blood pressure. Accordingly, it was concluded that APSP could be developed as a functional food for treatment of diabetes. 10.3746/pnf.2020.25.4.375
    Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Purple Sweet Potato ( (L.) Lam.): Varietal Comparisons and Physical Distribution. Im Yeong Ran,Kim Inhwan,Lee Jihyun Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) The outer layer of purple sweet potato is removed during processing; however, this layer serves as a potential source of phenolics, especially anthocyanins. Herein, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were determined for the inner and outer layers of five purple sweet potato cultivars ('Sinjami', 'Jami', 'Danjami', 'Yeonjami', and 'Borami') harvested in Korea. Anthocyanins were identified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-(ESI)-qTOF-MS) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Ion trap-MS), and their composition was quantified using HPLC-coupled with diode array detector (DAD). Non-anthocyanin phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonols) were quantified using UHPLC-(ESI)-triple quadrupole (QqQ). A total of 20 anthocyanins, including non-acylated or acylated peonidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin glycosides, were identified. Peonidin 3-caffeoyl--hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside was the major anthocyanin, with the highest level in the 'Sinjami' cultivar (outer; 12,366 mg/kg DW, inner; 14,832 mg/kg DW). Additionally, 12 phenolic acids and 6 flavonols (quercetin derivatives) were identified, with the outer layers of all cultivars displaying higher total levels than the inner layers. 'Sinjami' and 'Jami' had higher phenolic acid and quercetin derivative content and antioxidant activities than the other three cultivars ( < 0.05). Thus, the outer layers of 'Sinjami' and 'Jami' cultivars could be potential sources of anthocyanins and other phenolics. 10.3390/antiox10030462
    Effect of polyphenols isolated from purple sweet potato ( cv. Ayamurasaki) on the microbiota and the biomarker of colonic fermentation in rats fed with cellulose or inulin. Kilua Aldrine,Han Kyu-Ho,Fukushima Michihiro Food & function A polyphenol-rich diet has been associated with various health benefits. This study assessed the effects of polyphenol/anthocyanin isolated from a purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Ayamurasaki) on colonic fermentation in cellulose- or inulin-fed rats. Male Fischer-344 rats were assigned to one of these experimental diets: 5% cellulose (CEL), 5% CEL + 1% purple sweet potato polyphenol extract (CELP), 5% inulin (INU), and 5% INU + 1% purple sweet potato polyphenol extract (INUP) in each diet. The purple sweet potato polyphenol extract (PSPP) increased the relative abundance of Dorea and reduced the relative abundances of Oscillospira and Bacteroides in cellulose- or inulin-fed rats, respectively. Besides, PSPP reduced the caecal iso-butyrate and pH in the cellulose-fed rats. Further, PSPP triggered an increase in the caecal mucin level when combined with cellulose and increased the caecal IgA level while reducing the indole production in both the cellulose- or inulin-fed rats. Finally, PSPP may have different effects on the intestinal fermentation properties depending on the fermentability of dietary fiber associated with it. Therefore, this study demonstrated that dietary inclusion of polyphenol/anthocyanin from purple sweet potato might confer positive health attributes to the host gut. 10.1039/d0fo02111c
    Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) and its affinity towards acylated anthocyanins and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. Torres Andrea,Aguilar-Osorio Guillermo,Camacho Michelle,Basurto Francisco,Navarro-Ocana Arturo Food chemistry Biochemical characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) present in purple sweet potato (PSP) is a key step in developing efficient methodologies to control oxidative damage caused by this enzyme to the valuable components of PSP, such as caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and acylated anthocyanins. Thus, this work focused on the assessment of the effects of pH, temperature, and chemical agents on the PPO activity as well as characterization of the PPO substrate specificity towards major phenolic compounds found in PSP. The optimum conditions of enzyme activity were pH 7 and a temperature range of 20-30 °C at which phenolic substrates were oxidized with 72.5-99.8% yield. Zn ions remarkably reduced PPO activity while Cu ions improved enzyme performance. The highest substrate preference was shown for 3,4,5-tri-caffeoylquinic and 3,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid, followed by 5-caffeoylquinic and caffeic acid, 3,4- and 4,5-di-caffeoylquinic acids, peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl-sophoroside-5-glucoside. The highest Km values were found for 4,5-feruloyl-caffeoylquinic acid and catechol. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129709
    Characterization and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. cultivar Eshu No. 8). Journal of food and drug analysis The hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich purple sweet potato extract (APSPE) was demonstrated. Sixty mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group [without carbon tetrachloride (CCl) or APSPE]; model group (with CCl only); positive control group (50 mg/kg body weight silymarin); low-dose group (100 mg/kg body weight APSPE); medium-dose group (200 mg/kg body weight APSPE); and high-dose group (400 mg/kg body weight APSPE). After 10 days intragastric administration of the respective supplements, the mice in all groups except control were injected intraperitoneally with CCl (0.15% in arachis oil, 10 mL/kg body weight, intravenous). Twelve hours after CCl injection, the mice were measured in terms of liver index, levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum, as well as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde in liver homogenate. Additionally, the livers of mice were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and sectioned for observation. Nineteen purple sweet potato anthocyanins were identified from the purple sweet potato cultivar Eshu No. 8 and analyzed by liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Peonidin 3-coumaryl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside was first identified in purple sweet potato. The results showed that anthocyanins in Eshu No. 8 had good hepatoprotective activity. 10.1016/j.jfda.2016.10.009
    Investigation on the biological activity of anthocyanins and polyphenols in blueberry. Yang Sen,Wang Chao,Li Xingyuan,Wu Caie,Liu Chen,Xue Zhaohui,Kou Xiaohong Journal of food science Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) is a fruit recognized in the world as healthy, and many of its active ingredients have important physiological functions. This study analyzed the antioxidant activity, antitumor activity, and immune function of anthocyanins and polyphenols extracted from blueberries. The crude extracts of anthocyanins and polyphenols were obtained from blueberries and then purified, and the extract exhibited excellent dose-dependent antitumor activity and antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro. The purified anthocyanins and polyphenol compounds showed higher antioxidant activity, whereas the crude extract had a better inhibitory effect on tumor proliferation than pure extract, and the blueberry anthocyanin and polyphenol crude product mixture showed a more powerful tumor suppressor, which may be the result of the synergistic effect of multiple compounds. The crude extracts were also more efficient at improving immune function, as reflected by measurements of change in body weight, thymus and spleen indices, macrophage phagocytosis, lymphocyte transformation capacity, superoxide dismutase activity, malondialdehyde content, and serum nitric oxide levels. These results indicate that blueberry anthocyanins and polyphenol extracts can improve immune function and reduce the metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells. This study reveals the functions of important active substances in blueberries and provides support for the development of functional health products and therapeutic drugs. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: We compared the biological activity of crude and purified anthocyanins and polyphenol extracts from blueberries and tested their effects on improving immune function. This study contributes to a better understanding of the bioactivity of blueberry extracts and is valuable for further applications of blueberries in medicine. 10.1111/1750-3841.15598
    Effects of heat, ultrasound, and microwave processing on the stability and antioxidant activity of delphinidin and petunidin. Wang Furong,Li Hongyan,Qin Yan,Mao Yu,Zhang Bing,Deng Zeyuan Journal of food biochemistry The effects of conventional heating, ultrasonic, and microwave treatments on the stability and antioxidant activities of anthocyanidin standards (delphinidin and petunidin) were studied. The antioxidant activities of delphinidin and petunidin significantly decreased during the treatments, which suggested that the antioxidant activities of the degradation products were lower than that of anthocyanidin. In addition, the degradation of delphinidin and petunidin followed first-order reaction kinetics. The kinetic parameters indicated that delphinidin was more stable than petunidin. The microwave treatment led to the fastest degradation, followed by the conventional heating and ultrasonic treatments. Moreover, three types of degradation products of delphinidin were found by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS after all three treatments, and they were phloroglucinaldehyde, delphinidin chalcone, and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid. Petunidin was broken into phloroglucinaldehyde, petunidin chalcone, and 3-methoxy-4,5- dihydroxybenzoic acid. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Anthocyanins with great antioxidant activity are widely distributed in plants. The stability of the anthocyanin affects its antioxidant activity and bioavailability. When anthocyanins are degraded, their antioxidant activities change accordingly. Therefore, it is crucial to study the structure, stability, and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins. This paper explores the structures and pyrolysis pathways of delphinidin and petunidin and provides basic data for the utilization and preservation of anthocyanins during food processing and production. 10.1111/jfbc.12818
    New acylated anthocyanins from purple yam and their antioxidant activity. Moriya Chiemi,Hosoya Takahiro,Agawa Sayuri,Sugiyama Yasumasa,Kozone Ikuko,Shin-Ya Kazuo,Terahara Norihiko,Kumazawa Shigenori Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry Purple yam (Dioscorea alata L.), which is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is characterized by its color and viscosity. Previous studies have shown that purple yams contain a variety of acylated anthocyanins that exhibit higher levels of antioxidant activity than the corresponding nonacylated compounds. In this study, the pigments found in purple yams from the Philippines (D. alata) were isolated and evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Four new acylated anthocyanins, alanins (1-4) were isolated from the MeOH extracts of purple yam, which were subsequently determined to be cyanidin (1, 2, and 4) and peonidin (3) type compounds, along with four known anthocyanins (5-8). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR and MS analyses. The antioxidant activities of anthocyanins 1-8 were investigated using oxygen radical absorbing capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. 10.1080/09168451.2015.1027652
    Effects of resveratrol on intestinal oxidative status and inflammation in heat-stressed rats. Cheng Kang,Song Zhihua,Li Simian,Yan Enfa,Zhang Hao,Zhang Lili,Wang Chao,Wang Tian Journal of thermal biology Heat stress, experienced by humans and animals under high ambient temperatures, is known to induce oxidative stress and inflammation, which endangers human health as well as animal welfare and production. The gastrointestinal tract is predominantly responsive to heat stress and compromised intestinal functions can contribute to multi-organ injury under heat environment. Resveratrol (RSV) has significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of RSV on intestinal function (digestion and barrier), oxidative stress and inflammation in heat-stressed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally fed with 100 mg RSV/kg body weight/day prior to daily heat stress (40 °C per day for 1.5 h) exposure for 3 consecutive days. The results showed that RSV reversed the increased serum cortisol level and diamine oxidase activity, the altered jejunal morphology, the decreased jejunal disaccharidase activities, the elevated malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor alpha concentrations and antioxidant enzymes activities in the jejunum, as well as the increased jejunal mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4, cytokines, antioxidant enzymes and tight junction proteins in heat-stressed rats, to various degrees. In conclusion, RSV could alleviate intestinal injury and dysfunctions by improving oxidative status and suppressing inflammation in heat-stressed rats. 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2019.102415
    Resveratrol alleviates heat stress-induced impairment of intestinal morphology, microflora, and barrier integrity in broilers. Zhang C,Zhao X H,Yang L,Chen X Y,Jiang R S,Jin S H,Geng Z Y Poultry science This study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol on intestinal morphology, microfloras, and barrier integrity of broilers subjected to heat stress. Two-hundred-seventy 21-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly allocated to 3 treatment groups, each of which included 6 replicates with 15 birds per replicate. The 3 treatment groups were as follows: the control group, in which birds were exposed to thermoneutral condition (22 ± 1°C), and the heat stress group and heat stress + resveratrol (400 mg/kg) group, in which birds were exposed to cyclic heat stress (33 ± 1°C for 10 h/d from 0800 to 1800 h and 22 ± 1°C for the remaining time. Compared with birds in the control group, birds in the heat stress group exhibited decreased (P < 0.05) final body weight, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, villus height, villus height to crypt depth ratio, goblet cells numbers, populations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and mRNA levels of mucin-2, claudin-1, occludin, zona occludens-1, and E-cadherin, and increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth, serum D-lactic acid and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran contents and diamine oxidase activity, and populations of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium. Compared with birds in the heat stress group, birds in the heat stress + resveratrol group exhibited decreased (P < 0.05) crypt depth, serum D-lactic acid and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran contents, and populations of Escherichia coli, and increased (P < 0.05) final body weight, villus height, villus height to crypt depth ratio, goblet cells numbers, populations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and mRNA levels of mucin-2, claudin-1, occludin, and E-cadherin. Taken together, these results indicated for the first time that dietary addition of resveratrol was effective in partially ameliorating the adverse effects of heat stress on intestinal barrier function in broilers by restoring the impaired villus-crypt structure, modifying the profiles of intestinal microfloras, and altering the mRNA expression of intestinal tight junctions- and adherence junctions-related genes. 10.3382/ps/pex266
    Effects of purple sweet potato anthocyanins on development and intracellular redox status of bovine preimplantation embryos exposed to heat shock. Sakatani Miki,Suda Ikuo,Oki Tomoyuki,Kobayashi Shu-ichi,Kobayashi Shuji,Takahashi Masashi The Journal of reproduction and development The development of cleavage stage preimplantation embryos is disrupted by exposure to heat shock, such as high temperatures in the summer season. In this study, we investigated whether addition of anthocyanins, which are strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS), improves development and intracellular redox status of heat-exposed bovine preimplantation embryos by reduction of heat shock-derived oxidative stress. After in vitro fertilization (IVF), embryos were cultured at 38.5 C through Day 8 (Day 0=day of IVF) with 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/ml anthocyanins (non-heat-shocked group). On Day 2, embryos were cultured at 41.5 C for 6 h with 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/ml anthocyanins followed by culture at 38.5 C until Day 8 (HS group). After exposure to heat shock, the intracellular ROS and glutathione (GSH) contents of individual embryos were measured in the non-heat-shocked and HS groups using fluorescent probes. On Day 8, the blastocysts formation rates of the embryos and total cell numbers of blastocysts were evaluated. Embryos exposed to heat shock without anthocyanins showed a significant decrease in blastocyst formation rate and GSH content (P<0.05) and an increase in intracellular ROS (P<0.05) compared with non-heat-shocked embryos. In contrast, addition of 0.1 microg/ml anthocyanins significantly (P<0.05) improved the blastocyst formation rate of the heat-shocked embryos. Addition of any dose of anthocyanins produced a significant decrease in the ROS levels (P<0.05) and tended to increase the GSH levels under heat-shock conditions. However, addition of higher concentrations (1 and 10 microg/ml) of anthocyanins to the culture media under heat shock did not improve the development of embryos. These results indicate that anthocyanins maintain the intracellular redox balance of heat-shocked bovine embryos by reducing intracellular oxidative stress and increasing the GSH levels. Thus, alterations of the redox state using natural antioxidative polyphenols is a useful approach for reducing heat shock-derived oxidative stress. 10.1262/jrd.18124
    Assessment of the In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of an Anthocyanin-Rich Bilberry Extract Using the Model. González-Paramás Ana M,Brighenti Virginia,Bertoni Laura,Marcelloni Laura,Ayuda-Durán Begoña,González-Manzano Susana,Pellati Federica,Santos-Buelga Celestino Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) Anthocyanins have been associated with several health benefits, although the responsible mechanisms are not well established yet. In the present study, an anthocyanin-rich extract from bilberry ( L.) was tested in order to evaluate its capacity to modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to thermally induced oxidative stress, using the nematode as an in vivo model. The assays were carried out with the wild-type N2 strain and the mutant strains I and , which were grown in the presence of two anthocyanin extract concentrations (5 and 10 μg/mL in the culture medium) and further subjected to thermal stress. The treatment with the anthocyanin extract at 5 μg/mL showed protective effects on the accumulation of ROS and increased thermal resistance in , both in stressed and non-stressed young and aged worms. However, detrimental effects were observed in nematodes treated with 10 μg/mL, leading to a higher worm mortality rate compared to controls, which was interpreted as a hormetic response. These findings suggested that the effects of the bilberry extract on might not rely on its direct antioxidant capacity, but other mechanisms could also be involved. Additional assays were performed in two mutant strains with loss-of-function for DAF-16 (abnormal DAuer Formation factor 16) and HSF-1 (Heat Shock Factor 1) transcription factors, which act downstream of the insulin/insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway. The results indicated that the modulation of these factors could be behind the improvement in the resistance against thermal stress produced by bilberry anthocyanins in young individuals, whereas they do not totally explain the effects produced in worms in the post-reproductive development stage. Further experiments are needed to continue uncovering the mechanisms behind the biological effects of anthocyanins in living organisms, as well as to establish whether they fall within the hormesis concept. 10.3390/antiox9060509
    Red Carrot Cells Cultured Are Effective, Stable, and Safe Ingredients for Skin Care, Nutraceutical, and Food Applications. Bianconi Martino,Ceriotti Laura,Cuzzocrea Salvatore,Esposito Emanuela,Pressi Giovanna,Sgaravatti Elena,Bertaiola Oriana,Guarnerio Chiara,Barbieri Elisa,Semenzato Alessandra,Negri Stefano,Commisso Mauro,Avesani Linda,Guzzo Flavia Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology Plant biomasses growing in bioreactor could be developed as production systems for cosmetic ingredients, nutraceuticals and food additives. We previously reported that the red carrot cell line R4G accumulates high levels of anthocyanins, which are potent antioxidants with multiple health-promoting properties. To investigate the industrial potential of this cell line in detail, we tested extract for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in the mouse monocyte/macrophage cell-line J774A.1 and in reconstructed skin tissue models. We also compared the R4G extract to commercial carrot extracts in terms of stability and metabolomic profiles. We found that the R4G extract have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, protecting mammalian cells from the oxidative stress triggered by exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharides and HO. The extract also inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in an epidermal skin model, and induced the expression of VEGF-A to promote the microcirculation in a dermal microtissue model. The anthocyanins extracted from R4G cells were significantly more stable than those found in natural red carrot extracts. Finally, we showed that R4G extract has similar metabolomic profile of natural extracts by using a combination of targeted and untargeted metabolomics analysis, demonstrating the safety of R4G carrot cells for applications in the nutraceutical and food/feed industries. 10.3389/fbioe.2020.575079
    Grape seed procyanidin extract ameliorates lead-induced liver injury via miRNA153 and AKT/GSK-3β/Fyn-mediated Nrf2 activation. Liu Biying,Jiang Huijie,Lu Jingjing,Baiyun Ruiqi,Li Siyu,Lv Yueying,Li Da,Wu Hao,Zhang Zhigang The Journal of nutritional biochemistry Lead-induced hepatotoxicity is characterized by an extensive oxidative stress. Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) possesses abundant biological activities. Herein, we investigated the protective role of GSPE against lead-induced liver injury and determined the potential molecular mechanisms. In vivo, rats were treated with/without lead acetate (PbAc) (0.05%, w/v) in the presence/absence of GSPE (200 mg/kg). In vitro, hepatocytes were pretreated with/without GSPE (100 μg/ml) in the presence/absence of PbAc (100 μM). PbAc administration to rats resulted in anemia, liver dysfunction, lead accumulation in the bone and liver, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. GSPE significantly attenuated these adverse effects, except lead accumulation in liver. GSPE also decreased the expression of miRNA153 and increased the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and levels of its downstream protein, and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation in PbAc-induced liver injury. In primary hepatocytes treated with PbAc, GSPE increased hepatocyte viability and decreased lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species levels. Dietary GSPE attenuated PbAc-induced liver injury in rats via an integrated mechanism associated with the miRNA153 and AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta/Fyn-mediated Nrf2 activation. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.09.025
    Obtaining Multiple Coproducts from Red Grape Pomace via Anthocyanin Extraction and Biogas Production. Allison Brittany J,Simmons Christopher W Journal of agricultural and food chemistry Red grape pomace (RGP), a byproduct of red wine production, is an abundant food processing waste stream in California, rich in both anthocyanins, a class of red-blue pigments, and lignocellulose. Extraction of anthocyanins and biofuel production from RGP have been investigated independently, but no research has examined employing both strategies together for maximal valorization. In this study, anthocyanins were most effectively extracted from RGP at 80 °C. Convection- and vacuum-oven drying of the pomace were found to decrease anthocyanin yield, whereas lyophilization did not significantly affect yield. Fermentable sugars were successfully separated from the crude extract via solid-phase extraction. Ionic liquid pretreatment of RGP was determined to be a nonviable option for application to anaerobic digestion. Extraction reduced biomethane output, but supplementation with the aqueous fraction of the extract mitigated much of this difference, indicating sequential extraction and fractionation of anthocyanins from RGP can minimize the impact on biofuel yields. 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b02250
    Ultrasound as a Rapid and Low-Cost Extraction Procedure to Obtain Anthocyanin-Based Colorants from L. Fruit Epicarp: Comparative Study with Conventional Heat-Based Extraction. Leichtweis Maria G,Pereira Carla,Prieto M A,Barreiro Maria Filomena,Baraldi Ilton José,Barros Lillian,Ferreira Isabel C F R Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) An ultrasound rapid and low-cost procedure for anthocyanin-based colorants from L. fruit epicarp was developed, and the advantages were compared with conventional heat-based extraction. To obtain the conditions that maximize anthocyanins' extraction, a response surface methodology was applied using the variables of time, temperature, and ethanol content, in the case of heat extraction, whereas for ultrasound assisted extraction, temperature was replaced by ultrasound power. Two anthocyanin compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS-namely, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside. The responses used were the extraction yield and the content of the identified anthocyanins. Ultrasound extraction was the most effective method at 5.00 ± 0.15 min, 400.00 ± 32.00 W, and 47.98% ± 2.88% of ethanol obtaining 68.60% ± 2.06% of extracted residue, with an anthocyanin content of 18.17 mg/g (extract-basis) and 11.76 mg/g (epicarp-basis). Overall, a viable green process was achieved that could be used to support pilot-scale studies for industrial production of anthocyanin-based colorants from fruit epicarp. 10.3390/molecules24030573
    Extraction and Identification of Anthocyanins in Corn Cob and Corn Husk from Cacahuacintle Maize. Fernandez-Aulis Fernanda,Hernandez-Vazquez Liliana,Aguilar-Osorio Guillermo,Arrieta-Baez Daniel,Navarro-Ocana Arturo Journal of food science Pigmented maize has been extensively studied due to its high anthocyanin content. This study has been focused mainly on kernel, although the whole plant of purple corn is a potential source of anthocyanins. First, general parameters of extraction (solvent system, solvent-to-solid ratio, number of extractions, and acid type) were established depending on the total anthocyanins content. Then, three extraction methods to access anthocyanins were compared: maceration extraction (ME), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). Since the residual material still possessed an intense color, a further treatment was performed by application of enzymatic-assisted extraction (EAE). Three enzymatic cocktails (Xylanases, Celluclast, and Depol), pH, and temperature were evaluated to establish optimal reaction conditions. Subsequent analysis and identification of the anthocyanins obtained by four different extraction techniques were performed using HPLC and HPLC-mass spectrometry, respectively. The most efficient method was UAE using 20 min of ultrasound (100 W) preceded by sample treatment in the following conditions: ethanol/water/lactic acid mixture (80:19:1), two extractions, 1:10 solvent-to-solid ratio. As a result, anthocyanins from corn cob and corn husk were extracted at concentrations of 24.32 and 25.80 mg/gDW, respectively. No difference in the anthocyanins profile for samples extracted by three different methods was observed. However, an enhanced presence of cyanidin-3-(6''malonyl)glucoside was detected in the sample corresponding to the EAE method. Therefore, the Cahuacintle corn husk can be considered as a competitive source of anthocyanins with the available commercial sources. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The by-products obtained from Cacahuacintle purple corn can be potentially used as natural colorants thanks to their anthocyanins content. In this work, we established the most efficient extraction method of anthocyanins from corn husk and corn cob, and demonstrated that their anthocyanins profile is comparable to other Peruvian purple corns, which are currently used as natural colorants. Therefore, the extraction procedure described in this study might be scaled-up in an industrial process to get access to anthocyanins from undervalued wastes. 10.1111/1750-3841.14589
    Natural deep eutectic solvents couple with integrative extraction technique as an effective approach for mulberry anthocyanin extraction. Guo Na,Ping-Kou ,Jiang Yi-Wei,Wang Li-Tao,Niu Li-Jun,Liu Zhi-Ming,Fu Yu-Jie Food chemistry Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have been growing interest as an alternative to the traditional organic solvents. They not only have the merit of high efficiency but also have the possibility to readily applicable to pharmaceutical and food applications. In the present study, NADES with high-speed homogenization and cavitation-burst extraction (HSH-CBE) was performed on fresh mulberry for anthocyanins extraction. The extraction conditions were statistically investigated by Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: chloride-citric acid-glucose formed a NADES with the mole ratio of 1:1:1, 30% water content, liquid-solid ratio 22 mL/g, homogenization time 60 s, homogenization speed 12,000 rpm, extraction time 30 min, negative pressure -0.08 MPa and extraction two times. The total maximum extraction of anthocyanins reached 6.05 mg/g fresh weight, which was 1.24 folds to those by the traditional organic solvents extraction. Moreover, NADES exhibited higher stability of anthocyanins extraction than traditional organic solvents, which was benefit for the analysis and preservation of anthocyanins. Consequently, this result revealed that the developed method could be taken as a sustainable, green and effective approach for anthocyanins extraction. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.196
    Ultrasonic impact on viscosity and extraction efficiency of polyethylene glycol: A greener approach for anthocyanins recovery from purple sweet potato. Huang Hao,Xu Qin,Belwal Tarun,Li Li,Aalim Halah,Wu Qiong,Duan Zhenhua,Zhang Xuebing,Luo Zisheng Food chemistry Purple sweet potatoes are known for its vibrant purple color due to high level of anthocyanins. A polyethylene glycol based ultrasonic-assisted green extraction (PEG-UAE) of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato was proposed. Different types of PEG were tested for anthocyanin extraction along with PEG concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, ultrasonic temperature and time were investigated for its impact on viscosity and extraction efficiency. The optimum extraction condition, 42 mL/g of ratio, 83% of PEG 200 concentration, 64 °C of ultrasonic temperature and 80 min of sonication time, resulted in better extraction of anthocyanins (83.78 mg CE/100 g DW) and phenolics (994.88 mg GAE/100 g DW). Using UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS, ten anthocyanin and six non-anthocyanin compounds were identified and characterized, with the highest peak area for cyanidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoyl sophoroside-5-glucoside (25.9%). Moreover, the anthocyanins and phenolics extraction yield along with antioxidant activity were negatively correlated with PEG viscosity, on which ultrasonication has profound effects. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.017
    Making brilliant colors by microorganisms. Zha Jian,Wu Xia,Koffas Mattheos Ag Current opinion in biotechnology Anthocyanins, the colorful molecules found in plants, have positive health effects in humans, and are used as food colorants and nutraceuticals. Currently, the industrial supply of anthocyanins largely depends on extraction from plants, a method that lacks robustness and is potentially unsustainable. A promising alternative is biosynthesis by metabolically engineered microbes, which has achieved considerable success. Here, we review recent progress on anthocyanin biosynthesis in engineered microorganisms and the engineering approaches for enhancing anthocyanin production. The de novo anthocyanin production strategies and microbial production of unusual anthocyanins such as deuterated cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and pyranoanthocyanins are also covered. These engineering strategies will provide a guidance to microbial production of anthocyanins. Existing problems and future directions are also discussed. 10.1016/j.copbio.2019.12.020
    Anthocyanin Accumulation in the Leaves of the Purple Sweet Potato ( L.) Cultivars. Li GuoLiang,Lin Zhaomiao,Zhang Hong,Liu Zhonghua,Xu Yongqing,Xu Guochun,Li Huawei,Ji Rongchang,Luo Wenbin,Qiu Yongxiang,Qiu Sixin,Tang Hao Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Sweet potato anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with many physiological functions. Previous research on anthocyanin accumulation in sweet potato has focused on the roots, but the accumulation progress in the leaves is still unclear. Two purple sweet potato cultivars (Fushu No. 23 and Fushu No. 317) with large quantities of anthocyanin in the leaves were investigated. Anthocyanin composition and content were assessed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection (UPLC-DAD) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS), and the expressions of genes were detected by qRT-PCR. The two cultivars contained nine cyanidin anthocyanins and nine peonidin anthocyanins with an acylation modification. The acylation modification of anthocyanins in sweet potato leaves primarily included caffeoyl, -coumaryl, feruloyl, and -hydroxy benzoyl. We identified three anthocyanin compounds in sweet potato leaves for the first time: cyanidin 3--coumarylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin 3--coumarylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-caffeoyl--coumarylsophoroside-5-glucoside. The anthocyanidin biosynthesis downstream structural genes , , anthocyanin synthase (), and UDP-glucose flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (), as well as the transcription factor , were found to be vital regulatory genes during the accumulation of anthocyanins in sweet potato leaves. The composition of anthocyanins (nine cyanidin-based anthocyanins and nine peonidin-based anthocyanins) in all sweet potato leaves were the same, but the quantity of anthocyanins in leaves of sweet potato varied by cultivar and differed from anthocyanin levels in the roots of sweet potatoes. The anthocyanidin biosynthesis structural genes and transcription factor together regulated and controlled the anthocyandin biosynthesis in sweet potato leaves. 10.3390/molecules24203743
    Effects of anthocyanins on the prevention and treatment of cancer. Lin Bo-Wen,Gong Cheng-Chen,Song Hai-Fei,Cui Ying-Yu British journal of pharmacology Anthocyanins are a class of water-soluble flavonoids, which show a range of pharmacological effects, such as prevention of cardiovascular disease, obesity control and antitumour activity. Their potential antitumour effects are reported to be based on a wide variety of biological activities including antioxidant; anti-inflammation; anti-mutagenesis; induction of differentiation; inhibiting proliferation by modulating signal transduction pathways, inducing cell cycle arrest and stimulating apoptosis or autophagy of cancer cells; anti-invasion; anti-metastasis; reversing drug resistance of cancer cells and increasing their sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this review, the latest progress on the anticancer activities of anthocyanins and the underlying molecular mechanisms is summarized using data from basic research in vitro and in vivo, from clinical trials and taking into account theory and practice. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc. 10.1111/bph.13627
    [Photoprotective mechanisms of leaf anthocyanins: research progress]. Wang Liang-Zai,Hu Yan-Bo,Zhang Hui-Hui,Xu Nan,Zhang Xiu-Li,Sun Guang-Yu Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology Anthocyanin is widely distributed in plant organs such as root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit, being a kind of secondary metabolites generated in plant morphogenesis or for stress response. Leaf anthocyanin has special chemical structure and spectral properties, playing important roles in plant photoprotection, and becomes a hotspot in plant photosynthetic physiological ecology. This paper summarized the recent research progress in the effects of leaf anthocyanin on plant photosynthesis, including the distribution of leaf anthocyanin, its spectral properties, and its relationships with photosynthetic pigments, with the focus on the potential mechanisms of anthocyanins photoprotection, including light absorption, antioxidation, and osmotic regulation. The further research directions on the effects of leaf anthocyanin on photoprotection were proposed.