The roles of iron and HFE genotype in neurological diseases.
Kim Yunsung,Connor James R
Molecular aspects of medicine
Iron accumulation is a recurring pathological phenomenon in many neurological diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and others. Iron is essential for normal development and functions of the brain; however, excess redox-active iron can also lead to oxidative damage and cell death. Especially for terminally differentiated cells like neurons, regulation of reactive oxygen species is critical for cell viability. As a result, cellular iron level is tightly regulated. Although iron accumulation related to neurological diseases has been well documented, the pathoetiological contributions of the homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), which controls cellular iron uptake, is less understood. Furthermore, a common HFE variant, H63D HFE, has been identified as a modifier of multiple neurological diseases. This review will discuss the roles of iron and HFE in the brain as well as their impact on various disease processes.
System xC- is a mediator of microglial function and its deletion slows symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.
Mesci Pinar,Zaïdi Sakina,Lobsiger Christian S,Millecamps Stéphanie,Escartin Carole,Seilhean Danielle,Sato Hideyo,Mallat Michel,Boillée Séverine
Brain : a journal of neurology
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease and evidence from mice expressing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-causing SOD1 mutations suggest that neurodegeneration is a non-cell autonomous process where microglial cells influence disease progression. However, microglial-derived neurotoxic factors still remain largely unidentified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. With excitotoxicity being a major mechanism proposed to cause motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, our hypothesis was that excessive glutamate release by activated microglia through their system [Formula: see text] (a cystine/glutamate antiporter with the specific subunit xCT/Slc7a11) could contribute to neurodegeneration. Here we show that xCT expression is enriched in microglia compared to total mouse spinal cord and absent from motor neurons. Activated microglia induced xCT expression and during disease, xCT levels were increased in both spinal cord and isolated microglia from mutant SOD1 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice. Expression of xCT was also detectable in spinal cord post-mortem tissues of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and correlated with increased inflammation. Genetic deletion of xCT in mice demonstrated that activated microglia released glutamate mainly through system [Formula: see text]. Interestingly, xCT deletion also led to decreased production of specific microglial pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic factors including nitric oxide, TNFa and IL6, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective markers such as Ym1/Chil3 were increased, indicating that xCT regulates microglial functions. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice, xCT deletion surprisingly led to earlier symptom onset but, importantly, this was followed by a significantly slowed progressive disease phase, which resulted in more surviving motor neurons. These results are consistent with a deleterious contribution of microglial-derived glutamate during symptomatic disease. Therefore, we show that system [Formula: see text] participates in microglial reactivity and modulates amyotrophic lateral sclerosis motor neuron degeneration, revealing system [Formula: see text] inactivation, as a potential approach to slow amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease progression after onset of clinical symptoms.
Functional reconstitution of mitochondrial Fe/S cluster synthesis on Isu1 reveals the involvement of ferredoxin.
Webert Holger,Freibert Sven-Andreas,Gallo Angelo,Heidenreich Torsten,Linne Uwe,Amlacher Stefan,Hurt Ed,Mühlenhoff Ulrich,Banci Lucia,Lill Roland
Maturation of iron-sulphur (Fe/S) proteins involves complex biosynthetic machinery. In vivo synthesis of [2Fe-2S] clusters on the mitochondrial scaffold protein Isu1 requires the cysteine desulphurase complex Nfs1-Isd11, frataxin, ferredoxin Yah1 and its reductase Arh1. The roles of Yah1-Arh1 have remained enigmatic, because they are not required for in vitro Fe/S cluster assembly. Here, we reconstitute [2Fe-2S] cluster synthesis on Isu1 in a reaction depending on Nfs1-Isd11, frataxin, Yah1, Arh1 and NADPH. Unlike in the bacterial system, frataxin is an essential part of Fe/S cluster biosynthesis and is required simultaneously and stoichiometrically to Yah1. Reduced but not oxidized Yah1 tightly interacts with apo-Isu1 indicating a dynamic interaction between Yah1-apo-Isu1. Nuclear magnetic resonance structural studies identify the Yah1-apo-Isu1 interaction surface and suggest a pathway for electron flow from reduced ferredoxin to Isu1. Together, our study defines the molecular function of the ferredoxin Yah1 and its human orthologue FDX2 in mitochondrial Fe/S cluster synthesis.
Melatonin enhances antioxidant action of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate against NADPH- and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria.
Milczarek Ryszard,Hallmann Anna,Sokołowska Ewa,Kaletha Krystian,Klimek Jerzy
Journal of pineal research
Human placental mitochondria might be a significant source of NADPH- and iron-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Preeclampsia is believed to be a consequence of overproduction of ROS in human placenta. The experimental results presented here show that melatonin inhibits NADPH- and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation of human placental mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner. At 1.5 mm concentration, melatonin suppressed this process nearly completely. Melatonin does not influence significantly the iron oxidation at this conditions, indicating that free radical scavenging rather than metal-chelating phenomenon is the basis of its antioxidant action. The fact of inhibition of lipid peroxidation by melatonin at conditions excluding iron participation also supports this hypothesis. Elucidation of the nature of common interaction among melatonin, ascorbate, and alpha-tocopherol in human placental mitochondria was the main aim of this study. In presence of 90 mum ascorbate, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by melatonin was strong and had a feature of synergistic interaction. At presence of 30 mum ascorbate, which stimulated lipid peroxidation, melatonin caused a loss of pro-oxidant effect of ascorbate. While the interaction of melatonin with ascorbate indicated synergism, the joint action of melatonin and alpha-tocopherol was additive. When all three antioxidants were applied together, the strongest inhibition of lipid peroxidation was observed. The experimental results presented here indicated that melatonin could be considered as an effective component of antioxidant treatment of preeclampsia, allowing the use of reduced doses of vitamin C and E owing to elevated efficiency of their antioxidant activity in placenta when used in combination.
Glial lipid droplets and ROS induced by mitochondrial defects promote neurodegeneration.
Liu Lucy,Zhang Ke,Sandoval Hector,Yamamoto Shinya,Jaiswal Manish,Sanz Elisenda,Li Zhihong,Hui Jessica,Graham Brett H,Quintana Albert,Bellen Hugo J
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial defects in neurons are implicated in neurodegenerative disease. Here, we find that a key consequence of ROS and neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction is the accumulation of lipid droplets (LD) in glia. In Drosophila, ROS triggers c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP) activity in neurons leading to LD accumulation in glia prior to or at the onset of neurodegeneration. The accumulated lipids are peroxidated in the presence of ROS. Reducing LD accumulation in glia and lipid peroxidation via targeted lipase overexpression and/or lowering ROS significantly delays the onset of neurodegeneration. Furthermore, a similar pathway leads to glial LD accumulation in Ndufs4 mutant mice with neuronal mitochondrial defects, suggesting that LD accumulation following mitochondrial dysfunction is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, and represents an early, transient indicator and promoter of neurodegenerative disease.
Iron overload is accompanied by mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction in WDR45 mutant cells.
Seibler Philip,Burbulla Lena F,Dulovic Marija,Zittel Simone,Heine Johanne,Schmidt Thomas,Rudolph Franziska,Westenberger Ana,Rakovic Aleksandar,Münchau Alexander,Krainc Dimitri,Klein Christine
Brain : a journal of neurology
Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration is a subtype of monogenic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation caused by de novo mutations in WDR45. The WDR45 protein functions as a beta-propeller scaffold and plays a putative role in autophagy through its interaction with phospholipids and autophagy-related proteins. Loss of WDR45 function due to disease-causing mutations has been linked to defects in autophagic flux in patient and animal cells. However, the role of WDR45 in iron homeostasis remains elusive. Here we studied patient-specific WDR45 mutant fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived midbrain neurons. Our data demonstrated that loss of WDR45 increased cellular iron levels and oxidative stress, accompanied by mitochondrial abnormalities, autophagic defects, and diminished lysosomal function. Restoring WDR45 levels partially rescued oxidative stress and the susceptibility to iron treatment, and activation of autophagy reduced the observed iron overload in WDR45 mutant cells. Our data suggest that iron-containing macromolecules and organelles cannot effectively be degraded through the lysosomal pathway due to loss of WDR45 function.
Autophagy promotes ferroptosis by degradation of ferritin.
Hou Wen,Xie Yangchun,Song Xinxin,Sun Xiaofang,Lotze Michael T,Zeh Herbert J,Kang Rui,Tang Daolin
Macroautophagy/autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradation pathway that maintains homeostasis. Ferroptosis, a novel form of regulated cell death, is characterized by a production of reactive oxygen species from accumulated iron and lipid peroxidation. However, the relationship between autophagy and ferroptosis at the genetic level remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that autophagy contributes to ferroptosis by degradation of ferritin in fibroblasts and cancer cells. Knockout or knockdown of Atg5 (autophagy-related 5) and Atg7 limited erastin-induced ferroptosis with decreased intracellular ferrous iron levels, and lipid peroxidation. Remarkably, NCOA4 (nuclear receptor coactivator 4) was a selective cargo receptor for the selective autophagic turnover of ferritin (namely ferritinophagy) in ferroptosis. Consistently, genetic inhibition of NCOA4 inhibited ferritin degradation and suppressed ferroptosis. In contrast, overexpression of NCOA4 increased ferritin degradation and promoted ferroptosis. These findings provide novel insight into the interplay between autophagy and regulated cell death.
BECN1 is a new driver of ferroptosis.
Kang Rui,Zhu Shan,Zeh Herbert J,Klionsky Daniel J,Tang Daolin
Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death caused by iron accumulation and oxidative injury. BECN1 is a key regulator of macroautophagy/autophagy, a catabolic process of degradation induced by starvation or other stressors. Our recent findings reveal a novel alternative mechanism by which BECN1 can promote ferroptosis through the regulation of activity of the cysteine and glutamate antiporter system x in cancer cells. BECN1-dependent autophagy requires the formation of the BECN1-containing class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex, whereas BECN1-dependent ferroptosis requires the formation of a BECN1-SLC7A11 complex. Furthermore, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BECN1 phosphorylation to trigger formation of the BECN1-SLC7A11 complex in the process of inhibiting system x activity and inducing lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that the autophagy-dependent and -independent functions of BECN1 play distinct roles in regulated cell death.
Ferroptosis: bug or feature?
Dixon Scott J
Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, oxidative form of non-apoptotic cell death. This form of cell death does not share morphological, biochemical, or genetic similarities with classic necrosis, necroptosis, parthanatos, or other forms of non-apoptotic cell death. Ferroptosis can be triggered by depleting the cell of the amino acid cysteine, or by inhibiting the phospholipid hydroperoxidase glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Why certain stimuli trigger ferroptosis instead of another form of cell death, and whether this process could be adaptive in vivo, are two major unanswered questions concerning this process. Emerging evidence and consideration of related non-apoptotic pathways suggest that ferroptosis could be an adaptive process, albeit one regulated and executed in a manner very different from apoptosis and other forms of cell death.
Ferroptosis Inhibition: Mechanisms and Opportunities.
Angeli Jose Pedro Friedmann,Shah Ron,Pratt Derek A,Conrad Marcus
Trends in pharmacological sciences
The past decade has yielded tremendous insights into how cells die. This has come with our understanding that several distinct forms of cell death are encompassed under the umbrella term necrosis. Among these distinct forms of regulated necrotic cell death, ferroptosis has attracted considerable attention owing to its putative involvement in diverse pathophysiological processes. A key feature of the ferroptosis process is the requirement of phospholipid peroxidation, a process that has been linked with several human pathologies. Now with the establishment of a connection between lipid peroxidation and a distinctive cell death pathway, the search for new small molecules able to suppress lipid peroxidation has gained momentum and may yield novel cytoprotective strategies. We review here advances in our understanding of the ferroptotic process and summarize the development of lipid peroxidation inhibitors with the ultimate goal of suppressing ferroptosis-relevant cell death and related pathologies.
A major role for ferroptosis in -induced cell death and tissue necrosis.
Amaral Eduardo P,Costa Diego L,Namasivayam Sivaranjani,Riteau Nicolas,Kamenyeva Olena,Mittereder Lara,Mayer-Barber Katrin D,Andrade Bruno B,Sher Alan
The Journal of experimental medicine
Necrotic cell death during (Mtb) infection is considered host detrimental since it facilitates mycobacterial spread. Ferroptosis is a type of regulated necrosis induced by accumulation of free iron and toxic lipid peroxides. We observed that Mtb-induced macrophage necrosis is associated with reduced levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase-4 (Gpx4), along with increased free iron, mitochondrial superoxide, and lipid peroxidation, all of which are important hallmarks of ferroptosis. Moreover, necrotic cell death in Mtb-infected macrophage cultures was suppressed by ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), a well-characterized ferroptosis inhibitor, as well as by iron chelation. Additional experiments in vivo revealed that pulmonary necrosis in acutely infected mice is associated with reduced Gpx4 expression as well as increased lipid peroxidation and is likewise suppressed by Fer-1 treatment. Importantly, Fer-1-treated infected animals also exhibited marked reductions in bacterial load. Together, these findings implicate ferroptosis as a major mechanism of necrosis in Mtb infection and as a target for host-directed therapy of tuberculosis.
Revisiting the intersection of amyloid, pathologically modified tau and iron in Alzheimer's disease from a ferroptosis perspective.
Derry Paul J,Hegde Muralidhar L,Jackson George R,Kayed Rakez,Tour James M,Tsai Ah-Lim,Kent Thomas A
Progress in neurobiology
The complexity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) complicates the search for effective treatments. While the key roles of pathologically modified proteins has occupied a central role in hypotheses of the pathophysiology, less attention has been paid to the potential role for transition metals overload, subsequent oxidative stress, and tissue injury. The association of transition metals, the major focus heretofore iron and amyloid, the same can now be said for the likely pathogenic microtubular associated tau (MAPT). This review discusses the interplay between iron, pathologically modified tau and oxidative stress, and connects many related discoveries. Basic principles of the transition to pathological MAPT are discussed. Iron, its homeostatic mechanisms, the recently described phenomenon of ferroptosis and purported, although still controversial roles in AD are reviewed as well as considerations to overcome existing hurdles of iron-targeted therapeutic avenues that have been attempted in AD. We summarize the involvement of multiple pathological pathways at different disease stages of disease progression that supports the potential for a combinatorial treatment strategy targeting multiple factors.
Ferrostatins inhibit oxidative lipid damage and cell death in diverse disease models.
Skouta Rachid,Dixon Scott J,Wang Jianlin,Dunn Denise E,Orman Marina,Shimada Kenichi,Rosenberg Paul A,Lo Donald C,Weinberg Joel M,Linkermann Andreas,Stockwell Brent R
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) inhibits ferroptosis, a form of regulated, oxidative, nonapoptotic cell death. We found that Fer-1 inhibited cell death in cellular models of Huntington's disease (HD), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and kidney dysfunction; Fer-1 inhibited lipid peroxidation, but not mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation or lysosomal membrane permeability. We developed a mechanistic model to explain the activity of Fer-1, which guided the development of ferrostatins with improved properties. These studies suggest numerous therapeutic uses for ferrostatins, and that lipid peroxidation mediates diverse disease phenotypes.
Cellular protection using Flt3 and PI3Kα inhibitors demonstrates multiple mechanisms of oxidative glutamate toxicity.
Kang Yunyi,Tiziani Stefano,Park Goonho,Kaul Marcus,Paternostro Giovanni
Glutamate-induced oxidative stress is a major contributor to neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we identify small-molecule inhibitors of this process. We screen a kinase inhibitor library on neuronal cells and identify Flt3 and PI3Kα inhibitors as potent protectors against glutamate toxicity. Both inhibitors prevented reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial hyperpolarization and lipid peroxidation in neuronal cells, but they do so by distinct molecular mechanisms. The PI3Kα inhibitor protects cells by inducing partial restoration of depleted glutathione levels and accumulation of intracellular amino acids, whereas the Flt3 inhibitor prevents lipid peroxidation, a key mechanism of glutamate-mediated toxicity. We also demonstrate that glutamate toxicity involves a combination of ferroptosis, necrosis and AIF-dependent apoptosis. We confirm the protective effect by using multiple inhibitors of these kinases and multiple cell types. Our results not only identify compounds that protect against glutamate-stimulated oxidative stress, but also provide new insights into the mechanisms of glutamate toxicity in neurons.
Tau-mediated iron export prevents ferroptotic damage after ischemic stroke.
Tuo Q-Z,Lei P,Jackman K A,Li X-L,Xiong H,Li X-L,Liuyang Z-Y,Roisman L,Zhang S-T,Ayton S,Wang Q,Crouch P J,Ganio K,Wang X-C,Pei L,Adlard P A,Lu Y-M,Cappai R,Wang J-Z,Liu R,Bush A I
Functional failure of tau contributes to age-dependent, iron-mediated neurotoxicity, and as iron accumulates in ischemic stroke tissue, we hypothesized that tau failure may exaggerate ischemia-reperfusion-related toxicity. Indeed, unilateral, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) suppressed hemispheric tau and increased iron levels in young (3-month-old) mice and rats. Wild-type mice were protected by iron-targeted interventions: ceruloplasmin and amyloid precursor protein ectodomain, as well as ferroptosis inhibitors. At this age, tau-knockout mice did not express elevated brain iron and were protected against hemispheric reperfusion injury following MCAO, indicating that tau suppression may prevent ferroptosis. However, the accelerated age-dependent brain iron accumulation that occurs in tau-knockout mice at 12 months of age negated the protective benefit of tau suppression against MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The protective benefit of tau knockout was revived in older mice by iron-targeting interventions. These findings introduce tau-iron interaction as a pleiotropic modulator of ferroptosis and ischemic stroke outcome.
Glutathione peroxidase 4: a new player in neurodegeneration?
Cardoso B R,Hare D J,Bush A I,Roberts B R
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) is an antioxidant enzyme reported as an inhibitor of ferroptosis, a recently discovered non-apoptotic form of cell death. This pathway was initially described in cancer cells and has since been identified in hippocampal and renal cells. In this Perspective, we propose that inhibition of ferroptosis by GPx4 provides protective mechanisms against neurodegeneration. In addition, we suggest that selenium deficiency enhances susceptibility to ferroptotic processes, as well as other programmed cell death pathways due to a reduction in GPx4 activity. We review recent studies of GPx4 with an emphasis on neuronal protection, and discuss the relevance of selenium levels on its enzymatic activity.
A Mitochondrial-Targeted Nitroxide Is a Potent Inhibitor of Ferroptosis.
Krainz Tanja,Gaschler Michael M,Lim Chaemin,Sacher Joshua R,Stockwell Brent R,Wipf Peter
ACS central science
Discovering compounds and mechanisms for inhibiting ferroptosis, a form of regulated, nonapoptotic cell death, has been of great interest in recent years. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of XJB-5-131, JP4-039, and other nitroxide-based lipid peroxidation mitigators to prevent ferroptotic cell death in HT-1080, BJeLR, and panc-1 cells. Several analogues of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers XJB-5-131 and JP4-039 were synthesized to probe structure-activity relationships and the influence of subcellular localization on the potency of these novel ferroptosis suppressors. Their biological activity correlated well over several orders of magnitude with their structure, relative lipophilicity, and respective enrichment in mitochondria, revealing a critical role of intramitochondrial lipid peroxidation in ferroptosis. These results also suggest that preventing mitochondrial lipid oxidation might offer a viable therapeutic opportunity in ischemia/reperfusion-induced tissue injury, acute kidney injury, and other pathologies that involve ferroptotic cell death pathways.
Selenium Utilization by GPX4 Is Required to Prevent Hydroperoxide-Induced Ferroptosis.
Ingold Irina,Berndt Carsten,Schmitt Sabine,Doll Sebastian,Poschmann Gereon,Buday Katalin,Roveri Antonella,Peng Xiaoxiao,Porto Freitas Florencio,Seibt Tobias,Mehr Lisa,Aichler Michaela,Walch Axel,Lamp Daniel,Jastroch Martin,Miyamoto Sayuri,Wurst Wolfgang,Ursini Fulvio,Arnér Elias S J,Fradejas-Villar Noelia,Schweizer Ulrich,Zischka Hans,Friedmann Angeli José Pedro,Conrad Marcus
Selenoproteins are rare proteins among all kingdoms of life containing the 21 amino acid, selenocysteine. Selenocysteine resembles cysteine, differing only by the substitution of selenium for sulfur. Yet the actual advantage of selenolate- versus thiolate-based catalysis has remained enigmatic, as most of the known selenoproteins also exist as cysteine-containing homologs. Here, we demonstrate that selenolate-based catalysis of the essential mammalian selenoprotein GPX4 is unexpectedly dispensable for normal embryogenesis. Yet the survival of a specific type of interneurons emerges to exclusively depend on selenocysteine-containing GPX4, thereby preventing fatal epileptic seizures. Mechanistically, selenocysteine utilization by GPX4 confers exquisite resistance to irreversible overoxidation as cells expressing a cysteine variant are highly sensitive toward peroxide-induced ferroptosis. Remarkably, concomitant deletion of all selenoproteins in Gpx4 cells revealed that selenoproteins are dispensable for cell viability provided partial GPX4 activity is retained. Conclusively, 200 years after its discovery, a specific and indispensable role for selenium is provided.
Resolving the Role of Lipoxygenases in the Initiation and Execution of Ferroptosis.
Shah Ron,Shchepinov Mikhail S,Pratt Derek A
ACS central science
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) have been implicated as central players in ferroptosis, a recently characterized cell death modality associated with the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides: the products of LOX catalysis. To provide insight on their role, human embryonic kidney cells were transfected to overexpress each of the human isoforms associated with disease, 5-LOX, p12-LOX, and 15-LOX-1, which yielded stable cell lines that were demonstrably sensitized to ferroptosis. Interestingly, the cells could be rescued by less than half of a diverse collection of known LOX inhibitors. Furthermore, the cytoprotective compounds were similarly potent in each of the cell lines even though some were clearly isoform-selective LOX inhibitors. The cytoprotective compounds were subsequently demonstrated to be effective radical-trapping antioxidants, which protect lipids from autoxidation, the autocatalytic radical chain reaction that produces lipid hydroperoxides. From these data (and others reported herein), a picture emerges wherein LOX activity contribute to the cellular pool of lipid hydroperoxides that initiate ferroptosis, but lipid autoxidation drives the cell death process.
Role of Mitochondria in Ferroptosis.
Gao Minghui,Yi Junmei,Zhu Jiajun,Minikes Alexander M,Monian Prashant,Thompson Craig B,Jiang Xuejun
Ferroptosis is a regulated necrosis process driven by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Although ferroptosis and cellular metabolism interplay with one another, whether mitochondria are involved in ferroptosis is under debate. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondria play a crucial role in cysteine-deprivation-induced ferroptosis but not in that induced by inhibiting glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4), the most downstream component of the ferroptosis pathway. Mechanistically, cysteine deprivation leads to mitochondrial membrane potential hyperpolarization and lipid peroxide accumulation. Inhibition of mitochondrial TCA cycle or electron transfer chain (ETC) mitigated mitochondrial membrane potential hyperpolarization, lipid peroxide accumulation, and ferroptosis. Blockage of glutaminolysis had the same inhibitory effect, which was counteracted by supplying downstream TCA cycle intermediates. Importantly, loss of function of fumarate hydratase, a tumor suppressor and TCA cycle component, confers resistance to cysteine-deprivation-induced ferroptosis. Collectively, this work demonstrates the crucial role of mitochondria in cysteine-deprivation-induced ferroptosis and implicates ferroptosis in tumor suppression.
Selenium Drives a Transcriptional Adaptive Program to Block Ferroptosis and Treat Stroke.
Alim Ishraq,Caulfield Joseph T,Chen Yingxin,Swarup Vivek,Geschwind Daniel H,Ivanova Elena,Seravalli Javier,Ai Youxi,Sansing Lauren H,Ste Marie Emma J,Hondal Robert J,Mukherjee Sushmita,Cave John W,Sagdullaev Botir T,Karuppagounder Saravanan S,Ratan Rajiv R
Ferroptosis, a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death, is triggered by oxidative stress in cancer, heat stress in plants, and hemorrhagic stroke. A homeostatic transcriptional response to ferroptotic stimuli is unknown. We show that neurons respond to ferroptotic stimuli by induction of selenoproteins, including antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Pharmacological selenium (Se) augments GPX4 and other genes in this transcriptional program, the selenome, via coordinated activation of the transcription factors TFAP2c and Sp1 to protect neurons. Remarkably, a single dose of Se delivered into the brain drives antioxidant GPX4 expression, protects neurons, and improves behavior in a hemorrhagic stroke model. Altogether, we show that pharmacological Se supplementation effectively inhibits GPX4-dependent ferroptotic death as well as cell death induced by excitotoxicity or ER stress, which are GPX4 independent. Systemic administration of a brain-penetrant selenopeptide activates homeostatic transcription to inhibit cell death and improves function when delivered after hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke.
ACSL4 dictates ferroptosis sensitivity by shaping cellular lipid composition.
Doll Sebastian,Proneth Bettina,Tyurina Yulia Y,Panzilius Elena,Kobayashi Sho,Ingold Irina,Irmler Martin,Beckers Johannes,Aichler Michaela,Walch Axel,Prokisch Holger,Trümbach Dietrich,Mao Gaowei,Qu Feng,Bayir Hulya,Füllekrug Joachim,Scheel Christina H,Wurst Wolfgang,Schick Joel A,Kagan Valerian E,Angeli José Pedro Friedmann,Conrad Marcus
Nature chemical biology
Ferroptosis is a form of regulated necrotic cell death controlled by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). At present, mechanisms that could predict sensitivity and/or resistance and that may be exploited to modulate ferroptosis are needed. We applied two independent approaches-a genome-wide CRISPR-based genetic screen and microarray analysis of ferroptosis-resistant cell lines-to uncover acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) as an essential component for ferroptosis execution. Specifically, Gpx4-Acsl4 double-knockout cells showed marked resistance to ferroptosis. Mechanistically, ACSL4 enriched cellular membranes with long polyunsaturated ω6 fatty acids. Moreover, ACSL4 was preferentially expressed in a panel of basal-like breast cancer cell lines and predicted their sensitivity to ferroptosis. Pharmacological targeting of ACSL4 with thiazolidinediones, a class of antidiabetic compound, ameliorated tissue demise in a mouse model of ferroptosis, suggesting that ACSL4 inhibition is a viable therapeutic approach to preventing ferroptosis-related diseases.
The CoQ oxidoreductase FSP1 acts parallel to GPX4 to inhibit ferroptosis.
Bersuker Kirill,Hendricks Joseph M,Li Zhipeng,Magtanong Leslie,Ford Breanna,Tang Peter H,Roberts Melissa A,Tong Bingqi,Maimone Thomas J,Zoncu Roberto,Bassik Michael C,Nomura Daniel K,Dixon Scott J,Olzmann James A
Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that is caused by the iron-dependent peroxidation of lipids. The glutathione-dependent lipid hydroperoxidase glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) prevents ferroptosis by converting lipid hydroperoxides into non-toxic lipid alcohols. Ferroptosis has previously been implicated in the cell death that underlies several degenerative conditions, and induction of ferroptosis by the inhibition of GPX4 has emerged as a therapeutic strategy to trigger cancer cell death. However, sensitivity to GPX4 inhibitors varies greatly across cancer cell lines, which suggests that additional factors govern resistance to ferroptosis. Here, using a synthetic lethal CRISPR-Cas9 screen, we identify ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (FSP1) (previously known as apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondrial 2 (AIFM2)) as a potent ferroptosis-resistance factor. Our data indicate that myristoylation recruits FSP1 to the plasma membrane where it functions as an oxidoreductase that reduces coenzyme Q (CoQ) (also known as ubiquinone-10), which acts as a lipophilic radical-trapping antioxidant that halts the propagation of lipid peroxides. We further find that FSP1 expression positively correlates with ferroptosis resistance across hundreds of cancer cell lines, and that FSP1 mediates resistance to ferroptosis in lung cancer cells in culture and in mouse tumour xenografts. Thus, our data identify FSP1 as a key component of a non-mitochondrial CoQ antioxidant system that acts in parallel to the canonical glutathione-based GPX4 pathway. These findings define a ferroptosis suppression pathway and indicate that pharmacological inhibition of FSP1 may provide an effective strategy to sensitize cancer cells to ferroptosis-inducing chemotherapeutic agents.
FSP1 is a glutathione-independent ferroptosis suppressor.
Doll Sebastian,Freitas Florencio Porto,Shah Ron,Aldrovandi Maceler,da Silva Milene Costa,Ingold Irina,Goya Grocin Andrea,Xavier da Silva Thamara Nishida,Panzilius Elena,Scheel Christina H,Mourão André,Buday Katalin,Sato Mami,Wanninger Jonas,Vignane Thibaut,Mohana Vaishnavi,Rehberg Markus,Flatley Andrew,Schepers Aloys,Kurz Andreas,White Daniel,Sauer Markus,Sattler Michael,Tate Edward William,Schmitz Werner,Schulze Almut,O'Donnell Valerie,Proneth Bettina,Popowicz Grzegorz M,Pratt Derek A,Angeli José Pedro Friedmann,Conrad Marcus
Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of necrotic cell death marked by oxidative damage to phospholipids. To date, ferroptosis has been thought to be controlled only by the phospholipid hydroperoxide-reducing enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and radical-trapping antioxidants. However, elucidation of the factors that underlie the sensitivity of a given cell type to ferroptosis is crucial to understand the pathophysiological role of ferroptosis and how it may be exploited for the treatment of cancer. Although metabolic constraints and phospholipid composition contribute to ferroptosis sensitivity, no cell-autonomous mechanisms have been identified that account for the resistance of cells to ferroptosis. Here we used an expression cloning approach to identify genes in human cancer cells that are able to complement the loss of GPX4. We found that the flavoprotein apoptosis-inducing factor mitochondria-associated 2 (AIFM2) is a previously unrecognized anti-ferroptotic gene. AIFM2, which we renamed ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (FSP1) and which was initially described as a pro-apoptotic gene, confers protection against ferroptosis elicited by GPX4 deletion. We further demonstrate that the suppression of ferroptosis by FSP1 is mediated by ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q, CoQ): the reduced form, ubiquinol, traps lipid peroxyl radicals that mediate lipid peroxidation, whereas FSP1 catalyses the regeneration of CoQ using NAD(P)H. Pharmacological targeting of FSP1 strongly synergizes with GPX4 inhibitors to trigger ferroptosis in a number of cancer entities. In conclusion, the FSP1-CoQ-NAD(P)H pathway exists as a stand-alone parallel system, which co-operates with GPX4 and glutathione to suppress phospholipid peroxidation and ferroptosis.
Ferroptosis: Yet Another Way to Die.
Kazan Kemal,Kalaipandian Sundaravelpandian
Trends in plant science
Cell death is one of the most fundamental biological processes operating in multicellular organisms. Recent research highlighted here [Distéfano et al. (J. Cell Biol. 2017:216;463-476) and Dangol et al. (Plant Cell 2019:31;189-209)] revealed an iron- and ROS-dependent cell death phenomenon called ferroptosis in plants. Features distinguishing ferroptosis from other cell death events and how ferroptosis can be exploited to improve plant performance are discussed.
Glutaminolysis and Transferrin Regulate Ferroptosis.
Gao Minghui,Monian Prashant,Quadri Nosirudeen,Ramasamy Ravichandran,Jiang Xuejun
Ferroptosis has emerged as a new form of regulated necrosis that is implicated in various human diseases. However, the mechanisms of ferroptosis are not well defined. This study reports the discovery of multiple molecular components of ferroptosis and its intimate interplay with cellular metabolism and redox machinery. Nutrient starvation often leads to sporadic apoptosis. Strikingly, we found that upon deprivation of amino acids, a more rapid and potent necrosis process can be induced in a serum-dependent manner, which was subsequently determined to be ferroptosis. Two serum factors, the iron-carrier protein transferrin and amino acid glutamine, were identified as the inducers of ferroptosis. We further found that the cell surface transferrin receptor and the glutamine-fueled intracellular metabolic pathway, glutaminolysis, played crucial roles in the death process. Inhibition of glutaminolysis, the essential component of ferroptosis, can reduce heart injury triggered by ischemia/reperfusion, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for treating related diseases.
Involvement of cigarette smoke-induced epithelial cell ferroptosis in COPD pathogenesis.
Yoshida Masahiro,Minagawa Shunsuke,Araya Jun,Sakamoto Taro,Hara Hiromichi,Tsubouchi Kazuya,Hosaka Yusuke,Ichikawa Akihiro,Saito Nayuta,Kadota Tsukasa,Sato Nahoko,Kurita Yusuke,Kobayashi Kenji,Ito Saburo,Utsumi Hirohumi,Wakui Hiroshi,Numata Takanori,Kaneko Yumi,Mori Shohei,Asano Hisatoshi,Yamashita Makoto,Odaka Makoto,Morikawa Toshiaki,Nakayama Katsutoshi,Iwamoto Takeo,Imai Hirotaka,Kuwano Kazuyoshi
Ferroptosis is a necrotic form of regulated cell death (RCD) mediated by phospholipid peroxidation in association with free iron-mediated Fenton reactions. Disrupted iron homeostasis resulting in excessive oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we demonstrate the involvement of ferroptosis in COPD pathogenesis. Our in vivo and in vitro models show labile iron accumulation and enhanced lipid peroxidation with concomitant non-apoptotic cell death during cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, which are negatively regulated by GPx4 activity. Treatment with deferoxamine and ferrostatin-1, in addition to GPx4 knockdown, illuminate the role of ferroptosis in CS-treated lung epithelial cells. NCOA4-mediated ferritin selective autophagy (ferritinophagy) is initiated during ferritin degradation in response to CS treatment. CS exposure models, using both GPx4-deficient and overexpressing mice, clarify the pivotal role of GPx4-regulated cell death during COPD. These findings support a role for cigarette smoke-induced ferroptosis in the pathogenesis of COPD.
On the Mechanism of Cytoprotection by Ferrostatin-1 and Liproxstatin-1 and the Role of Lipid Peroxidation in Ferroptotic Cell Death.
Zilka Omkar,Shah Ron,Li Bo,Friedmann Angeli José Pedro,Griesser Markus,Conrad Marcus,Pratt Derek A
ACS central science
Ferroptosis is a form of regulated necrosis associated with the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides that may play a key role in the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases in which lipid peroxidation has been implicated. High-throughput screening efforts have identified ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) and liproxstatin-1 (Lip-1) as potent inhibitors of ferroptosis - an activity that has been ascribed to their ability to slow the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides. Herein we demonstrate that this activity likely derives from their reactivity as radical-trapping antioxidants (RTAs) rather than their potency as inhibitors of lipoxygenases. Although inhibited autoxidations of styrene revealed that Fer-1 and Lip-1 react roughly 10-fold more slowly with peroxyl radicals than reactions of α-tocopherol (α-TOH), they were significantly more reactive than α-TOH in phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers - consistent with the greater potency of Fer-1 and Lip-1 relative to α-TOH as inhibitors of ferroptosis. None of Fer-1, Lip-1, and α-TOH inhibited human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) overexpressed in HEK-293 cells when assayed at concentrations where they inhibited ferroptosis. These results stand in stark contrast to those obtained with a known 15-LOX-1 inhibitor (PD146176), which was able to inhibit the enzyme at concentrations where it was effective in inhibiting ferroptosis. Given the likelihood that Fer-1 and Lip-1 subvert ferroptosis by inhibiting lipid peroxidation as RTAs, we evaluated the antiferroptotic potential of 1,8-tetrahydronaphthyridinols (hereafter THNs): rationally designed radical-trapping antioxidants of unparalleled reactivity. We show for the first time that the inherent reactivity of the THNs translates to cell culture, where lipophilic THNs were similarly effective to Fer-1 and Lip-1 at subverting ferroptosis induced by either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the hydroperoxide-detoxifying enzyme Gpx4 in mouse fibroblasts, and glutamate-induced death of mouse hippocampal cells. These results demonstrate that potent RTAs subvert ferroptosis and suggest that lipid peroxidation (autoxidation) may play a central role in the process.
Metal Ions in Alzheimer's Disease: A Key Role or Not?
Liu Yan,Nguyen Michel,Robert Anne,Meunier Bernard
Accounts of chemical research
Despite tremendous research efforts in universities and pharmaceutical companies, effective drugs are still lacking for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biochemical mechanisms of this devastating neurodegenerative disease have not yet been clearly understood. Besides a small percentage of cases with early onset disease having a genetic origin (<5%, familial AD), most cases develop in the elderly as a sporadic form due to multiple and complex parameters of aging. Consequently, AD is spreading in all countries with a long life expectancy. AD is characterized by deposition of senile plaques made of β-amyloid proteins (Aβ) and by hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins, which have been considered as the main drug targets up to now. However, antibodies targeting amyloid aggregates, as well as enzyme inhibitors aiming to modify the amyloid precursor protein processing, have failed to improve cognition in clinical trials. Thus, to set up effective drugs, it is urgent to enlarge the panel of drug targets. Evidence of the link between AD and redox metal dysregulation has also been supported by post-mortem analyses of amyloid plaques, which revealed accumulation of copper, iron, and zinc by 5.7, 2.8, and 3.1 times, respectively, the levels observed in normal brains. Copper-amyloid complexes, in the presence of endogenous reductants, are able to catalyze the reduction of dioxygen and to produce reduced, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to neuron death. The possibility of using metal chelators to regenerate normal trafficking of metal ions has been considered as a promising strategy in order to reduce the redox stress lethal for neurons. However, most attempts to use metal chelators as therapeutic agents have been limited to existing molecules available from the shelves. Very few chelators have resulted from a rational design aiming to create drugs with a safety profile and able to cross the blood-brain barrier after an oral administration. In the human body, metals are handled by a sophisticated protein network to strictly control their transport and reactivity. Abnormal concentrations of certain metals may lead to pathological events due to misaccumulation and irregular reactivity. Consequently, therapeutic attempts to restore metal homeostasis should carefully take into account the coordination chemistry specificities of the concerned redox-active metal ions. This Account is focused on the role of the main biologically redox-active transition metals, iron and copper. For iron, the recent debate on the possible role of magnetite in AD pathogenesis is presented. The section devoted to copper is focused on the design of specific copper chelators as drug candidates able to regulate copper homeostasis and to reduce the oxidative damage responsible for the neuron death observed in AD brains. A short survey on non-redox-active metal ions is also included at the beginning, such as aluminum and its controversial role in AD and zinc which is a key metal ion in the brain.
Activation of the p62-Keap1-NRF2 pathway protects against ferroptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Sun Xiaofang,Ou Zhanhui,Chen Ruochan,Niu Xiaohua,Chen De,Kang Rui,Tang Daolin
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
UNLABELLED:Ferroptosis is a recently recognized form of regulated cell death caused by an iron-dependent accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating ferroptosis remain obscure. Here, we report that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a central role in protecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells against ferroptosis. Upon exposure to ferroptosis-inducing compounds (e.g., erastin, sorafenib, and buthionine sulfoximine), p62 expression prevented NRF2 degradation and enhanced subsequent NRF2 nuclear accumulation through inactivation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1. Additionally, nuclear NRF2 interacted with transcriptional coactivator small v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog proteins such as MafG and then activated transcription of quinone oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and ferritin heavy chain-1. Knockdown of p62, quinone oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and ferritin heavy chain-1 by RNA interference in HCC cells promoted ferroptosis in response to erastin and sorafenib. Furthermore, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of NRF2 expression/activity in HCC cells increased the anticancer activity of erastin and sorafenib in vitro and in tumor xenograft models. CONCLUSION:These findings demonstrate novel molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of ferroptosis; the status of NRF2 is a key factor that determines the therapeutic response to ferroptosis-targeted therapies in HCC cells.
Brain iron is associated with accelerated cognitive decline in people with Alzheimer pathology.
Ayton Scott,Wang Yamin,Diouf Ibrahima,Schneider Julie A,Brockman John,Morris Martha Clare,Bush Ashley I
Cortical iron has been shown to be elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the impact of the directly measured iron on the clinical syndrome has not been assessed. We investigated the association between post-mortem iron levels with the clinical and pathological diagnosis of AD, its severity, and the rate of cognitive decline in the 12 years prior to death in subjects from the Memory and Aging Project (n = 209). Iron was elevated (β [SE] = 9.7 [2.6]; P = 3.0 × 10) in the inferior temporal cortex only in subjects who were diagnosed with clinical AD during life and had a diagnosis of AD confirmed post-mortem by standardized criteria. Although iron was weakly associated with the extent of proteinopathy in tissue with AD neuropathology, it was strongly associated with the rate of cognitive decline (e.g., global cognition: β [SE] = -0.040 [0.005], P = 1.6 × 10). Thus, cortical iron might act to propel cognitive deterioration upon the underlying proteinopathy of AD, possibly by inducing oxidative stress or ferroptotic cell death, or may be related to an inflammatory response.
Transcription factor NRF2 protects mice against dietary iron-induced liver injury by preventing hepatocytic cell death.
Silva-Gomes Sandro,Santos Ana G,Caldas Carolina,Silva Cátia M,Neves João V,Lopes Joanne,Carneiro Fátima,Rodrigues Pedro N,Duarte Tiago L
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:The liver, being the major site of iron storage, is particularly exposed to the toxic effects of iron. Transcription factor NRF2 is critical for protecting the liver against disease by activating the transcription of genes encoding detoxification/antioxidant enzymes. We aimed to determine if the NRF2 pathway plays a significant role in the protection against hepatic iron overload. METHODS:Wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mouse primary hepatocytes were incubated with ferric ammonium citrate. Wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice were fed standard rodent chow or iron-rich diet for 2weeks, with or without daily injection of the antioxidant mito-TEMPOL. RESULTS:In mouse hepatocytes, iron induced the nuclear translocation of NRF2 and the expression of cytoprotective genes in an NRF2-dependent manner. Moreover, Nrf2(-/-) hepatocytes were highly susceptible to iron-induced cell death. Wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice fed iron-rich diet accumulated similar amounts of iron in the liver and were equally able to increase the expression of hepatic hepcidin and ferritin. Nevertheless, in Nrf2-null mice the iron loading resulted in progressive liver injury, ranging from mild confluent necrosis to severe necroinflammatory lesions. Hepatocytic cell death was associated with gross ultrastructural damage to the mitochondria. Notably, liver injury was prevented in iron-fed animals that received mito-TEMPOL. CONCLUSIONS:NRF2 protects the mouse liver against the toxicity of dietary iron overload by preventing hepatocytic cell death. We identify NRF2 as a potential modifier of liver disease in iron overload pathology and show the beneficial effect of the antioxidant mito-TEMPOL in a mouse model of dietary iron-induced liver injury.
Ferroptosis is an autophagic cell death process.
Gao Minghui,Monian Prashant,Pan Qiuhui,Zhang Wei,Xiang Jenny,Jiang Xuejun
Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of regulated necrosis. It is implicated in various human diseases, including ischemic organ damage and cancer. Here, we report the crucial role of autophagy, particularly autophagic degradation of cellular iron storage proteins (a process known as ferritinophagy), in ferroptosis. Using RNAi screening coupled with subsequent genetic analysis, we identified multiple autophagy-related genes as positive regulators of ferroptosis. Ferroptosis induction led to autophagy activation and consequent degradation of ferritin and ferritinophagy cargo receptor NCOA4. Consistently, inhibition of ferritinophagy by blockage of autophagy or knockdown of NCOA4 abrogated the accumulation of ferroptosis-associated cellular labile iron and reactive oxygen species, as well as eventual ferroptotic cell death. Therefore, ferroptosis is an autophagic cell death process, and NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy supports ferroptosis by controlling cellular iron homeostasis.
Ferroptosis: A Regulated Cell Death Nexus Linking Metabolism, Redox Biology, and Disease.
Stockwell Brent R,Friedmann Angeli José Pedro,Bayir Hülya,Bush Ashley I,Conrad Marcus,Dixon Scott J,Fulda Simone,Gascón Sergio,Hatzios Stavroula K,Kagan Valerian E,Noel Kay,Jiang Xuejun,Linkermann Andreas,Murphy Maureen E,Overholtzer Michael,Oyagi Atsushi,Pagnussat Gabriela C,Park Jason,Ran Qitao,Rosenfeld Craig S,Salnikow Konstantin,Tang Daolin,Torti Frank M,Torti Suzy V,Toyokuni Shinya,Woerpel K A,Zhang Donna D
Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides to lethal levels. Emerging evidence suggests that ferroptosis represents an ancient vulnerability caused by the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into cellular membranes, and cells have developed complex systems that exploit and defend against this vulnerability in different contexts. The sensitivity to ferroptosis is tightly linked to numerous biological processes, including amino acid, iron, and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and the biosynthesis of glutathione, phospholipids, NADPH, and coenzyme Q. Ferroptosis has been implicated in the pathological cell death associated with degenerative diseases (i.e., Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases), carcinogenesis, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and kidney degeneration in mammals and is also implicated in heat stress in plants. Ferroptosis may also have a tumor-suppressor function that could be harnessed for cancer therapy. This Primer reviews the mechanisms underlying ferroptosis, highlights connections to other areas of biology and medicine, and recommends tools and guidelines for studying this emerging form of regulated cell death.
Iron and dopamine: a toxic couple.
Hare Dominic J,Double Kay L
Brain : a journal of neurology
Iron accumulation is a cardinal feature of degenerating regions in the Parkinson's disease brain. As a potent pro-oxidant, redox-active iron may be a key player in upstream mechanisms that precipitate cell death in this disorder. Although an elevation in brain iron levels is a normal feature of ageing, the increase is greater in Parkinson's disease; on the other hand, the effects of the disease are most marked in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. In this Update, we explain that neurodegeneration in the affected regions may result from the potent redox couple formed by iron and dopamine itself, and discuss the clinical implications of this molecular trait in this dynamic and rapidly moving area of Parkinson's disease research.
FINO initiates ferroptosis through GPX4 inactivation and iron oxidation.
Gaschler Michael M,Andia Alexander A,Liu Hengrui,Csuka Joleen M,Hurlocker Brisa,Vaiana Christopher A,Heindel Daniel W,Zuckerman Dylan S,Bos Pieter H,Reznik Eduard,Ye Ling F,Tyurina Yulia Y,Lin Annie J,Shchepinov Mikhail S,Chan Amy Y,Peguero-Pereira Eveliz,Fomich Maksim A,Daniels Jacob D,Bekish Andrei V,Shmanai Vadim V,Kagan Valerian E,Mahal Lara K,Woerpel K A,Stockwell Brent R
Nature chemical biology
Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of regulated cell death caused by the failure of the glutathione-dependent lipid-peroxide-scavenging network. FINO is an endoperoxide-containing 1,2-dioxolane that can initiate ferroptosis selectively in engineered cancer cells. We investigated the mechanism and structural features necessary for ferroptosis initiation by FINO. We found that FINO requires both an endoperoxide moiety and a nearby hydroxyl head group to initiate ferroptosis. In contrast to previously described ferroptosis inducers, FINO does not inhibit system x or directly target the reducing enzyme GPX4, as do erastin and RSL3, respectively, nor does it deplete GPX4 protein, as does FIN56. Instead, FINO both indirectly inhibits GPX4 enzymatic function and directly oxidizes iron, ultimately causing widespread lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that endoperoxides such as FINO can initiate a multipronged mechanism of ferroptosis.
Ferroptosis: Death by Lipid Peroxidation.
Yang Wan Seok,Stockwell Brent R
Trends in cell biology
Ferroptosis is a regulated form of cell death driven by loss of activity of the lipid repair enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and subsequent accumulation of lipid-based reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly lipid hydroperoxides. This form of iron-dependent cell death is genetically, biochemically, and morphologically distinct from other cell death modalities, including apoptosis, unregulated necrosis, and necroptosis. Ferroptosis is regulated by specific pathways and is involved in diverse biological contexts. Here we summarize the discovery of ferroptosis, the mechanism of ferroptosis regulation, and its increasingly appreciated relevance to both normal and pathological physiology.
Blood-derived iron mediates free radical production and neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 area following transient forebrain ischemia in rat.
Park Ui Jin,Lee Young Ae,Won Sun Mi,Lee Jin Hwan,Kang Seung-Hee,Springer Joe E,Lee Yong Beom,Gwag Byoung Joo
Abnormal brain iron homeostasis has been proposed as a pathological event leading to oxidative stress and neuronal injury under pathological conditions. We examined the possibility that neuronal iron overload would mediate free radical production and delayed neuronal death (DND) in hippocampal CA1 area after transient forebrain ischemia (TFI). Mitochondrial free radicals (MFR) were biphasically generated in CA1 neurons 0.5-8 and 48-60 h after TFI. Treatment with Neu2000, a potent spin trapping molecule, as well as trolox, a vitamin E analogue, blocked the biphasic MFR production and attenuated DND in the CA1, regardless of whether it was administered immediately or even 24 h after reperfusion. The late increase in MFR was accompanied by iron accumulation and blocked by the administration of deferoxamine-an iron chelator. Iron accumulation was attributable to prolonged upregulation of the transferrin receptor and to increased uptake of peripheral iron through a leaky blood-brain barrier. Infiltration of iron-containing cells and iron accumulation were attenuated by depletion of circulating blood cells through X-ray irradiation of the whole body except the head. The present findings suggest that excessive iron transported from blood mediates slowly evolving oxidative stress and neuronal death in CA1 after TFI, and that targeting iron-mediated oxidative stress holds extended therapeutic time window against an ischemic event.
Ferroptosis: an iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death.
Dixon Scott J,Lemberg Kathryn M,Lamprecht Michael R,Skouta Rachid,Zaitsev Eleina M,Gleason Caroline E,Patel Darpan N,Bauer Andras J,Cantley Alexandra M,Yang Wan Seok,Morrison Barclay,Stockwell Brent R
Nonapoptotic forms of cell death may facilitate the selective elimination of some tumor cells or be activated in specific pathological states. The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death that we term ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon intracellular iron, but not other metals, and is morphologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. We identify the small molecule ferrostatin-1 as a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis in cancer cells and glutamate-induced cell death in organotypic rat brain slices, suggesting similarities between these two processes. Indeed, erastin, like glutamate, inhibits cystine uptake by the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x(c)(-)), creating a void in the antioxidant defenses of the cell and ultimately leading to iron-dependent, oxidative death. Thus, activation of ferroptosis results in the nonapoptotic destruction of certain cancer cells, whereas inhibition of this process may protect organisms from neurodegeneration.
Mitochondrial Iron in Human Health and Disease.
Ward Diane M,Cloonan Suzanne M
Annual review of physiology
Mitochondria are an iconic distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria encompass an active organellar network that fuses, divides, and directs a myriad of vital biological functions, including energy metabolism, cell death regulation, and innate immune signaling in different tissues. Another crucial and often underappreciated function of these dynamic organelles is their central role in the metabolism of the most abundant and biologically versatile transition metals in mammalian cells, iron. In recent years, cellular and animal models of mitochondrial iron dysfunction have provided vital information in identifying new proteins that have elucidated the pathways involved in mitochondrial homeostasis and iron metabolism. Specific signatures of mitochondrial iron dysregulation that are associated with disease pathogenesis and/or progression are becoming increasingly important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial iron pathways will help better define the role of this important metal in mitochondrial function and in human health and disease.
Tom20 senses iron-activated ROS signaling to promote melanoma cell pyroptosis.
Zhou Bo,Zhang Jia-Yuan,Liu Xian-Shuo,Chen Hang-Zi,Ai Yuan-Li,Cheng Kang,Sun Ru-Yue,Zhou Dawang,Han Jiahuai,Wu Qiao
Iron has been shown to trigger oxidative stress by elevating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to participate in different modes of cell death, such as ferroptosis, apoptosis and necroptosis. However, whether iron-elevated ROS is also linked to pyroptosis has not been reported. Here, we demonstrate that iron-activated ROS can induce pyroptosis via a Tom20-Bax-caspase-GSDME pathway. In melanoma cells, iron enhanced ROS signaling initiated by CCCP, causing the oxidation and oligomerization of the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Tom20. Bax is recruited to mitochondria by oxidized Tom20, which facilitates cytochrome c release to cytosol to activate caspase-3, eventually triggering pyroptotic death by inducing GSDME cleavage. Therefore, ROS acts as a causative factor and Tom20 senses ROS signaling for iron-driven pyroptotic death of melanoma cells. Since iron activates ROS for GSDME-dependent pyroptosis induction and melanoma cells specifically express a high level of GSDME, iron may be a potential candidate for melanoma therapy. Based on the functional mechanism of iron shown above, we further demonstrate that iron supplementation at a dosage used in iron-deficient patients is sufficient to maximize the anti-tumor effect of clinical ROS-inducing drugs to inhibit xenograft tumor growth and metastasis of melanoma cells through GSDME-dependent pyroptosis. Moreover, no obvious side effects are observed in the normal tissues and organs of mice during the combined treatment of clinical drugs and iron. This study not only identifies iron as a sensitizer amplifying ROS signaling to drive pyroptosis, but also implicates a novel iron-based intervention strategy for melanoma therapy.
The role of iron and reactive oxygen species in cell death.
Dixon Scott J,Stockwell Brent R
Nature chemical biology
The transition metal iron is essential for life, yet potentially toxic iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unavoidable in an oxygen-rich environment. Iron and ROS are increasingly recognized as important initiators and mediators of cell death in a variety of organisms and pathological situations. Here, we review recent discoveries regarding the mechanism by which iron and ROS participate in cell death. We describe the different roles of iron in triggering cell death, targets of iron-dependent ROS that mediate cell death and a new form of iron-dependent cell death termed ferroptosis. Recent advances in understanding the role of iron and ROS in cell death offer unexpected surprises and suggest new therapeutic avenues to treat cancer, organ damage and degenerative disease.
Regulators of Iron Homeostasis: New Players in Metabolism, Cell Death, and Disease.
Bogdan Alexander R,Miyazawa Masaki,Hashimoto Kazunori,Tsuji Yoshiaki
Trends in biochemical sciences
Iron is necessary for life, but can also cause cell death. Accordingly, cells evolved a robust, tightly regulated suite of genes for maintaining iron homeostasis. Previous mechanistic studies on iron homeostasis have granted insight into the role of iron in human health and disease. We highlight new regulators of iron metabolism, including iron-trafficking proteins [solute carrier family 39, SLC39, also known as ZRT/IRT-like protein, ZIP; and poly-(rC)-binding protein, PCBP] and a cargo receptor (NCOA4) that is crucial for release of ferritin-bound iron. We also discuss emerging roles of iron in apoptosis and a novel iron-dependent cell death pathway termed 'ferroptosis', the dysregulation of iron metabolism in human pathologies, and the use of iron chelators in cancer therapy.
Cell-Line Selectivity Improves the Predictive Power of Pharmacogenomic Analyses and Helps Identify NADPH as Biomarker for Ferroptosis Sensitivity.
Shimada Kenichi,Hayano Miki,Pagano Nen C,Stockwell Brent R
Cell chemical biology
Precision medicine in oncology requires not only identification of cancer-associated mutations but also effective drugs for each cancer genotype, which is still a largely unsolved problem. One approach for the latter challenge has been large-scale testing of small molecules in genetically characterized cell lines. We hypothesized that compounds with high cell-line-selective lethality exhibited consistent results across such pharmacogenomic studies. We analyzed the compound sensitivity data of 6,259 lethal compounds from the NCI-60 project. A total of 2,565 cell-line-selective lethal compounds were identified and grouped into 18 clusters based on their median growth inhibitory GI50 profiles across the 60 cell lines, which were shown to represent distinct mechanisms of action. Further transcriptome analysis revealed a biomarker, NADPH abundance, for predicting sensitivity to ferroptosis-inducing compounds, which we experimentally validated. In summary, incorporating cell-line-selectivity filters improves the predictive power of pharmacogenomic analyses and enables discovery of biomarkers that predict the sensitivity of cells to specific cell death inducers.
The Molecular Mechanisms of Regulating Oxidative Stress-Induced Ferroptosis and Therapeutic Strategy in Tumors.
Zhu Jinghan,Xiong Yixiao,Zhang Yuxin,Wen Jingyuan,Cai Ning,Cheng Kun,Liang Huifang,Zhang Wanguang
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Ferroptosis is an atypical form of regulated cell death, which is different from apoptosis, necrosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy. Ferroptosis is characterized by iron-dependent oxidative destruction of cellular membranes following the antioxidant system's failure. The sensitivity of ferroptosis is tightly regulated by a series of biological processes, the metabolism of iron, amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the interaction of glutathione (GSH), NADPH, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and phospholipids. Elevated oxidative stress (ROS) level is a hallmark of cancer, and ferroptosis serves as a link between nutrition metabolism and redox biology. Targeting ferroptosis may be an effective and selective way for cancer therapy. The underlying molecular mechanism of ferroptosis occurrence is still not enough. This review will briefly summarize the process of ferroptosis and introduce critical molecules in the ferroptotic cascade. Furthermore, we reviewed the occurrence and regulation of reduction-oxidation (redox) for ferroptosis in cancer metabolism. The role of the tumor suppressor and the epigenetic regulator in tumor cell ferroptosis will also be described. Finally, old drugs that can be repurposed to induce ferroptosis will be characterized, aiming for drug repurposing and novel drug combinations for cancer therapy more efficiently and economically.
Ferroptosis: past, present and future.
Li Jie,Cao Feng,Yin He-Liang,Huang Zi-Jian,Lin Zhi-Tao,Mao Ning,Sun Bei,Wang Gang
Cell death & disease
Ferroptosis is a new type of cell death that was discovered in recent years and is usually accompanied by a large amount of iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation during the cell death process; the occurrence of ferroptosis is iron-dependent. Ferroptosis-inducing factors can directly or indirectly affect glutathione peroxidase through different pathways, resulting in a decrease in antioxidant capacity and accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, ultimately leading to oxidative cell death. Recent studies have shown that ferroptosis is closely related to the pathophysiological processes of many diseases, such as tumors, nervous system diseases, ischemia-reperfusion injury, kidney injury, and blood diseases. How to intervene in the occurrence and development of related diseases by regulating cell ferroptosis has become a hotspot and focus of etiological research and treatment, but the functional changes and specific molecular mechanisms of ferroptosis still need to be further explored. This paper systematically summarizes the latest progress in ferroptosis research, with a focus on providing references for further understanding of its pathogenesis and for proposing new targets for the treatment of related diseases.