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    Tau exacerbates excitotoxic brain damage in an animal model of stroke. Bi Mian,Gladbach Amadeus,van Eersel Janet,Ittner Arne,Przybyla Magdalena,van Hummel Annika,Chua Sook Wern,van der Hoven Julia,Lee Wei S,Müller Julius,Parmar Jasneet,Jonquieres Georg von,Stefen Holly,Guccione Ernesto,Fath Thomas,Housley Gary D,Klugmann Matthias,Ke Yazi D,Ittner Lars M Nature communications Neuronal excitotoxicity induced by aberrant excitation of glutamatergic receptors contributes to brain damage in stroke. Here we show that tau-deficient (tau) mice are profoundly protected from excitotoxic brain damage and neurological deficits following experimental stroke, using a middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion model. Mechanistically, we show that this protection is due to site-specific inhibition of glutamate-induced and Ras/ERK-mediated toxicity by accumulation of Ras-inhibiting SynGAP1, which resides in a post-synaptic complex with tau. Accordingly, reducing SynGAP1 levels in tau mice abolished the protection from pharmacologically induced excitotoxicity and middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage. Conversely, over-expression of SynGAP1 prevented excitotoxic ERK activation in wild-type neurons. Our findings suggest that tau mediates excitotoxic Ras/ERK signaling by controlling post-synaptic compartmentalization of SynGAP1.Excitotoxicity contributes to neuronal injury following stroke. Here the authors show that tau promotes excitotoxicity by a post-synaptic mechanism, involving site-specific control of ERK activation, in a mouse model of stroke. 10.1038/s41467-017-00618-0
    System xC- is a mediator of microglial function and its deletion slows symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice. Mesci Pinar,Zaïdi Sakina,Lobsiger Christian S,Millecamps Stéphanie,Escartin Carole,Seilhean Danielle,Sato Hideyo,Mallat Michel,Boillée Séverine Brain : a journal of neurology Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease and evidence from mice expressing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-causing SOD1 mutations suggest that neurodegeneration is a non-cell autonomous process where microglial cells influence disease progression. However, microglial-derived neurotoxic factors still remain largely unidentified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. With excitotoxicity being a major mechanism proposed to cause motor neuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, our hypothesis was that excessive glutamate release by activated microglia through their system [Formula: see text] (a cystine/glutamate antiporter with the specific subunit xCT/Slc7a11) could contribute to neurodegeneration. Here we show that xCT expression is enriched in microglia compared to total mouse spinal cord and absent from motor neurons. Activated microglia induced xCT expression and during disease, xCT levels were increased in both spinal cord and isolated microglia from mutant SOD1 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice. Expression of xCT was also detectable in spinal cord post-mortem tissues of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and correlated with increased inflammation. Genetic deletion of xCT in mice demonstrated that activated microglia released glutamate mainly through system [Formula: see text]. Interestingly, xCT deletion also led to decreased production of specific microglial pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic factors including nitric oxide, TNFa and IL6, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory/neuroprotective markers such as Ym1/Chil3 were increased, indicating that xCT regulates microglial functions. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice, xCT deletion surprisingly led to earlier symptom onset but, importantly, this was followed by a significantly slowed progressive disease phase, which resulted in more surviving motor neurons. These results are consistent with a deleterious contribution of microglial-derived glutamate during symptomatic disease. Therefore, we show that system [Formula: see text] participates in microglial reactivity and modulates amyotrophic lateral sclerosis motor neuron degeneration, revealing system [Formula: see text] inactivation, as a potential approach to slow amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease progression after onset of clinical symptoms. 10.1093/brain/awu312
    Co-expression of truncated and full-length tau induces severe neurotoxicity. Ozcelik S,Sprenger F,Skachokova Z,Fraser G,Abramowski D,Clavaguera F,Probst A,Frank S,Müller M,Staufenbiel M,Goedert M,Tolnay M,Winkler D T Molecular psychiatry Abundant tau inclusions are a defining hallmark of several human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Protein fragmentation is a widely observed event in neurodegenerative proteinopathies. The relevance of tau fragmentation for the neurodegenerative process in tauopathies has yet remained unclear. Here we found that co-expression of truncated and full-length human tau in mice provoked the formation of soluble high-molecular-weight tau, the failure of axonal transport, clumping of mitochondria, disruption of the Golgi apparatus and missorting of synaptic proteins. This was associated with extensive nerve cell dysfunction and severe paralysis by the age of 3 weeks. When the expression of truncated tau was halted, most mice recovered behaviorally and functionally. In contrast, co-expression of full-length tau isoforms did not result in paralysis. Truncated tau thus induces extensive but reversible neurotoxicity in the presence of full-length tau through the formation of nonfilamentous high-molecular-weight tau aggregates, in the absence of tau filaments. Targeting tau fragmentation may provide a novel approach for the treatment of human tauopathies. 10.1038/mp.2015.228
    Neuronal Cell Death. Fricker Michael,Tolkovsky Aviva M,Borutaite Vilmante,Coleman Michael,Brown Guy C Physiological reviews Neuronal cell death occurs extensively during development and pathology, where it is especially important because of the limited capacity of adult neurons to proliferate or be replaced. The concept of cell death used to be simple as there were just two or three types, so we just had to work out which type was involved in our particular pathology and then block it. However, we now know that there are at least a dozen ways for neurons to die, that blocking a particular mechanism of cell death may not prevent the cell from dying, and that non-neuronal cells also contribute to neuronal death. We review here the mechanisms of neuronal death by intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis, oncosis, necroptosis, parthanatos, ferroptosis, sarmoptosis, autophagic cell death, autosis, autolysis, paraptosis, pyroptosis, phagoptosis, and mitochondrial permeability transition. We next explore the mechanisms of neuronal death during development, and those induced by axotomy, aberrant cell-cycle reentry, glutamate (excitoxicity and oxytosis), loss of connected neurons, aggregated proteins and the unfolded protein response, oxidants, inflammation, and microglia. We then reassess which forms of cell death occur in stroke and Alzheimer's disease, two of the most important pathologies involving neuronal cell death. We also discuss why it has been so difficult to pinpoint the type of neuronal death involved, if and why the mechanism of neuronal death matters, the molecular overlap and interplay between death subroutines, and the therapeutic implications of these multiple overlapping forms of neuronal death. 10.1152/physrev.00011.2017
    Oxidative Stress. Sies Helmut,Berndt Carsten,Jones Dean P Annual review of biochemistry Oxidative stress is two sided: Whereas excessive oxidant challenge causes damage to biomolecules, maintenance of a physiological level of oxidant challenge, termed oxidative eustress, is essential for governing life processes through redox signaling. Recent interest has focused on the intricate ways by which redox signaling integrates these converse properties. Redox balance is maintained by prevention, interception, and repair, and concomitantly the regulatory potential of molecular thiol-driven master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB/IκB is used for system-wide oxidative stress response. Nonradical species such as hydrogen peroxide (HO) or singlet molecular oxygen, rather than free-radical species, perform major second messenger functions. Chemokine-controlled NADPH oxidases and metabolically controlled mitochondrial sources of HO as well as glutathione- and thioredoxin-related pathways, with powerful enzymatic back-up systems, are responsible for fine-tuning physiological redox signaling. This makes for a rich research field spanning from biochemistry and cell biology into nutritional sciences, environmental medicine, and molecular knowledge-based redox medicine. 10.1146/annurev-biochem-061516-045037
    Come and eat: mitochondrial transport guides mitophagy in ischemic neuronal axons. Zheng Yanrong,Wu Xiaoli,Chen Zhong,Zhang Xiangnan Autophagy Mitophagy is the sole mechanism for neurons to eliminate superfluous or damaged mitochondria. Although the critical implications of mitophagy have been emphasized in a variety of neurological disorders, it remains ambiguous how neurons control the quality of axonal mitochondria. By employing an oxygen-glucose-deprivation and reperfusion (OGD-Rep) model in cultured neurons, our recent results clearly documented the prompt recovery of retrograde transport of axonal mitochondria to neuronal soma. Moreover, by selectively labeling axonal mitochondria, we found that these axonal mitochondria appear in neuronal soma and are eliminated via autophagosomes in priority. This mitochondrial movement from axon to soma has a critical contribution to overall neuronal mitophagy under ischemia. Because forced expression of an anchoring protein, SNPH (Syntaphilin), significantly blocks mitophagy, and aggravates mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal injury. Conversely, promoted retrograde mitochondrial movement facilitates neuronal mitophagy and attenuates ischemic neuronal demise. In conclusion, we propose stimulating the somatic autophagy of axonal mitochondria after ischemic insults. These findings may provide further insight into how neurons control the mitochondrial quality in pathological conditions and offer novel strategies to cure neurological disorders. 10.1080/15548627.2019.1618099
    Defending stressed mitochondria: uncovering the role of MUL1 in suppressing neuronal mitophagy. Puri Rajat,Cheng Xiu-Tang,Lin Mei-Yao,Huang Ning,Sheng Zu-Hang Autophagy Chronic mitochondrial stress is associated with major neurodegenerative diseases; and thus, the recovery of those mitochondria constitutes a critical step of energy maintenance in early stages of neurodegeneration. Our recent study provides the first lines of evidence showing that the MUL1-MFN2 pathway acts as an early checkpoint to maintain mitochondrial integrity by regulating mitochondrial morphology and interplay with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This mechanism ensures that degradation through mitophagy is restrained in neurons under early stress conditions. MUL1 deficiency increases MFN2 activity, triggering the first phase of mitochondrial hyperfusion and acting as an antagonist of ER-mitochondria (ER-Mito) tethering. Reduced ER-Mito interplay enhances the cytoplasmic Ca load that induces the DNM1L/Drp1-dependent second phase of mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into neuronal mitochondrial maintenance under stress conditions. Identifying this pathway is particularly relevant because chronic mitochondrial dysfunction and altered ER-Mito contacts have been reported in major neurodegenerative diseases. 10.1080/15548627.2019.1687216
    Autophagy in Neurons. Stavoe Andrea K H,Holzbaur Erika L F Annual review of cell and developmental biology Autophagy is the major cellular pathway to degrade dysfunctional organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is particularly important in neurons, which are terminally differentiated cells that must last the lifetime of the organism. There are both constitutive and stress-induced pathways for autophagy in neurons, which catalyze the turnover of aged or damaged mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, other cellular organelles, and aggregated proteins. These pathways are required in neurodevelopment as well as in the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis. Here we review the core components of the pathway for autophagosome biogenesis, as well as the cell biology of bulk and selective autophagy in neurons. Finally, we discuss the role of autophagy in neuronal development, homeostasis, and aging and the links between deficits in autophagy and neurodegeneration. 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100818-125242
    Mitochondrial DNA: impacting central and peripheral nervous systems. Carelli Valerio,Chan David C Neuron Because of their high-energy metabolism, neurons are strictly dependent on mitochondria, which generate cellular ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. The mitochondrial genome encodes for critical components of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway machinery, and therefore, mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause energy production defects that frequently have severe neurological manifestations. Here, we review the principles of mitochondrial genetics and focus on prototypical mitochondrial diseases to illustrate how primary defects in mtDNA or secondary defects in mtDNA due to nuclear genome mutations can cause prominent neurological and multisystem features. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mitochondrial diseases, the cellular mechanisms that protect mitochondrial integrity, and the prospects for therapy. 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.11.022
    Reduced mitochondrial fusion and Huntingtin levels contribute to impaired dendritic maturation and behavioral deficits in Fmr1-mutant mice. Shen Minjie,Wang Feifei,Li Meng,Sah Nirnath,Stockton Michael E,Tidei Joseph J,Gao Yu,Korabelnikov Tomer,Kannan Sudharsan,Vevea Jason D,Chapman Edwin R,Bhattacharyya Anita,van Praag Henriette,Zhao Xinyu Nature neuroscience Fragile X syndrome results from a loss of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). How FMRP regulates neuronal development and function remains unclear. Here we show that FMRP-deficient immature neurons exhibit impaired dendritic maturation, altered expression of mitochondrial genes, fragmented mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial function, and increased oxidative stress. Enhancing mitochondrial fusion partially rescued dendritic abnormalities in FMRP-deficient immature neurons. We show that FMRP deficiency leads to reduced Htt mRNA and protein levels and that HTT mediates FMRP regulation of mitochondrial fusion and dendritic maturation. Mice with hippocampal Htt knockdown and Fmr1-knockout mice showed similar behavioral deficits that could be rescued by treatment with a mitochondrial fusion compound. Our data unveil mitochondrial dysfunction as a contributor to the impaired dendritic maturation of FMRP-deficient neurons and suggest a role for interactions between FMRP and HTT in the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome. 10.1038/s41593-019-0338-y
    Mitochondrial Mobility and Neuronal Recovery. Kaasik Allen The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJMcibr1607955
    Disturbed mitochondrial dynamics and neurodegenerative disorders. Burté Florence,Carelli Valerio,Chinnery Patrick F,Yu-Wai-Man Patrick Nature reviews. Neurology Mitochondria form a highly interconnected tubular network throughout the cell via a dynamic process, with mitochondrial segments fusing and breaking apart continuously. Strong evidence has emerged to implicate disturbed mitochondrial fusion and fission as central pathological components underpinning a number of childhood and adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. Several proteins that regulate the morphology of the mitochondrial network have been identified, the most widely studied of which are optic atrophy 1 and mitofusin 2. Pathogenic mutations that disrupt these two pro-fusion proteins cause autosomal dominant optic atrophy and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A, respectively. These disorders predominantly affect specialized neurons that require precise shuttling of mitochondria over long axonal distances. Considerable insight has also been gained by carefully dissecting the deleterious consequences of imbalances in mitochondrial fusion and fission on respiratory chain function, mitochondrial quality control (mitophagy), and programmed cell death. Interestingly, these cellular processes are also implicated in more-common complex neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease, indicating a common pathological thread and a close relationship with mitochondrial structure, function and localization. Understanding how these fundamental processes become disrupted will prove crucial to the development of therapies for the growing number of neurodegenerative disorders linked to disturbed mitochondrial dynamics. 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.228
    α-Synuclein binds to TOM20 and inhibits mitochondrial protein import in Parkinson's disease. Di Maio Roberto,Barrett Paul J,Hoffman Eric K,Barrett Caitlyn W,Zharikov Alevtina,Borah Anupom,Hu Xiaoping,McCoy Jennifer,Chu Charleen T,Burton Edward A,Hastings Teresa G,Greenamyre J Timothy Science translational medicine α-Synuclein accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction have both been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), and the two appear to be related. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to accumulation and oligomerization of α-synuclein, and increased levels of α-synuclein cause mitochondrial impairment, but the basis for this bidirectional interaction remains obscure. We now report that certain posttranslationally modified species of α-synuclein bind with high affinity to the TOM20 (translocase of the outer membrane 20) presequence receptor of the mitochondrial protein import machinery. This binding prevented the interaction of TOM20 with its co-receptor, TOM22, and impaired mitochondrial protein import. Consequently, there were deficient mitochondrial respiration, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Examination of postmortem brain tissue from PD patients revealed an aberrant α-synuclein-TOM20 interaction in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons that was associated with loss of imported mitochondrial proteins, thereby confirming this pathogenic process in the human disease. Modest knockdown of endogenous α-synuclein was sufficient to maintain mitochondrial protein import in an in vivo model of PD. Furthermore, in in vitro systems, overexpression of TOM20 or a mitochondrial targeting signal peptide had beneficial effects and preserved mitochondrial protein import. This study characterizes a pathogenic mechanism in PD, identifies toxic species of wild-type α-synuclein, and reveals potential new therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaf3634
    Mitophagy inhibits amyloid-β and tau pathology and reverses cognitive deficits in models of Alzheimer's disease. Fang Evandro F,Hou Yujun,Palikaras Konstantinos,Adriaanse Bryan A,Kerr Jesse S,Yang Beimeng,Lautrup Sofie,Hasan-Olive Md Mahdi,Caponio Domenica,Dan Xiuli,Rocktäschel Paula,Croteau Deborah L,Akbari Mansour,Greig Nigel H,Fladby Tormod,Nilsen Hilde,Cader M Zameel,Mattson Mark P,Tavernarakis Nektarios,Bohr Vilhelm A Nature neuroscience Accumulation of damaged mitochondria is a hallmark of aging and age-related neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The molecular mechanisms of impaired mitochondrial homeostasis in AD are being investigated. Here we provide evidence that mitophagy is impaired in the hippocampus of AD patients, in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human AD neurons, and in animal AD models. In both amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau Caenorhabditis elegans models of AD, mitophagy stimulation (through NAD supplementation, urolithin A, and actinonin) reverses memory impairment through PINK-1 (PTEN-induced kinase-1)-, PDR-1 (Parkinson's disease-related-1; parkin)-, or DCT-1 (DAF-16/FOXO-controlled germline-tumor affecting-1)-dependent pathways. Mitophagy diminishes insoluble Aβ and Aβ and prevents cognitive impairment in an APP/PS1 mouse model through microglial phagocytosis of extracellular Aβ plaques and suppression of neuroinflammation. Mitophagy enhancement abolishes AD-related tau hyperphosphorylation in human neuronal cells and reverses memory impairment in transgenic tau nematodes and mice. Our findings suggest that impaired removal of defective mitochondria is a pivotal event in AD pathogenesis and that mitophagy represents a potential therapeutic intervention. 10.1038/s41593-018-0332-9
    SIRT3 mediates hippocampal synaptic adaptations to intermittent fasting and ameliorates deficits in APP mutant mice. Liu Yong,Cheng Aiwu,Li Yu-Jiao,Yang Ying,Kishimoto Yuki,Zhang Shi,Wang Yue,Wan Ruiqian,Raefsky Sophia M,Lu Daoyuan,Saito Takashi,Saido Takaomi,Zhu Jian,Wu Long-Jun,Mattson Mark P Nature communications Intermittent food deprivation (fasting, IF) improves mood and cognition and protects neurons against excitotoxic degeneration in animal models of epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanisms by which neuronal networks adapt to IF and how such adaptations impact neuropathological processes are unknown. We show that hippocampal neuronal networks adapt to IF by enhancing GABAergic tone, which is associated with reduced anxiety-like behaviors and improved hippocampus-dependent memory. These neuronal network and behavioral adaptations require the mitochondrial protein deacetylase SIRT3 as they are abolished in SIRT3-deficient mice and wild type mice in which SIRT3 is selectively depleted from hippocampal neurons. In the App mouse model of AD, IF reduces neuronal network hyperexcitability and ameliorates deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a SIRT3-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate a role for a mitochondrial protein deacetylase in hippocampal neurons in behavioral and GABAergic synaptic adaptations to IF. 10.1038/s41467-019-09897-1
    Impaired mitochondrial calcium efflux contributes to disease progression in models of Alzheimer's disease. Jadiya Pooja,Kolmetzky Devin W,Tomar Dhanendra,Di Meco Antonio,Lombardi Alyssa A,Lambert Jonathan P,Luongo Timothy S,Ludtmann Marthe H,Praticò Domenico,Elrod John W Nature communications Impairments in neuronal intracellular calcium (Ca) handling may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) development. Metabolic dysfunction and progressive neuronal loss are associated with AD progression, and mitochondrial calcium (Ca) signaling is a key regulator of both of these processes. Here, we report remodeling of the Ca exchange machinery in the prefrontal cortex of individuals with AD. In the 3xTg-AD mouse model impaired Ca efflux capacity precedes neuropathology. Neuronal deletion of the mitochondrial Na/Ca exchanger (NCLX, Slc8b1 gene) accelerated memory decline and increased amyloidosis and tau pathology. Further, genetic rescue of neuronal NCLX in 3xTg-AD mice is sufficient to impede AD-associated pathology and memory loss. We show that Ca overload contributes to AD progression by promoting superoxide generation, metabolic dysfunction and neuronal cell death. These results provide a link between the calcium dysregulation and metabolic dysfunction hypotheses of AD and suggest Ca exchange as potential therapeutic target in AD. 10.1038/s41467-019-11813-6
    NAD in Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Lautrup Sofie,Sinclair David A,Mattson Mark P,Fang Evandro F Cell metabolism NAD is a pivotal metabolite involved in cellular bioenergetics, genomic stability, mitochondrial homeostasis, adaptive stress responses, and cell survival. Multiple NAD-dependent enzymes are involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal stress resistance. Here, we review emerging findings that reveal key roles for NAD and related metabolites in the adaptation of neurons to a wide range of physiological stressors and in counteracting processes in neurodegenerative diseases, such as those occurring in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Advances in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of NAD-based neuronal resilience will lead to novel approaches for facilitating healthy brain aging and for the treatment of a range of neurological disorders. 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.09.001
    Glial lipid droplets and ROS induced by mitochondrial defects promote neurodegeneration. Liu Lucy,Zhang Ke,Sandoval Hector,Yamamoto Shinya,Jaiswal Manish,Sanz Elisenda,Li Zhihong,Hui Jessica,Graham Brett H,Quintana Albert,Bellen Hugo J Cell Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial defects in neurons are implicated in neurodegenerative disease. Here, we find that a key consequence of ROS and neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction is the accumulation of lipid droplets (LD) in glia. In Drosophila, ROS triggers c-Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein (SREBP) activity in neurons leading to LD accumulation in glia prior to or at the onset of neurodegeneration. The accumulated lipids are peroxidated in the presence of ROS. Reducing LD accumulation in glia and lipid peroxidation via targeted lipase overexpression and/or lowering ROS significantly delays the onset of neurodegeneration. Furthermore, a similar pathway leads to glial LD accumulation in Ndufs4 mutant mice with neuronal mitochondrial defects, suggesting that LD accumulation following mitochondrial dysfunction is an evolutionarily conserved phenomenon, and represents an early, transient indicator and promoter of neurodegenerative disease. 10.1016/j.cell.2014.12.019
    Mitophagy and Alzheimer's Disease: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms. Kerr Jesse S,Adriaanse Bryan A,Greig Nigel H,Mattson Mark P,Cader M Zameel,Bohr Vilhelm A,Fang Evandro F Trends in neurosciences Neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience mitochondrial dysfunction and a bioenergetic deficit that occurs early and promotes the disease-defining amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and Tau pathologies. Emerging findings suggest that the autophagy/lysosome pathway that removes damaged mitochondria (mitophagy) is also compromised in AD, resulting in the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria. Results in animal and cellular models of AD and in patients with sporadic late-onset AD suggest that impaired mitophagy contributes to synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficits by triggering Aβ and Tau accumulation through increases in oxidative damage and cellular energy deficits; these, in turn, impair mitophagy. Interventions that bolster mitochondrial health and/or stimulate mitophagy may therefore forestall the neurodegenerative process in AD. 10.1016/j.tins.2017.01.002
    α-Synuclein and Tau: Mitochondrial Kill Switches. Pech Ulrike,Verstreken Patrik Neuron α-Synuclein resides in Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease. Ordonez et al. (2017) now show that α-syn disrupts the actin network, causing Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission defects. This is similar to defects induced by the PD risk factor Tau, suggesting converging pathways in neurodegeneration. 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.12.024
    Mitochondrial dynamics in the central regulation of metabolism. Nasrallah Carole M,Horvath Tamas L Nature reviews. Endocrinology The ability of an organism to convert organic molecules from the environment into energy is essential for the development of cellular structures, cell differentiation and growth. Mitochondria have a fundamental role in regulating metabolic pathways, and tight control of mitochondrial functions and dynamics is critical to maintaining adequate energy balance. In complex organisms, such as mammals, it is also essential that the metabolic demands of various tissues are coordinated to ensure that the energy needs of the whole body are effectively met. Within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, the NPY-AgRP and POMC neurons have a crucial role in orchestrating the regulation of hunger and satiety. Emerging findings from animal studies have revealed an important function for mitochondrial dynamics within these two neuronal populations, which facilitates the correct adaptive responses of the whole body to changes in the metabolic milieu. The main proteins implicated in these studies are the mitofusins, Mfn1 and Mfn2, which are regulators of mitochondrial dynamics. In this Review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms by which mitochondria are involved in the central regulation of energy balance and discuss the implications of mitochondrial dysfunction for metabolic disorders. 10.1038/nrendo.2014.160
    Mitochondrial dysfunction and seizures: the neuronal energy crisis. Zsurka Gábor,Kunz Wolfram S The Lancet. Neurology Seizures are often the key manifestation of neurological diseases caused by pathogenic mutations in 169 of the genes that have so far been identified to affect mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are the main producers of ATP needed for normal electrical activities of neurons and synaptic transmission. Additionally, they have a central role in neurotransmitter synthesis, calcium homoeostasis, redox signalling, production and modulation of reactive oxygen species, and neuronal death. Hypotheses link mitochondrial failure to seizure generation through changes in calcium homoeostasis, oxidation of ion channels and neurotransmitter transporters by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in neuronal plasma membrane potential, and reduced network inhibition due to interneuronal dysfunction. Seizures, irrespective of their origin, represent an excessive acute energy demand in the brain. Accordingly, secondary mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in various epileptic disorders, including disorders that are mainly of non-mitochondrial origin. An understanding of the reciprocal relation between mitochondrial dysfunction and epilepsy is crucial to select appropriate anticonvulsant treatment and has the potential to open up new therapeutic approaches in the subset of epileptic disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00148-9
    Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier regulates autophagy, inflammation, and neurodegeneration in experimental models of Parkinson's disease. Ghosh Anamitra,Tyson Trevor,George Sonia,Hildebrandt Erin N,Steiner Jennifer A,Madaj Zachary,Schulz Emily,Machiela Emily,McDonald William G,Escobar Galvis Martha L,Kordower Jeffrey H,Van Raamsdonk Jeremy M,Colca Jerry R,Brundin Patrik Science translational medicine Mitochondrial and autophagic dysfunction as well as neuroinflammation are involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that targeting the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), a key controller of cellular metabolism that influences mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation, might attenuate neurodegeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD. To test this, we used MSDC-0160, a compound that specifically targets MPC, to reduce its activity. MSDC-0160 protected against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) insult in murine and cultured human midbrain dopamine neurons and in an α-synuclein-based Caenorhabditis elegans model. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice, MSDC-0160 improved locomotor behavior, increased survival of nigral dopaminergic neurons, boosted striatal dopamine levels, and reduced neuroinflammation. Long-term targeting of MPC preserved motor function, rescued the nigrostriatal pathway, and reduced neuroinflammation in the slowly progressive Engrailed1 (En1) genetic mouse model of PD. Targeting MPC in multiple models resulted in modulation of mitochondrial function and mTOR signaling, with normalization of autophagy and a reduction in glial cell activation. Our work demonstrates that changes in metabolic signaling resulting from targeting MPC were neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory in several PD models, suggesting that MPC may be a useful therapeutic target in PD. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aag2210
    The inhibition of TDP-43 mitochondrial localization blocks its neuronal toxicity. Wang Wenzhang,Wang Luwen,Lu Junjie,Siedlak Sandra L,Fujioka Hisashi,Liang Jingjing,Jiang Sirui,Ma Xiaopin,Jiang Zhen,da Rocha Edroaldo Lummertz,Sheng Max,Choi Heewon,Lerou Paul H,Li Hu,Wang Xinglong Nature medicine Genetic mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP, also known as TDP-43) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and an increase in the presence of TDP-43 (encoded by TARDBP) in the cytoplasm is a prominent histopathological feature of degenerating neurons in various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TDP-43 contributes to ALS pathophysiology remain elusive. Here we have found that TDP-43 accumulates in the mitochondria of neurons in subjects with ALS or frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Disease-associated mutations increase TDP-43 mitochondrial localization. In mitochondria, wild-type (WT) and mutant TDP-43 preferentially bind mitochondria-transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encoding respiratory complex I subunits ND3 and ND6, impair their expression and specifically cause complex I disassembly. The suppression of TDP-43 mitochondrial localization abolishes WT and mutant TDP-43-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal loss, and improves phenotypes of transgenic mutant TDP-43 mice. Thus, our studies link TDP-43 toxicity directly to mitochondrial bioenergetics and propose the targeting of TDP-43 mitochondrial localization as a promising therapeutic approach for neurodegeneration. 10.1038/nm.4130
    Evolving Concepts of Mitochondrial Dynamics. Dorn Gerald W Annual review of physiology The concept that mitochondria are highly dynamic is as widely accepted as it is untrue for a number of important contexts. Healthy mitochondria of the most energy-dependent and mitochondrial-rich mammalian organ, the heart, only rarely undergo fusion or fission and are seemingly static within cardiac myocytes. Here, we revisit mitochondrial dynamism with a fresh perspective developed from the recently discovered multifunctionality of mitochondrial fusion proteins and newly defined mechanisms for direct cross talk between mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis, quality control, and trafficking pathways. Insights gained from comparing static mitochondrial biology in cardiac myocytes and dynamic mitochondrial biology in neurons are reviewed with the goal of understanding contextual fallacies of overly generalized characterizations of these essential and intriguing organelles. 10.1146/annurev-physiol-020518-114358
    Building and decoding ubiquitin chains for mitophagy. Harper J Wade,Ordureau Alban,Heo Jin-Mi Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology Mitochondria produce energy in the form of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. As defects in oxidative phosphorylation can generate harmful reactive oxygen species, it is important that damaged mitochondria are efficiently removed via a selective form of autophagy known as mitophagy. Owing to a combination of cell biological, structural and proteomic approaches, we are beginning to understand the mechanisms by which ubiquitin-dependent signals mark damaged mitochondria for mitophagy. This Review discusses the biochemical steps and regulatory mechanisms that promote the conjugation of ubiquitin to damaged mitochondria via the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin and how ubiquitin chains promote autophagosomal capture. Recently discovered roles for parkin and PINK1 in the suppression of mitochondrial antigen presentation provide alternative models for how this pathway promotes the survival of neurons. A deeper understanding of these processes has major implications for neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson disease, where defects in mitophagy and other forms of selective autophagy are prominent. 10.1038/nrm.2017.129
    Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Neuronal Cell Death: Potential Therapeutics. Dawson Ted M,Dawson Valina L Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology Mitochondria lie at the crossroads of neuronal survival and cell death. They play important roles in cellular bioenergetics, control intracellular Ca homeostasis, and participate in key metabolic pathways. Mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial quality control cause a myriad of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria have evolved strategies to kill cells when they are not able to continue their vital functions. This review provides an overview of the role of mitochondria in neurologic disease and the cell death pathways that are mediated through mitochondria, including their role in accidental cell death, the regulated cell death pathways of apoptosis and parthanatos, and programmed cell death. It details the current state of parthanatic cell death and discusses potential therapeutic strategies targeting initiators and effectors of mitochondrial-mediated cell death in neurologic disorders. 10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010716-105001
    Transfer of mitochondria from astrocytes to neurons after stroke. Hayakawa Kazuhide,Esposito Elga,Wang Xiaohua,Terasaki Yasukazu,Liu Yi,Xing Changhong,Ji Xunming,Lo Eng H Nature Neurons can release damaged mitochondria and transfer them to astrocytes for disposal and recycling. This ability to exchange mitochondria may represent a potential mode of cell-to-cell signalling in the central nervous system. Here we show that astrocytes in mice can also release functional mitochondria that enter neurons. Astrocytic release of extracellular mitochondrial particles was mediated by a calcium-dependent mechanism involving CD38 and cyclic ADP ribose signalling. Transient focal cerebral ischaemia in mice induced entry of astrocytic mitochondria into adjacent neurons, and this entry amplified cell survival signals. Suppression of CD38 signalling by short interfering RNA reduced extracellular mitochondria transfer and worsened neurological outcomes. These findings suggest a new mitochondrial mechanism of neuroglial crosstalk that may contribute to endogenous neuroprotective and neurorecovery mechanisms after stroke. 10.1038/nature18928
    Overexpression of Sirtuin 1 protein in neurons prevents and reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy. Chandrasekaran Krish,Salimian Mohammad,Konduru Sruthi R,Choi Joungil,Kumar Pranith,Long Aaron,Klimova Nina,Ho Cheng-Ying,Kristian Tibor,Russell James W Brain : a journal of neurology In diabetic neuropathy, there is activation of axonal and sensory neuronal degeneration pathways leading to distal axonopathy. The nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase enzyme, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), can prevent activation of these pathways and promote axonal regeneration. In this study, we tested whether increased expression of SIRT1 protein in sensory neurons prevents and reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy induced by a high fat diet (HFD). We generated a transgenic mouse that is inducible and overexpresses SIRT1 protein in neurons (nSIRT1OE Tg). Higher levels of SIRT1 protein were localized to cortical and hippocampal neuronal nuclei in the brain and in nuclei and cytoplasm of small to medium sized neurons in dorsal root ganglia. Wild-type and nSIRT1OE Tg mice were fed with either control diet (6.2% fat) or a HFD (36% fat) for 2 months. HFD-fed wild-type mice developed neuropathy as determined by abnormal motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, mechanical allodynia, and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibres. In contrast, nSIRT1OE prevented a HFD-induced neuropathy despite the animals remaining hyperglycaemic. To test if nSIRT1OE would reverse HFD-induced neuropathy, nSIRT1OE was activated after mice developed peripheral neuropathy on a HFD. Two months after nSIRT1OE, we observed reversal of neuropathy and an increase in intraepidermal nerve fibre. Cultured adult dorsal root ganglion neurons from nSIRT1OE mice, maintained at high (30 mM) total glucose, showed higher basal and maximal respiratory capacity when compared to adult dorsal root ganglion neurons from wild-type mice. In dorsal root ganglion protein extracts from nSIRT1OE mice, the NAD+-consuming enzyme PARP1 was deactivated and the major deacetylated protein was identified to be an E3 protein ligase, NEDD4-1, a protein required for axonal growth, regeneration and proteostasis in neurodegenerative diseases. Our results indicate that nSIRT1OE prevents and reverses neuropathy. Increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and NEDD4 activation was associated with increased axonal growth driven by neuronal overexpression of SIRT1. Therapies that regulate NAD+ and thereby target sirtuins may be beneficial in human diabetic sensory polyneuropathy. 10.1093/brain/awz324
    Miro1 Marks Parkinson's Disease Subset and Miro1 Reducer Rescues Neuron Loss in Parkinson's Models. Hsieh Chung-Han,Li Li,Vanhauwaert Roeland,Nguyen Kong T,Davis Mary D,Bu Guojun,Wszolek Zbigniew K,Wang Xinnan Cell metabolism The identification of molecular targets and pharmacodynamic markers for Parkinson's disease (PD) will empower more effective clinical management and experimental therapies. Miro1 is localized on the mitochondrial surface and mediates mitochondrial motility. Miro1 is removed from depolarized mitochondria to facilitate their clearance via mitophagy. Here, we explore the clinical utility of Miro1 for detecting PD and for gauging potential treatments. We measure the Miro1 response to mitochondrial depolarization using biochemical assays in skin fibroblasts from a broad spectrum of PD patients and discover that more than 94% of the patients' fibroblast cell lines fail to remove Miro1 following depolarization. We identify a small molecule that can repair this defect of Miro1 in PD fibroblasts. Treating patient-derived neurons and fly models with this compound rescues the locomotor deficits and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Our results indicate that tracking this Miro1 marker and engaging in Miro1-based therapies could open new avenues to personalized medicine. 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.08.023
    Region-specific depletion of synaptic mitochondria in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Pickett Eleanor K,Rose Jamie,McCrory Caoimhe,McKenzie Chris-Anne,King Declan,Smith Colin,Gillingwater Thomas H,Henstridge Christopher M,Spires-Jones Tara L Acta neuropathologica Of all of the neuropathological changes observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the loss of synapses correlates most strongly with cognitive decline. The precise mechanisms of synapse degeneration in AD remain unclear, although strong evidence indicates that pathological forms of both amyloid beta and tau contribute to synaptic dysfunction and loss. Synaptic mitochondria play a potentially important role in synapse degeneration in AD. Many studies in model systems indicate that amyloid beta and tau both impair mitochondrial function and impair transport of mitochondria to synapses. To date, much less is known about whether synaptic mitochondria are affected in human AD brain. Here, we used transmission electron microscopy to examine synapses and synaptic mitochondria in two cortical regions (BA41/42 and BA46) from eight AD and nine control cases. In this study, we observed 3000 synapses and find region-specific differences in synaptic mitochondria in AD cases compared to controls. In BA41/42, we observe a fourfold reduction in the proportion of presynaptic terminals that contain multiple mitochondria profiles in AD. We also observe ultrastructural changes including abnormal mitochondrial morphology, the presence of multivesicular bodies in synapses, and reduced synapse apposition length near plaques in AD. Together, our data show region-specific changes in synaptic mitochondria in AD and support the idea that the transport of mitochondria to presynaptic terminals or synaptic mitochondrial dynamics may be altered in AD. 10.1007/s00401-018-1903-2
    Glutathione S-Transferase Regulates Mitochondrial Populations in Axons through Increased Glutathione Oxidation. Smith Gaynor A,Lin Tzu-Huai,Sheehan Amy E,Van der Goes van Naters Wynand,Neukomm Lukas J,Graves Hillary K,Bis-Brewer Dana M,Züchner Stephan,Freeman Marc R Neuron Mitochondria are essential in long axons to provide metabolic support and sustain neuron integrity. A healthy mitochondrial pool is maintained by biogenesis, transport, mitophagy, fission, and fusion, but how these events are regulated in axons is not well defined. Here, we show that the Drosophila glutathione S-transferase (GST) Gfzf prevents mitochondrial hyperfusion in axons. Gfzf loss altered redox balance between glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and initiated mitochondrial fusion through the coordinated action of Mfn and Opa1. Gfzf functioned epistatically with the thioredoxin peroxidase Jafrac1 and the thioredoxin reductase 1 TrxR-1 to regulate mitochondrial dynamics. Altering GSH:GSSG ratios in mouse primary neurons in vitro also induced hyperfusion. Mitochondrial changes caused deficits in trafficking, the metabolome, and neuronal physiology. Changes in GSH and oxidative state are associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's. Our demonstration that GSTs are key in vivo regulators of axonal mitochondrial length and number provides a potential mechanistic link. 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.04.017
    Mitochondria, OxPhos, and neurodegeneration: cells are not just running out of gas. Area-Gomez Estela,Guardia-Laguarta Cristina,Schon Eric A,Przedborski Serge The Journal of clinical investigation Mitochondrial respiratory deficiencies have been observed in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. For decades, these reductions in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) have been presumed to trigger an overall bioenergetic crisis in the neuron, resulting in cell death. While the connection between respiratory defects and neuronal death has never been proven, this hypothesis has been supported by the detection of nonspecific mitochondrial DNA mutations in these disorders. These findings led to the notion that mitochondrial respiratory defects could be initiators of these common neurodegenerative disorders, instead of being consequences of a prior insult, a theory we believe to be misconstrued. Herein, we review the roots of this mitochondrial hypothesis and offer a new perspective wherein mitochondria are analyzed not only from the OxPhos point of view, but also as a complex organelle residing at the epicenter of many metabolic pathways. 10.1172/JCI120848
    α-Synuclein binds to the ER-mitochondria tethering protein VAPB to disrupt Ca homeostasis and mitochondrial ATP production. Paillusson Sébastien,Gomez-Suaga Patricia,Stoica Radu,Little Daniel,Gissen Paul,Devine Michael J,Noble Wendy,Hanger Diane P,Miller Christopher C J Acta neuropathologica α-Synuclein is strongly linked to Parkinson's disease but the molecular targets for its toxicity are not fully clear. However, many neuronal functions damaged in Parkinson's disease are regulated by signalling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. This signalling involves close physical associations between the two organelles that are mediated by binding of the integral ER protein vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51). VAPB and PTPIP51 thus act as a scaffold to tether the two organelles. Here we show that α-synuclein binds to VAPB and that overexpression of wild-type and familial Parkinson's disease mutant α-synuclein disrupt the VAPB-PTPIP51 tethers to loosen ER-mitochondria associations. This disruption to the VAPB-PTPIP51 tethers is also seen in neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from familial Parkinson's disease patients harbouring pathogenic triplication of the α-synuclein gene. We also show that the α-synuclein induced loosening of ER-mitochondria contacts is accompanied by disruption to Ca exchange between the two organelles and mitochondrial ATP production. Such disruptions are likely to be particularly damaging to neurons that are heavily dependent on correct Ca signaling and ATP. 10.1007/s00401-017-1704-z
    Fragmented mitochondria released from microglia trigger A1 astrocytic response and propagate inflammatory neurodegeneration. Joshi Amit U,Minhas Paras S,Liddelow Shane A,Haileselassie Bereketeab,Andreasson Katrin I,Dorn Gerald W,Mochly-Rosen Daria Nature neuroscience In neurodegenerative diseases, debris of dead neurons are thought to trigger glia-mediated neuroinflammation, thus increasing neuronal death. Here we show that the expression of neurotoxic proteins associated with these diseases in microglia alone is sufficient to directly trigger death of naive neurons and to propagate neuronal death through activation of naive astrocytes to the A1 state. Injury propagation is mediated, in great part, by the release of fragmented and dysfunctional microglial mitochondria into the neuronal milieu. The amount of damaged mitochondria released from microglia relative to functional mitochondria and the consequent neuronal injury are determined by Fis1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation within the glial cells. The propagation of the inflammatory response and neuronal cell death by extracellular dysfunctional mitochondria suggests a potential new intervention for neurodegeneration-one that inhibits mitochondrial fragmentation in microglia, thus inhibiting the release of dysfunctional mitochondria into the extracellular milieu of the brain, without affecting the release of healthy neuroprotective mitochondria. 10.1038/s41593-019-0486-0
    Mitochondrial SIRT3 Mediates Adaptive Responses of Neurons to Exercise and Metabolic and Excitatory Challenges. Cheng Aiwu,Yang Ying,Zhou Ye,Maharana Chinmoyee,Lu Daoyuan,Peng Wei,Liu Yong,Wan Ruiqian,Marosi Krisztina,Misiak Magdalena,Bohr Vilhelm A,Mattson Mark P Cell metabolism The impact of mitochondrial protein acetylation status on neuronal function and vulnerability to neurological disorders is unknown. Here we show that the mitochondrial protein deacetylase SIRT3 mediates adaptive responses of neurons to bioenergetic, oxidative, and excitatory stress. Cortical neurons lacking SIRT3 exhibit heightened sensitivity to glutamate-induced calcium overload and excitotoxicity and oxidative and mitochondrial stress; AAV-mediated Sirt3 gene delivery restores neuronal stress resistance. In models relevant to Huntington's disease and epilepsy, Sirt3(-/-) mice exhibit increased vulnerability of striatal and hippocampal neurons, respectively. SIRT3 deficiency results in hyperacetylation of several mitochondrial proteins, including superoxide dismutase 2 and cyclophilin D. Running wheel exercise increases the expression of Sirt3 in hippocampal neurons, which is mediated by excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission and is essential for mitochondrial protein acetylation homeostasis and the neuroprotective effects of running. Our findings suggest that SIRT3 plays pivotal roles in adaptive responses of neurons to physiological challenges and resistance to degeneration. 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.10.013
    Poly(GR) in C9ORF72-Related ALS/FTD Compromises Mitochondrial Function and Increases Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in iPSC-Derived Motor Neurons. Lopez-Gonzalez Rodrigo,Lu Yubing,Gendron Tania F,Karydas Anna,Tran Helene,Yang Dejun,Petrucelli Leonard,Miller Bruce L,Almeida Sandra,Gao Fen-Biao Neuron GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9ORF72 are the most common genetic cause of both ALS and FTD. To uncover underlying pathogenic mechanisms, we found that DNA damage was greater, in an age-dependent manner, in motor neurons differentiated from iPSCs of multiple C9ORF72 patients than control neurons. Ectopic expression of the dipeptide repeat (DPR) protein (GR) in iPSC-derived control neurons increased DNA damage, suggesting poly(GR) contributes to DNA damage in aged C9ORF72 neurons. Oxidative stress was also increased in C9ORF72 neurons in an age-dependent manner. Pharmacological or genetic reduction of oxidative stress partially rescued DNA damage in C9ORF72 neurons and control neurons expressing (GR) or (GR)-induced cellular toxicity in flies. Moreover, interactome analysis revealed that (GR) preferentially bound to mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, poly(GR) in C9ORF72 neurons compromises mitochondrial function and causes DNA damage in part by increasing oxidative stress, revealing another pathogenic mechanism in C9ORF72-related ALS and FTD. 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.09.015
    IGF-1 Receptor Differentially Regulates Spontaneous and Evoked Transmission via Mitochondria at Hippocampal Synapses. Gazit Neta,Vertkin Irena,Shapira Ilana,Helm Martin,Slomowitz Edden,Sheiba Maayan,Mor Yael,Rizzoli Silvio,Slutsky Inna Neuron The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is a key regulator of lifespan, growth, and development. While reduced IGF-1R signaling delays aging and Alzheimer's disease progression, whether and how it regulates information processing at central synapses remains elusive. Here, we show that presynaptic IGF-1Rs are basally active, regulating synaptic vesicle release and short-term plasticity in excitatory hippocampal neurons. Acute IGF-1R blockade or transient knockdown suppresses spike-evoked synaptic transmission and presynaptic cytosolic Ca(2+) transients, while promoting spontaneous transmission and resting Ca(2+) level. This dual effect on transmitter release is mediated by mitochondria that attenuate Ca(2+) buffering in the absence of spikes and decrease ATP production during spiking activity. We conclude that the mitochondria, activated by IGF-1R signaling, constitute a critical regulator of information processing in hippocampal neurons by maintaining evoked-to-spontaneous transmission ratio, while constraining synaptic facilitation at high frequencies. Excessive IGF-1R tone may contribute to hippocampal hyperactivity associated with Alzheimer's disease. 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.12.034
    Mitochondria at the neuronal presynapse in health and disease. Devine Michael J,Kittler Josef T Nature reviews. Neuroscience Synapses enable neurons to communicate with each other and are therefore a prerequisite for normal brain function. Presynaptically, this communication requires energy and generates large fluctuations in calcium concentrations. Mitochondria are optimized for supplying energy and buffering calcium, and they are actively recruited to presynapses. However, not all presynapses contain mitochondria; thus, how might synapses with and without mitochondria differ? Mitochondria are also increasingly recognized to serve additional functions at the presynapse. Here, we discuss the importance of presynaptic mitochondria in maintaining neuronal homeostasis and how dysfunctional presynaptic mitochondria might contribute to the development of disease. 10.1038/nrn.2017.170
    Mitochondria Re-set Epilepsy. Uytterhoeven Valerie,Kaempf Natalie,Verstreken Patrik Neuron Neuronal networks maintain stable activity around a given set point, an enigmatic variable in homeostatic systems. In this issue of Neuron, Styr et al. (2019) now show that set points are regulated by mitochondria and propose a potential strategy to treat refractory forms of epilepsy. 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.05.023
    Alpha-synuclein delays mitophagy and targeting Miro rescues neuron loss in Parkinson's models. Shaltouki Atossa,Hsieh Chung-Han,Kim Min Joo,Wang Xinnan Acta neuropathologica Alpha-synuclein is a component of Lewy bodies, the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), and is also mutated in familial PD. Here, by extensively analyzing PD patient brains and neurons, and fly models, we show that alpha-synuclein accumulation results in upregulation of Miro protein levels. Miro is a motor/adaptor on the outer mitochondrial membrane that mediates mitochondrial motility, and is removed from damaged mitochondria to facilitate mitochondrial clearance via mitophagy. PD patient neurons abnormally accumulate Miro on the mitochondrial surface leading to delayed mitophagy. Partial reduction of Miro rescues mitophagy phenotypes and neurodegeneration in human neurons and flies. Upregulation of Miro by alpha-synuclein requires an interaction via the N-terminus of alpha-synuclein. Our results highlight the importance of mitochondria-associated alpha-synuclein in human disease, and present Miro as a novel therapeutic target. 10.1007/s00401-018-1873-4
    ER-mitochondria tethering by PDZD8 regulates Ca dynamics in mammalian neurons. Hirabayashi Yusuke,Kwon Seok-Kyu,Paek Hunki,Pernice Wolfgang M,Paul Maëla A,Lee Jinoh,Erfani Parsa,Raczkowski Ashleigh,Petrey Donald S,Pon Liza A,Polleux Franck Science (New York, N.Y.) Interfaces between organelles are emerging as critical platforms for many biological responses in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, the ERMES complex is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria tether composed of four proteins, three of which contain a SMP (synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial-lipid binding protein) domain. No functional ortholog for any ERMES protein has been identified in metazoans. Here, we identified PDZD8 as an ER protein present at ER-mitochondria contacts. The SMP domain of PDZD8 is functionally orthologous to the SMP domain found in yeast Mmm1. PDZD8 was necessary for the formation of ER-mitochondria contacts in mammalian cells. In neurons, PDZD8 was required for calcium ion (Ca) uptake by mitochondria after synaptically induced Ca-release from ER and thereby regulated cytoplasmic Ca dynamics. Thus, PDZD8 represents a critical ER-mitochondria tethering protein in metazoans. We suggest that ER-mitochondria coupling is involved in the regulation of dendritic Ca dynamics in mammalian neurons. 10.1126/science.aan6009
    Mitochondria, ER, and nuclear membrane defects reveal early mechanisms for upper motor neuron vulnerability with respect to TDP-43 pathology. Gautam Mukesh,Jara Javier H,Kocak Nuran,Rylaarsdam Lauren E,Kim Ki Dong,Bigio Eileen H,Hande Özdinler P Acta neuropathologica Insoluble aggregates containing TDP-43 are widely observed in the diseased brain, and defined as "TDP-43 pathology" in a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease and ALS with frontotemporal dementia. Here we report that Betz cells of patients with TDP-43 pathology display a distinct set of intracellular defects especially at the site of nuclear membrane, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Numerous TDP-43 mouse models have been generated to discern the cellular and molecular basis of the disease, but mechanisms of neuronal vulnerability remain unknown. In an effort to define the underlying causes of corticospinal motor neuron (CSMN) degeneration, we generated and characterized a novel CSMN reporter line with TDP-43 pathology, the prp-TDP-43-UeGFP mice. We find that TDP-43 pathology related intracellular problems emerge very early in the disease. The Betz cells in humans and CSMN in mice both have impaired mitochondria, and display nuclear membrane and ER defects with respect to TDP-43 pathology. 10.1007/s00401-018-1934-8
    Mitochondrial Dynamics Mediated by Mitofusin 1 Is Required for POMC Neuron Glucose-Sensing and Insulin Release Control. Ramírez Sara,Gómez-Valadés Alicia G,Schneeberger Marc,Varela Luis,Haddad-Tóvolli Roberta,Altirriba Jordi,Noguera Eduard,Drougard Anne,Flores-Martínez Álvaro,Imbernón Mónica,Chivite Iñigo,Pozo Macarena,Vidal-Itriago Andrés,Garcia Ainhoa,Cervantes Sara,Gasa Rosa,Nogueiras Ruben,Gama-Pérez Pau,Garcia-Roves Pablo M,Cano David A,Knauf Claude,Servitja Joan-Marc,Horvath Tamas L,Gomis Ramon,Zorzano Antonio,Claret Marc Cell metabolism Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are critical sensors of nutrient availability implicated in energy balance and glucose metabolism control. However, the precise mechanisms underlying nutrient sensing in POMC neurons remain incompletely understood. We show that mitochondrial dynamics mediated by Mitofusin 1 (MFN1) in POMC neurons couple nutrient sensing with systemic glucose metabolism. Mice lacking MFN1 in POMC neurons exhibited defective mitochondrial architecture remodeling and attenuated hypothalamic gene expression programs during the fast-to-fed transition. This loss of mitochondrial flexibility in POMC neurons bidirectionally altered glucose sensing, causing abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defective insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells. Fed mice lacking MFN1 in POMC neurons displayed enhanced hypothalamic mitochondrial oxygen flux and reactive oxygen species generation. Central delivery of antioxidants was able to normalize the phenotype. Collectively, our data posit MFN1-mediated mitochondrial dynamics in POMC neurons as an intrinsic nutrient-sensing mechanism and unveil an unrecognized link between this subset of neurons and insulin release. 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.05.010
    Releasing Syntaphilin Removes Stressed Mitochondria from Axons Independent of Mitophagy under Pathophysiological Conditions. Lin Mei-Yao,Cheng Xiu-Tang,Tammineni Prasad,Xie Yuxiang,Zhou Bing,Cai Qian,Sheng Zu-Hang Neuron Chronic mitochondrial stress is a central problem associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Early removal of defective mitochondria from axons constitutes a critical step of mitochondrial quality control. Here we investigate axonal mitochondrial response to mild stress in wild-type neurons and chronic mitochondrial defects in Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)- and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked neurons. We show that stressed mitochondria are removed from axons triggered by the bulk release of mitochondrial anchoring protein syntaphilin via a new class of mitochondria-derived cargos independent of Parkin, Drp1, and autophagy. Immuno-electron microscopy and super-resolution imaging show the budding of syntaphilin cargos, which then share a ride on late endosomes for transport toward the soma. Releasing syntaphilin is also activated in the early pathological stages of ALS- and AD-linked mutant neurons. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into the maintenance of axonal mitochondrial quality through SNPH-mediated coordination of mitochondrial stress and motility before activation of Parkin-mediated mitophagy. VIDEO ABSTRACT. 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.04.004
    Mitochondria Localize to Injured Axons to Support Regeneration. Han Sung Min,Baig Huma S,Hammarlund Marc Neuron Axon regeneration is essential to restore the nervous system after axon injury. However, the neuronal cell biology that underlies axon regeneration is incompletely understood. Here we use in vivo, single-neuron analysis to investigate the relationship between nerve injury, mitochondrial localization, and axon regeneration. Mitochondria translocate into injured axons so that average mitochondria density increases after injury. Moreover, single-neuron analysis reveals that axons that fail to increase mitochondria have poor regeneration. Experimental alterations to axonal mitochondrial distribution or mitochondrial respiratory chain function result in corresponding changes to regeneration outcomes. Axonal mitochondria are specifically required for growth-cone migration, identifying a key energy challenge for injured neurons. Finally, mitochondrial localization to the axon after injury is regulated in part by dual-leucine zipper kinase 1 (DLK-1), a conserved regulator of axon regeneration. These data identify regulation of axonal mitochondria as a new cell-biological mechanism that helps determine the regenerative response of injured neurons. 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.11.025
    Endolysosomal Deficits Augment Mitochondria Pathology in Spinal Motor Neurons of Asymptomatic fALS Mice. Xie Yuxiang,Zhou Bing,Lin Mei-Yao,Wang Shiwei,Foust Kevin D,Sheng Zu-Hang Neuron One pathological hallmark in ALS motor neurons (MNs) is axonal accumulation of damaged mitochondria. A fundamental question remains: does reduced degradation of those mitochondria by an impaired autophagy-lysosomal system contribute to mitochondrial pathology? We reveal MN-targeted progressive lysosomal deficits accompanied by impaired autophagic degradation beginning at asymptomatic stages in fALS-linked hSOD1(G93A) mice. Lysosomal deficits result in accumulation of autophagic vacuoles engulfing damaged mitochondria along MN axons. Live imaging of spinal MNs from the adult disease mice demonstrates impaired dynein-driven retrograde transport of late endosomes (LEs). Expressing dynein-adaptor snapin reverses transport defects by competing with hSOD1(G93A) for binding dynein, thus rescuing autophagy-lysosomal deficits, enhancing mitochondrial turnover, improving MN survival, and ameliorating the disease phenotype in hSOD1(G93A) mice. Our study provides a new mechanistic link for hSOD1(G93A)-mediated impairment of LE transport to autophagy-lysosomal deficits and mitochondrial pathology. Understanding these early pathological events benefits development of new therapeutic interventions for fALS-linked MN degeneration. 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.06.026
    Dysfunction in endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk underlies SIGMAR1 loss of function mediated motor neuron degeneration. Bernard-Marissal Nathalie,Médard Jean-Jacques,Azzedine Hamid,Chrast Roman Brain : a journal of neurology Mutations in Sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) have been previously identified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and disruption of Sigmar1 in mouse leads to locomotor deficits. However, cellular mechanisms underlying motor phenotypes in human and mouse with disturbed SIGMAR1 function have not been described so far. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in motor neuron biology. Characterization of Sigmar1(-/-) mice revealed that affected animals display locomotor deficits associated with muscle weakness, axonal degeneration and motor neuron loss. Using primary motor neuron cultures, we observed that pharmacological or genetic inactivation of SIGMAR1 led to motor neuron axonal degeneration followed by cell death. Disruption of SIGMAR1 function in motor neurons disturbed endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contacts, affected intracellular calcium signalling and was accompanied by activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and defects in mitochondrial dynamics and transport. These defects were not observed in cultured sensory neurons, highlighting the exacerbated sensitivity of motor neurons to SIGMAR1 function. Interestingly, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission was sufficient to induce mitochondria axonal transport defects as well as axonal degeneration similar to the changes observed after SIGMAR1 inactivation or loss. Intracellular calcium scavenging and endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition were able to restore mitochondrial function and consequently prevent motor neuron degeneration. These results uncover the cellular mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration mediated by loss of SIGMAR1 function and provide therapeutically relevant insight into motor neuronal diseases. 10.1093/brain/awv008
    BNIP3L/NIX degradation leads to mitophagy deficiency in ischemic brains. Wu Xiaoli,Zheng Yanrong,Liu Mengru,Li Yue,Ma Shijia,Tang Weidong,Yan Wenping,Cao Ming,Zheng Wanqing,Jiang Lei,Wu Jiaying,Han Feng,Qin Zhenghong,Fang Liang,Hu Weiwei,Chen Zhong,Zhang Xiangnan Autophagy Mitophagy, the elimination of damaged mitochondria through autophagy, promotes neuronal survival in cerebral ischemia. Previous studies found deficient mitophagy in ischemic neurons, but the mechanisms are still largely unknown. We determined that BNIP3L/NIX, a mitophagy receptor, was degraded by proteasomes, which led to mitophagy deficiency in both ischemic neurons and brains. BNIP3L exists as a monomer and homodimer in mammalian cells, but the effects of homodimer and monomer on mitophagy are unclear. Site-specific mutations in the transmembrane domain of BNIP3L (S195A and G203A) only formed the BNIP3L monomer and failed to induce mitophagy. Moreover, overexpression of wild-type BNIP3L, in contrast to the monomeric BNIP3L, rescued the mitophagy deficiency and protected against cerebral ischemic injury. The macroautophagy/autophagy inhibitor 3-MA and the proteasome inhibitor MG132 were used in cerebral ischemic brains to identify how BNIP3L was reduced. We found that MG132 blocked the loss of BNIP3L and subsequently promoted mitophagy in ischemic brains. In addition, the dimeric form of BNIP3L was more prone to be degraded than its monomeric form. Carfilzomib, a drug for multiple myeloma therapy that inhibits proteasomes, reversed the BNIP3L degradation and restored mitophagy in ischemic brains. This treatment protected against either acute or chronic ischemic brain injury. Remarkably, these effects of carfilzomib were abolished in mice. Taken together, the present study linked BNIP3L degradation by proteasomes with mitophagy deficiency in cerebral ischemia. We propose carfilzomib as a novel therapy to rescue ischemic brain injury by preventing BNIP3L degradation. ABBREVIATIONS:3-MA: 3-methyladenine; AAV: adeno-associated virus; : autophagy related 7; BCL2L13: BCL2-like 13 (apoptosis facilitator); BNIP3L/NIX: BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3-like; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone; CFZ: carfilzomib; COX4I1: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4I1; CQ: chloroquine; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFP: green fluorescent protein; I-R: ischemia-reperfusion; MAP1LC3A/LC3A: microtube-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtube-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; O-R: oxygen and glucose deprivation-reperfusion; OGD: oxygen and glucose deprivation; PHB2: prohibitin 2; pMCAO: permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion; PRKN/PARK2: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; PT: photothrombosis; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; tMCAO: transient middle cerebral artery occlusion; TOMM20: translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20; TTC: 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium hydrochloride. 10.1080/15548627.2020.1802089