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    The relationship between diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy in a population-based study in Korea (KNHANES V-2, 3). Lee Won June,Sobrin Lucia,Lee Min Jeong,Kang Min Ho,Seong Mincheol,Cho Heeyoon Investigative ophthalmology & visual science PURPOSE:To determine the risk factors for and relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN), including microalbuminuria and overt nephropathy, in a population-based study of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Korea. METHODS:This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. From the fifth (2011, 2012) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 971 participants with type 2 DM were included. The prevalence of DR and DN was determined. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors, including DR, associated with DN in the Korean population. RESULTS:In DM patients, we observed a prevalence of 20.0% for any DR and 3.8% for proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Microalbuminuria prevalence was 19.3% and overt nephropathy prevalence was 5.5%. The risk factors of microalbuminuria were presence of hypertension; higher systolic blood pressure, serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and serum blood urea nitrogen level; as well as the presence of PDR. The risk factors of overt nephropathy were long duration of DM; high levels of HbA1c, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and serum creatinine; as well as the presence of DR CONCLUSIONS: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is associated with microalbuminuria and DR is associated with overt nephropathy in Korean DM patients. Our findings suggest that when an ophthalmologist finds the presence of DR or PDR, timely evaluation of the patient's renal status should be recommended. 10.1167/iovs.14-15001
    Prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients Attending the Endocrine Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. Islam M R,Sultana N,Sutradhar S R,Asaduzzaman M Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Due to severe morbidity and mortality of DN and limited effective therapies, research has mainly focused on prevention of this debilitating illness by modification of risk factors. Aims of this study were to find out the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, its factors and to correlate the functional status of the kidney. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Endocrinology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from 1st January 2013 to 30th June 2013. A total 105 patients having clinical diagnosis of Diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study. Data were collected by interview of the patients, clinical examination and laboratory investigation. Data was analyzed using the Chi-square test for Categorical variables and unpaired Student's 't' test for differences in means for continuous variables. P value <0.05 was considered significant. With DN (30.5%) patients 21.1% had micro-albuminuria and 9.5% had macro-albuminuria. The mean age for the DN patient was 47.9±14.7 years and male female ratio was 1:1. BMI was found significantly low in patients with DN (p<0.05). Prolonged duration of diabetes (>5 years) and uncontrolled diabetes were found as significant risk factors associated with DN. Other risk factors were hypertension, family history of hypertension, family history of diabetes mellitus and irregular treatment of diabetes mellitus. Mean serum creatinine, mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and mean blood sugar level was 1.3±0.6mg/dl, 69.4±26.7ml and 15.6±7.1mmol/L respectively in DN patients. Relation was significant for higher serum creatinine and lower eGFR values (p<0.05). Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 30.5%. Long standing diabetes (>5 years) and uncontrolled diabetes were the important risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is associated with higher serum creatinine and lower eGFR values.
    Risk factors in metabolic syndrome predict the progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Chuang Shih-Ming,Shih Hong-Mou,Chien Ming-Nan,Liu Sun-Chen,Wang Chao-Hung,Lee Chun-Chuan Diabetes research and clinical practice BACKGROUND:While metabolic syndrome can independently predict the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk factors for DKD progression have rarely been discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome and the progression of DKD in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This retrospective observational cohort study lasted approximately five years. We defined metabolic syndrome using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III with the Asian definition of obesity. The progression of DKD was demonstrated by either the progression of albuminuria or worsening renal function. Progression of albuminuria was defined by the transition from normoalbuminuria (<30 mg/g) to microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/g) or from micro- to macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/g). Worsening renal function was defined by a reduction of eGFR to 50% of the baseline or the doubling of serum creatinine. We adopted multivariate Cox-regression analysis to determine the risk factors associated with DKD progression. RESULTS:This study consisted of 935 type 2 diabetic patients with a mean age of 64.62 years. We found progression of albuminuria in 172 patients (18.4%) and worsened renal function in 41 patients (4.4%). After Cox regression analysis, the multivariable-adjusted HR for the progression of albuminuria and worsened renal function was 1.65 (95% C.I.:1.07-2.53 P = 0.022) and 2.62 (95% C.I.:1.01-6.79 P = 0.047) respectively, for those with metabolic syndrome compared to those without metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION:The presence of metabolic syndrome independently predicts DKD progression in patients with type 2 diabetes. 10.1016/j.diabres.2019.04.022
    Changes in Albuminuria Predict Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes: A Post Hoc Analysis of the LEADER Trial. Persson Frederik,Bain Stephen C,Mosenzon Ofri,Heerspink Hiddo J L,Mann Johannes F E,Pratley Richard,Raz Itamar,Idorn Thomas,Rasmussen Søren,von Scholten Bernt Johan,Rossing Peter, Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:A post hoc analysis to investigate the association between 1-year changes in albuminuria and subsequent risk of cardiovascular and renal events. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:LEADER was a randomized trial of liraglutide up to 1.8 mg/day versus placebo added to standard care for 3.5-5 years in 9,340 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. We calculated change in urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) from baseline to 1 year in participants with >30% reduction ( = 2,928), 30-0% reduction ( = 1,218), or any increase in UACR ( = 4,124), irrespective of treatment. Using Cox regression, risks of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and a composite nephropathy outcome (from 1 year to end of trial in subgroups by baseline UACR [<30 mg/g, 30-300 mg/g, or ≥300 mg/g]) were assessed. The analysis was adjusted for treatment allocation alone as a fixed factor and for baseline variables associated with cardiovascular and renal outcomes. RESULTS:For MACE, hazard ratios (HRs) for those with >30% and 30-0% UACR reduction were 0.82 (95% CI 0.71, 0.94; = 0.006) and 0.99 (0.82, 1.19; = 0.912), respectively, compared with any increase in UACR (reference). For the composite nephropathy outcome, respective HRs were 0.67 (0.49, 0.93; = 0.02) and 0.97 (0.66, 1.43; = 0.881). Results were independent of baseline UACR and consistent in both treatment groups. After adjustment, HRs were significant and consistent in >30% reduction subgroups with baseline micro- or macroalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS:A reduction in albuminuria during the 1st year was associated with fewer cardiovascular and renal outcomes, independent of treatment. Albuminuria monitoring remains an important part of diabetes care, with great unused potential. 10.2337/dc20-1622
    Diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors in a society with a type 2 diabetes epidemic: a Saudi National Diabetes Registry-based study. Al-Rubeaan Khalid,Youssef Amira M,Subhani Shazia N,Ahmad Najlaa A,Al-Sharqawi Ahmad H,Al-Mutlaq Hind M,David Satish K,AlNaqeb Dhekra PloS one AIMS:The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors have not been studied in a society known to have diabetes epidemic like Saudi Arabia. Using a large data base registry will provide a better understanding and accurate assessment of this chronic complication and its related risk factors. METHODOLOGY:A total of 54,670 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 25 years were selected from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) and analyzed for the presence of diabetic nephropathy. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criterion was used to identify cases with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD) for prevalence estimation and risk factor assessment. RESULTS:The overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 10.8%, divided into 1.2% microalbuminuria, 8.1%macroalbuninuria and 1.5% ESRD. Age and diabetes duration as important risk factors have a strong impact on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, ranging from 3.7% in patients aged 25-44 years and a duration of >5 years, to 21.8% in patients ≥ 65 years with a diabetes duration of ≥ 15 years. Diabetes duration, retinopathy, neuropathy, hypertension, age >45 years, hyperlipidemia, male gender, smoking, and chronologically, poor glycemic control has a significantly high risk for diabetic nephropathy. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is underestimated as a result of a shortage of screening programs. Risk factors related to diabetic nephropathy in this society are similar to other societies. There is thus an urgent need for screening and prevention programs for diabetic nephropathy among the Saudi population. 10.1371/journal.pone.0088956
    Variability in HbA1c, blood pressure, lipid parameters and serum uric acid, and risk of development of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. Ceriello Antonio,De Cosmo Salvatore,Rossi Maria Chiara,Lucisano Giuseppe,Genovese Stefano,Pontremoli Roberto,Fioretto Paola,Giorda Carlo,Pacilli Antonio,Viazzi Francesca,Russo Giuseppina,Nicolucci Antonio, Diabetes, obesity & metabolism AIM:Variability in HbA1c and blood pressure is associated with the risk of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). No evidence exists on the role of variability in lipids or serum uric acid (UA), or the interplay between the variability of different parameters, in renal outcomes. METHODS:Within the AMD Annals database, we identified patients with ≥5 measurements of HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total-, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and UA. Patients were followed-up for up to 5 years. The impact of measures of variability on the risk of DKD was investigated by Cox regression analysis and recursive partitioning techniques. RESULTS:Four-thousand, two-hundred and thirty-one patients were evaluated for development of albuminuria, and 7560 for decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; <60 mL/min/1.73 m ). A significantly higher risk of developing albuminuria was associated with variability in HbA1c [upper quartile hazard ratio (HR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.6]. Variability in SBP, DBP, HDL-C, LDL-C and UA predicted the decline in eGFR, the association with UA variability being particularly strong (upper quartile HR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.4). The concomitance of high variability in HbA1c and HDL-C conferred the highest risk of developing albuminuria (HR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.17-1.84), while a high variability in UA (HR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.19-1.99) or DBP (HR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.11-1.94) conferred the highest risk of decline in eGFR. CONCLUSION:The variability of several parameters influences the development of DKD, having a different impact on albuminuria development and on the decline in GFR. 10.1111/dom.12976
    Risk of progressive chronic kidney disease in individuals with early-onset type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study. Liu Jian-Jun,Liu Sylvia,Gurung Resham L,Ang Keven,Tang Wern Ee,Sum Chee Fang,Tavintharan Subramaniam,Lim Su Chi Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association BACKGROUND:The progression trajectory of renal filtration function has not been well characterized in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) although albuminuria is often reported in this population. We aim to study the risk of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) in individuals with early-onset T2DM. METHODS:In total, 1189 T2DM participants were followed for 3.9 (interquartile range 3.2-4.7) years. Progressive CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline of ≥5 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year. Early-onset T2DM was defined as age at T2DM diagnosis between 18 and 30 years. RESULTS:Compared with later-onset counterparts (N = 1032), participants with early-onset T2DM (N = 157) were more obese and had poorer glycaemic control at baseline. In the follow-up, 24.2% and 15.6% experienced progressive CKD in early-onset and later-onset participants, respectively (P = 0.007). Logistic regression suggested that participants with early-onset T2DM had 2.63-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-4.75] higher risk of progressive CKD after accounting for multiple traditional risk factors. Furthermore, the excess risk of progressive CKD associated with early-onset T2DM mainly occurred in participants with preserved renal function [eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, odds ratio (OR) 2.85, 95% CI 1.50-5.42] and was more pronounced in those with diabetes duration <10 years (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.90). CONCLUSIONS:Individuals with early-onset T2DM have a higher risk of progressive CKD. The excess risk mainly exhibits in early stage of CKD and cannot be solely attributed to traditional risk factors and a longer diabetes duration. 10.1093/ndt/gfy211
    Prevalence and determinants of microalbuminurea among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, Baghdad, Iraq, 2013. Ali Ali Abdalkader,Al Lami Faris Hassan Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia Microalbuminuria (MAU) is an early marker of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which accounts for a significant reduction in life expectancy of diabetic patients. The progression of DN from the appearance of clinical proteinuria to end stage renal failure is usually irreversible. Increased levels of urinary albumin secretion may represent a more generalized vascular damage. This is the first study conducted in Iraq to determine the prevalence and potential risk factors of MAU among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a systematic random sample of 224 eligible T2DM patients aged 25-64 years attending a DM clinic in Baghdad. A questionnaire was developed to gather basic and clinical data, besides anthropometric measurements, and laboratory assessment of lipid profile, HbA1c, serum creatinine, albumin, and microalbumin/creatinin in urine. MAU was defined as albumin/creatinine ratio 30-300 mg/g on two occasions. Only 36 cases (16.1%) had MAU. A statistical significant association found between MAU and educational level (P = 0.009), family history of hypertension (P = 0.024) and DN (P = 0.013), history of hypertension (P = 0.001), duration of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor drug intake in hypertensive patients (P = 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.014), and waist to hip ratio (P = 0.006). Logistic regression analyses revealed two independent risk factors influencing MAU: diastolic blood pressure [odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.007-1.118] and BMI (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.037-1.220). The prevalence of MAU is not low among DM patients. Mandatory screening of all DM patients and amelioration of the assigned significant risk factors are recommended. 10.4103/1319-2442.178561
    Associations of serum uric acid level with diabetic retinopathy and albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hou Lin,Shi Yingzhou,Wang Sichao,Chen Qing,Li Qiu,Zhao Meng,Zhou Xinli The Journal of international medical research OBJECTIVES:To analyze the associations of serum uric acid (SUA) level with diabetic microvascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS:Three hundred eighty-nine inpatients with type 2 DM were included in this retrospective analysis. Nonmydriatic fundus cameras were used to identify DR. Urinary albumin creatinine ratio was used to identify DN. Patients were divided into four groups according to SUA quartiles. RESULTS:The prevalences of DR and albuminuria increased with increasing SUA level. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, following adjustment for other risk factors, higher levels of SUA (Q3 and Q4) were associated with greater risk for DR, compared with the lower level (Q1) (odds ratio [OR]: 3.056, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.506-6.198; OR: 3.417, 95% CI: 1.635-7.139, respectively). Moreover, higher levels of SUA (Q2, Q3, and Q4) were associated with greater risk for albuminuria (OR: 2.418, 95% CI: 1.059-5.522; OR: 7.233, 95% CI: 3.145-16.635; and OR: 8.911, 95% CI: 3.755-21.147, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:SUA level was independently associated with DR and albuminuria in patients with type 2 DM. Elevated SUA level might be predictive for the occurrence of DR and DN. 10.1177/0300060520963980
    Albuminuria and its correlates in type 2 diabetic patients. Zakkerkish Mehrnoosh,Shahbazian Hajieh Bibi,Shahbazian Heshmatollah,Latifi Seyed Mahmoud,Moravej Aleali Armaghan Iranian journal of kidney diseases INTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its correlates and investigate disease management for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ahvaz. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study on the 350 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetes Clinic at Golestan Hospital, from October 2010 to September 2011. Demographic characteristics were recorded and height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood urea nitrogen and serum levels of creatinine, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycosylated hemoglobin A were measured in fasting blood samples. Spot urine and 24-hour urine collection were tested for albumin and kidney ultrasonography was done. RESULTS:A total of 72 of 350 patients (20.6%) had microalbuminuria and 18 (5.1%) had macroalbuminuria. Elevated serum creatinine was seen in 6.9% and azotemia in 6.0%. In multivariable analysis, blood urea nitrogen level, glycosylated hemoglobin A, and duration of diabetes mellitus were associated with urinary albumin excretion (P = .04). A small proportion of the participants achieved optimal treatment goals for modifiable risk factors. CONCLUSIONS:Abnormal urinary albumin excretion is seen in one-quarter of type 2 diabetic patients and a small but important number of them have azotemia. Albuminuria was found to be associated with long-term duration of diabetes mellitus, poor glucose control (revealed by high glycosylated hemoglobin A levels), and high blood urea nitrogen. Poor glycemic control may have a significant role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy in these patients.
    Changes in albuminuria and renal outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension: a real-life observational study. Viazzi Francesca,Ceriello Antonio,Fioretto Paola,Giorda Carlo,Guida Pietro,Russo Giuseppina,Greco Eulalia,De Cosmo Salvatore,Pontremoli Roberto, Journal of hypertension OBJECTIVES:To assess the predictive role of changes in albuminuria on the loss of renal function under antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS:Clinical records from a total of 12 611 patients with hypertension and T2D, attending 100 antidiabetic centers in Italy, with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and regular visits during a 4-year period were retrieved and analyzed. We assessed the association between changes in albuminuria status during a 1-year baseline period and time updated blood pressure (BP) and eGFR loss over the subsequent 4-year follow-up. RESULTS:Mean age at baseline was 65 ± 9 years, known duration of diabetes11 ± 8 years, eGFR 85 ± 13 ml/min and BP 142 ± 17/81 ± 9 mmHg. Patients with persistent albuminuria showed the highest 4-year risk of eGFR loss more than 30% from baseline or onset of stage 3 chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 60 ml/min) as compared with those with persistent normal albuminuria (odds ratio 2.00, confidence interval 1.71-2.34; P < 0.001). Female sex, age, disease duration, BMI, low baseline eGFR, lipid profile, the number of antihypertensive drugs and variations in albuminuria status were associated with renal risk in the whole study population. Furthermore, lower time updated BP values and the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-inhibitors were related to the occurrence of renal endpoints only in the subgroup of patients without albuminuria. CONCLUSION:In patients with hypertension and T2D under real-life clinical conditions, changes in albuminuria parallel changes of renal risk. Albuminuria status could be a guide to optimize therapeutic strategy. 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001749
    Prevalence of albuminuria and associated cardiovascular risk factors: a community cohort in Namwon City, Korea. Kweon Sun-Seog,Shin Min-Ho,Choi Jin-Su,Nam Hae-Sung,Lee Young-Hoon,Park Kyeong-Soo,Lee Jun-Young,Jeong Seul-Ki Diabetes research and clinical practice AIM:To document the prevalence of albuminuria and determine its relationship to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Korean adults. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study of adults aged 45-74 years from Namwon City, South Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR)≥30mg/g. The values of UACR were categorized into 5 groups: <10, 10-19, 20-29, 30-299, and ≥300mg/g. Risk factors for CVD and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were analyzed for an association with UACR values. RESULTS:Data were obtained from 10,534 participants (4140 men and 6394 women). Albuminuria was more prevalent among women than men (27.3% versus 22.7%, respectively, p<0.001), and it was also more prevalent among older participants (p<0.001). The prevalence of albuminuria was 36.3% among participants with hypertension or type 2 diabetes, and it was 16.6% among participants without these conditions. The UACR was positively associated with CVD risk factors, including blood pressure, obesity indexes, total cholesterol, and the eGFR. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of albuminuria is high in the general population in Korea, even among Koreans without CVD risk factors. Lower UACR values are associated with reduced CVD risk factors. 10.1016/j.diabres.2012.05.018
    The prevalence of hypertension in relation with the normal albuminuria range in type 2 diabetes mellitus within the South Korean population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012. Shin Koh-Eun,Roh Yong-Kyun,Cho Kyung-Hwan,Han Kyung-Do,Park Yong-Gyu,Kim Do-Hoon,Kim Yang-Hyun Primary care diabetes AIMS:The coexistence of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. In some studies, normal albuminuria has also been associated with cardiovascular disease and HTN. Therefore, we examined the relationships between albuminuria and the prevalence of HTN and its control rate in type 2 DM patients. RESULTS:We analyzed data from the 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 1188 subjects with type 2 DM were included in the study. We divided albuminuria into 3 albuminuria tertiles (T): T1: <4.82mg/g; T2: 4.82-17.56mg/g; and T3: ≥17.56mg/g. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively correlated with the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) after adjusting for all covariates (P<0.001). Type 2 DM subjects with hypertension had more ACR T3 (odds ratio=2.018, 95% confidence interval=1.445-2.818) than subjects without HTN. Subjects with controlled HTN had less ACR T3 than subjects without controlled HTN (odds ratio=0.566, 95% confidence interval=0.384-0.836). When, we redivided albuminuria by <10, 10-30 (high normal albuminuria), 30-300mg/g (microalbuminuria), and 300mg/g≤(macroalbuminuria), the odds ratio for high normal albuminuria and microalbuminuria was 1.52 and 2.24, respectively in the presence of HTN, however, high normal albuminuria was not associated with HTN control. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, albuminuria within the high normal range was associated with the prevalence of HTN in South Korean patients with type 2 DM. 10.1016/j.pcd.2017.02.007
    Addition of Metabolic Syndrome to Albuminuria Provides a New Risk Stratification Model for Diabetic Kidney Disease Progression in Elderly Patients. Shih Hong-Mou,Chuang Shih-Ming,Lee Chun-Chuan,Liu Sung-Chen,Tsai Ming-Chieh Scientific reports Elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are more prone to developing diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Patients with DKD can develop albuminuria, and some studies have suggested an association between metabolic syndrome and albuminuria. The prevalence of both metabolic syndrome and albuminuria increases with age. We evaluated the association of these risk factors with worsening renal function and albuminuria progression in 460 T2DM patients with a mean age of 72 years. During the 5-year follow-up period, progression of albuminuria and worsening of renal function were observed in 97 (21.2%) and 23 (5.1%) patients, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the group with metabolic syndrome had a higher multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for worsening renal function (P = 0.038) and albuminuria progression (P = 0.039) than the group without metabolic syndrome. When patients were divided into four groups according to the presence of metabolic syndrome and/or albuminuria, the HR gradually increased. The group with both albuminuria and metabolic syndrome exhibited the highest cumulative incidence of worsening renal function (P = 0.003). When we redefined metabolic syndrome to exclude the blood pressure (BP) component, similar results were obtained. We concluded that the presence of metabolic syndrome independently predicts the progression of renal disease in elderly patients with T2DM. The use of both metabolic syndrome and albuminuria provides a better risk stratification model for DKD progression than albuminuria alone. 10.1038/s41598-020-63967-9
    Association of smoking and cardiometabolic parameters with albuminuria in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Kar Debasish,Gillies Clare,Nath Mintu,Khunti Kamlesh,Davies Melanie J,Seidu Samuel Acta diabetologica AIMS:Smoking is a strong risk factor for albuminuria in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is unclear whether this sequela of smoking is brought about by its action on cardiometabolic parameters or the relationship is independent. The aim of this systematic review is to explore this relationship. METHODS:Electronic databases on cross-sectional and prospective studies in Medline and Embase were searched from January 1946 to May 2018. Adult smokers with T2DM were included, and other types of diabetes were excluded. RESULTS:A random effects meta-analysis of 20,056 participants from 13 studies found that the odds ratio (OR) of smokers developing albuminuria compared to non-smokers was 2.13 (95% CI 1.32, 3.45). Apart from smoking, the odds ratio of other risk factors associated with albuminuria were: age 1.24 (95% CI 0.84, 1.64), male sex 1.39 (95% CI 1.16, 1.67), duration of diabetes 1.78 (95% CI 1.32, 2.23), HbA1c 0.63 (95% CI 0.45, 0.81), SBP 6.03 (95% CI 4.10, 7.97), DBP 1.85 (95% CI 1.08, 2.62), total cholesterol 0.06 (95% CI - 0.05, 0.17) and HDL cholesterol - 0.01 (95% CI - 0.04, 0.02), triglyceride 0.22 (95% CI 0.12, 0.33) and BMI 0.40 (95% CI 0.00-0.80). When the smoking status was adjusted in a mixed effect meta-regression model, the duration of diabetes was the only statistically significant factor that influenced the prevalence of albuminuria. In smokers, each year's increase in the duration of T2DM was associated with an increased risk of albuminuria of 0.19 units (95% CI 0.07, 0.31) on the log odds scale or increased the odds approximately by 23%, compared to non-smokers. Prediction from the meta-regression model also suggested that the odds ratios of albuminuria in smokers after a diabetes duration of 9 years and 16 years were 1.53 (95% CI 1.10, 2.13) and 5.94 (95% CI 2.53, 13.95), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Continuing to smoke and the duration of diabetes are two strong predictors of albuminuria in smokers with T2DM. With a global surge in younger smokers developing T2DM, smoking cessation interventions at an early stage of disease trajectory should be promoted. 10.1007/s00592-019-01293-x
    An Exploratory Study of Dapagliflozin for the Attenuation of Albuminuria in Patients with Heart Failure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DAPPER). Yoshihara Fumiki,Imazu Miki,Hamasaki Toshimitsu,Anzai Toshihisa,Yasuda Satoshi,Ito Shin,Yamamoto Haruko,Hashimura Kazuhiko,Yasumura Yoshio,Mori Kiyoshi,Watanabe Masataka,Asakura Masanori,Kitakaze Masafumi, Cardiovascular drugs and therapy BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Sodium-dependent glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, which are anti-diabetic drugs, reportedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with cardiovascular diseases, and thus chronic heart failure (CHF). SGLT-2 inhibitors also decrease albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Since albuminuria is a biomarker of not only chronic kidney disease but also cardiovascular events, we hypothesized that, among T2D patients with CHF, SGLT-2 inhibitors will decrease the extent of albuminuria and also improve CHF concomitantly. METHODS:DAPPER (UMIN000025102) is a multicenter, randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, standard treatment-controlled study, which is designed to evaluate whether dapagliflozin, one of the SGLT-2 inhibitors, decreases albuminuria in T2D patients with CHF and exerts cardioprotective effects on the failing heart. The patients are randomized to either of the dapagliflozin (5 or 10 mg, once daily orally) or control group (administration of anti-diabetic drugs administered other than SGLT 2 inhibitors). The estimated number of patients that need to be enrolled is 446 in total (223 in each group). The primary objective is the changes in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio from the baseline after 2-year treatment. The key secondary objectives are (1) the safety of dapagliflozin and (2) the cardiovascular and renal efficacies of dapagliflozin. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES:DAPPER study investigates whether dapagliflozin decreases albuminuria and exerts beneficial effects on the failing heart in T2D patients. (UMIN000025102). 10.1007/s10557-018-6782-1
    Prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy and associated risk factors among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Ramallah, Palestine. Shahwan Moyad Jamal,Gacem Sabrina Ait,Zaidi Syed K Diabetes & metabolic syndrome AIMS:Albuminuria is an established marker for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk in diabetes and prediabetes. So we aimed to explore the prevalence of albuminuria (microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria) in patients with type2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the Palestinian community and to determine the association between albuminuria and other health care and biochemical indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional study was carried out at private health care center. A total of 550 diabetic patients aged 35 years and above with type 2 diabetes mellitus who attended the clinic from May 2017 through February 2018 were included. Socio-demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of patients. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 23). RESULTS:Out of the 550 patients recruited, the mean age and duration of diabetes were 57.8 years and 9.5 years, respectively. Approximately 62% were being managed by oral hypoglycemic agents alone, 4.3% by insulin alone, 31.7% were on a combination of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin and slightly less than 2% were on dietary measures alone. The mean value for HbA1c was 7.71%. The overall prevalence of albuminuria among participants was found to be 34.6%; microalbuminuria (29.3%) and macroalbuminuria (5.3%). CONCLUSION:Albuminuria is highly prevalent among Palestinian population with type 2 diabetes. This calls for early and universal screening of urinary albumin. There is also an urgent need for measures that target tight glycemic and optimal blood pressure control and the use of renin-angiotensin system blockade. 10.1016/j.dsx.2019.02.017
    Study of Prevalence of Albuminuria in Newly Detected Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients and its Correlation with HBA1C. Shekhawat Dheeraj Singh,Verma Girish Chandra,Wahid Abdul The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
    Cigarette smoking and risk of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Xu Haili,Suo Jinliu,Lian Jing International urology and nephrology BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking on albuminuria risk in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS:A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from the established date to October 2017. Summary relative risks (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed utilizing a random effect inverse variance method. RESULTS:This meta-analysis included a total of 19 relevant observational studies (four prospective cohort, seven case-control, and eight cross-sectional studies), reporting 105,031 participants and 23,366 albuminuria events. Compared with never-smokers with T2DM, the SRRs of albuminuria were 1.43 (95% CIs 1.27-1.61) for ever-smokers, 2.61 (95% CIs 1.86-3.64) for current smokers, and 1.86 (95% CIs 1.37-2.52) for former smokers. Considerable heterogeneity was observed among these studies, and study design was a significant modifier for this association. There were significantly elevated risk associations for microalbuminuria (SRRs = 1.24, 95% CIs 1.05-1.46) and for macroalbuminuria (SRRs = 1.65, 95% CIs 1.03-2.66), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Our systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that cigarette smoking might be a potential factor for the development of albuminuria in adults with T2DM. Future studies are required to investigate the association between smoking cessation and intensity and incident albuminuria in adults with T2DM. 10.1007/s11255-018-1825-x
    Albuminuria Regression and All-Cause Mortality among Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Analysis of a Large UK Primary Care Cohort. Anyanwagu Uchenna,Donnelly Richard,Idris Iskandar American journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Overt albuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR] > 300 mg/g) is an established risk factor for progression of nephropathy and total mortality. However, whether a reduction in ACR translates into a reduction in mortality and/or cardiovascular (CV) events among insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in routine practice is currently not known. METHODS:We obtained data on a large cohort of insulin users with T2D and nephropathy (baseline ACR ≥300 mg/g) from UK general practices between 2007 and 2014. Their corresponding ACR values after 1year of follow-up were thereafter categorized into: (1) < 300 mg/g (i.e., albuminuria regression) or (2) > 300 mg/g (i.e., nonregression of albuminuria), and the cohort was followed-up for 5 years for all-cause mortality and CV events. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to estimate the risk of all-cause death. RESULTS:A total of 11,074 patients with insulin-treated T2D met the inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 62.3 (13.6) years; mean HbA1c: 8.7 (1.8) and 53% were male. A total of 682 deaths occurred after a follow-up period of 43,393 person-years with a mortality rate of 16 per 1,000 person-years. Five-year survival was markedly reduced in the group whose proteinuria persisted or progressed (91 vs. 95%; log-rank p value < 0.001). Compared to patients whose ACR levels remained above 300 mg/g, all-cause mortality and CV events were 31 and 27% lower in those whose albuminuria regressed to < 300 mg/g (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.69; 95% CI 0.52-0.91; p = 0.008 and aHR 0. 73; 95% CI 0.54-0.98; p = 0.041), respectively. CONCLUSION:In patients with insulin-treated T2D and nephropathy in routine practice, a regression in albuminuria (e.g., via better BP or glycemic control) is associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality. Thus, albuminuria is not only simply a risk marker of renal and CV disease but also an independent target for therapy. Albuminuria reduction should be viewed as a goal for renal and CV protection. 10.1159/000496276
    Differences in risk factors for the onset of albuminuria and decrease in glomerular filtration rate in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: implications for the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. Takagi M,Babazono T,Uchigata Y Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association AIMS:To determine differences in predictors of albuminuria and decreased estimated GFR in Japanese people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus without chronic kidney disease. METHODS:This single-centre observational cohort study involved 1802 Japanese people with Type 2 diabetes with normoalbuminuria and estimated GFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (740 women; mean ± sd age 58 ± 12 years). Two separate outcomes were evaluated: onset of albuminuria ( ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine, albuminuria cohort; n = 1655) and decrease in estimated GFR ( < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) ; estimated GFR cohort; n = 1777). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify significant predictors for each outcome. RESULTS:During a median follow-up period of 6.9 years for the albuminuria cohort and 8.0 years for the estimated GFR cohort, 181 and 316 individuals reached the respective outcome. The 5-year cumulative incidence of albuminuria was 8.3%, and that of decreased estimated GFR was 10.4%. In the multivariate Cox model, greater urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, presence of diabetic retinopathy and higher HbA1c levels were associated with both outcomes. Unique risk factors for onset of albuminuria were male gender and higher uric acid levels; those for decreased estimated GFR were older age, greater systolic blood pressure, and lower baseline estimated GFR and HDL cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS:Identification of both common and distinct predictive factors for onset of albuminuria and decreased estimated GFR support the hypothesis that both common and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in the development of these two manifestations of chronic kidney disease in diabetes. 10.1111/dme.12793
    The Effects of Novel Antidiabetic Drugs on Albuminuria in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Luo Ya,Lu Kai,Liu Gang,Wang Jing,Laurent Irakoze,Zhou Xiaoli Clinical drug investigation BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The effects of novel antidiabetic drugs, including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, on albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are still controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of novel antidiabetic drugs on albuminuria in patients with T2DM. METHODS:We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases up to 16 August 2018. The effects of novel antidiabetic drugs on albuminuria were evaluated as percent changes from baseline to follow-up urinary albumin excretion/urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UAE/UACR) levels in both the intervention and control groups. Data regarding percent changes were used to generate weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:In this meta-analysis, 26 RCTs involving 14,929 patients were included. Pooled analysis suggested that SGLT-2 inhibitors (WMD - 26.23%, 95% CI - 35.90 to - 16.56; p < 0.00001) and GLP-1 receptor agonists (WMD - 13.85%, 95% CI - 15.96 to - 11.74; p < 0.00001) were associated with a significant reduction in albuminuria compared with other conventional therapies or placebo. DPP-4 inhibitors (WMD - 6.19%, 95% CI - 14.03 to 1.66; p = 0.12) were not significantly associated with lower albuminuria than other conventional therapies or placebo. CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis indicates that SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists were associated with a reduction in albuminuria compared with other conventional therapies or placebo, while DPP-4 inhibitors were not associated with albuminuria-reducing effects compared with other conventional therapies or placebo. 10.1007/s40261-018-0707-4