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    Trehalose protects motorneuron after brachial plexus root avulsion by activating autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis mediated by the AMPK signaling pathway. Li Bohan,Li Ping,Weng Ricong,Wu Zichao,Qin Bengang,Fang Jingtao,Wang Yuanyuan,Qiu Shuai,Yang Jiantao,Gu Liqiang Gene Brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA) is one of the most serious injuries of the upper extremity, which requires more effective treatment. Trehalose, a natural disaccharide, has reported to has a protective effect in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effective effects and mechanism of trehalose on BPRA are still unclear. BPRA rat model were established, and then effects of trehalose on BPRA were investigated. TBHP-treated NSC34 cells with or without trehalose treatment were used for mechanism studies by Western blotting, Immunofluorescence and Flow cytometry analysis. Trehalose elevated the survival of motor neurons in rats after BPRA, suggesting a protective role of trehlose on BPRA. Trehalose treatment in rats after BPRA enhanced the autophage and thus inhibited apoptosis compared with rats in Vehicle group. Moreover, in TBHP-treated NSC34 cells, trehalose promoted the expression of autophage-related markers (LC3 and Beclin-1), concomitant with decreased levels of apoptosis. In vitro mechanism study indicated that the regulations of trehalose on autophage and apoptosis were via the AMPK-ULK1 pathway. Trehalose protects injured MNs by enhancing autophage and inhibiting apoptosis, which demonstrating the essential role of trehalose in the prevention and treatment of BPRA. 10.1016/j.gene.2020.145307
    Trehalose induces autophagy via lysosomal-mediated TFEB activation in models of motoneuron degeneration. Rusmini Paola,Cortese Katia,Crippa Valeria,Cristofani Riccardo,Cicardi Maria Elena,Ferrari Veronica,Vezzoli Giulia,Tedesco Barbara,Meroni Marco,Messi Elio,Piccolella Margherita,Galbiati Mariarita,Garrè Massimiliano,Morelli Elena,Vaccari Thomas,Poletti Angelo Autophagy Macroautophagy/autophagy, a defense mechanism against aberrant stresses, in neurons counteracts aggregate-prone misfolded protein toxicity. Autophagy induction might be beneficial in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). The natural compound trehalose promotes autophagy via TFEB (transcription factor EB), ameliorating disease phenotype in multiple ND models, but its mechanism is still obscure. We demonstrated that trehalose regulates autophagy by inducing rapid and transient lysosomal enlargement and membrane permeabilization (LMP). This effect correlated with the calcium-dependent phosphatase PPP3/calcineurin activation, TFEB dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Trehalose upregulated genes for the TFEB target and regulator Ppargc1a, lysosomal hydrolases and membrane proteins (Ctsb, Gla, Lamp2a, Mcoln1, Tpp1) and several autophagy-related components (Becn1, Atg10, Atg12, Sqstm1/p62, Map1lc3b, Hspb8 and Bag3) mostly in a PPP3- and TFEB-dependent manner. TFEB silencing counteracted the trehalose pro-degradative activity on misfolded protein causative of motoneuron diseases. Similar effects were exerted by trehalase-resistant trehalose analogs, melibiose and lactulose. Thus, limited lysosomal damage might induce autophagy, perhaps as a compensatory mechanism, a process that is beneficial to counteract neurodegeneration. Abbreviations: ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; AR: androgen receptor; ATG: autophagy related; AV: autophagic vacuole; BAG3: BCL2-associated athanogene 3; BECN1: beclin 1, autophagy related; CASA: chaperone-assisted selective autophagy; CTSB: cathepsin b; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; fALS, familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; FRA: filter retardation assay; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GLA: galactosidase, alpha; HD: Huntington disease; hIPSCs: human induced pluripotent stem cells; HSPA8: heat shock protein A8; HSPB8: heat shock protein B8; IF: immunofluorescence analysis; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LAMP2A: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A; LGALS3: lectin, galactose binding, soluble 3; LLOMe: L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester; LMP: lysosomal membrane permeabilization; Lys: lysosomes; MAP1LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MCOLN1: mucolipin 1; mRNA: messenger RNA; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NDs: neurodegenerative diseases; NSC34: neuroblastoma x spinal cord 34; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PD: Parkinson disease; polyQ: polyglutamine; PPARGC1A: peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, gamma, coactivator 1 alpha; PPP3CB: protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isoform; RT-qPCR: real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction; SBMA: spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; SCAs: spinocerebellar ataxias; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SLC2A8: solute carrier family 2, (facilitated glucose transporter), member 8; smNPCs: small molecules neural progenitors cells; SOD1: superoxide dismutase 1; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; STED: stimulated emission depletion; STUB1: STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1; TARDBP/TDP-43: TAR DNA binding protein; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TPP1: tripeptidyl peptidase I; TREH: trehalase (brush-border membrane glycoprotein); WB: western blotting; ZKSCAN3: zinc finger with KRAB and SCAN domains 3. 10.1080/15548627.2018.1535292
    Autophagic Modulation by Trehalose Reduces Accumulation of TDP-43 in a Cell Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis via TFEB Activation. Wang Ying,Liu Feng-Tao,Wang Yi-Xuan,Guan Rong-Yuan,Chen Chen,Li Da-Ke,Bu Lu-Lu,Song Jie,Yang Yu-Jie,Dong Yi,Chen Yan,Wang Jian Neurotoxicity research Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease characterized by the formation of protein inclusion and progressive loss of motor neurons, finally leading to muscle weakness and respiratory failure. So far, the effective drugs for ALS are yet to be developed. Impairment of transcriptional activator transcription factor EB (TFEB) has been demonstrated as a key element in the pathogenesis of ALS. Trehalose is an mechanistic target of rapamycin-independent inducer for autophagy, which showed autophagic activation and neuroprotective effect in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanism for trehalose-induced autophagy enhancement is not clear, and its therapeutic effect on TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) proteinopathies has been poorly investigated. Here we examined the effect of trehalose on TDP-43 clearance in a cell culture model and identified that trehalose treatment significantly reduced TDP-43 accumulation in vitro through modulation of the autophagic degradation pathway. Further studies revealed that activation of TFEB induced by trehalose was responsible for the enhancement of autophagy and clearance of TDP-43 level. These results gave us the notion that TFEB is a central regular in trehalose-mediated autophagic clearance of TDP-43 aggregates, representing an important step forward in the treatment of TDP-43 related ALS diseases. 10.1007/s12640-018-9865-7
    Trehalose elevates brain zinc levels following controlled cortical impact in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury. Portbury Stuart D,Hare Dominic J,Bishop David P,Finkelstein David I,Doble Philip A,Adlard Paul A Metallomics : integrated biometal science Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a clinical consequence of brain injury that can result in neuropathological outcomes that are exacerbated with age. Here, we present laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) imaging data showing modulation of brain Zn levels by the disaccharide trehalose in aged mice following a controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury. In this proof-of-concept study, trehalose induced an increase in brain zinc levels, providing important preliminary data for larger studies using this simple carbohydrate as a modulator of this essential micronutrient in traumatic brain injury. Our results may have further implications for the treatment of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and other disorders of the nervous system. 10.1039/c8mt00068a
    Protective effects of trehalose against Mn-induced α-synuclein oligomerization in mice: Involvement of oxidative stress and autophagy. Jing Meng-Jiao,Liu Kuan,Liu Chang,Yan Dong-Ying,Ma Zhuo,Wang Can,Deng Yu,Liu Wei,Xu Bin Environmental toxicology Overexposure to manganese (Mn) is widely known to induce alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) oligomerization, which has been attributed to the oxidative damage of α-Syn protein. Trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy and serve as a chemical chaperone, but little information has been reported about its effect on Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization. In this study, we investigate whether trehalose can effectively interfere with Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization, using different concentrations of trehalose (2% and 4% (g/vol [mL])) in a mouse model of manganism. After 6 weeks of exposure to Mn, both oxidative stress and autophagy were activated and resulted in α-Syn oligomerization and neuronal cell damage in the mouse brain tissue. Our results also revealed that pretreatment with trehalose significantly reduced the oxidative damage to α-Syn protein and increased autophagy activation. These findings clearly demonstrated that trehalose can relieve Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization and neuronal cell damage through its anti-oxidative and autophagy-inducing effects. 10.1002/tox.22842
    Treatment with Trehalose Prevents Behavioral and Neurochemical Deficits Produced in an AAV α-Synuclein Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease. He Qing,Koprich James B,Wang Ying,Yu Wen-bo,Xiao Bao-guo,Brotchie Jonathan M,Wang Jian Molecular neurobiology The accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein in dopamine (DA) neurons is believed to be of major importance in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Animal models of PD, based on viral-vector-mediated over-expression of α-synuclein, have been developed and show evidence of dopaminergic toxicity, providing us a good tool to investigate potential therapies to interfere with α-synuclein-mediated pathology. An efficient disease-modifying therapeutic molecule should be able to interfere with the neurotoxicity of α-synuclein aggregation. Our study highlighted the ability of an autophagy enhancer, trehalose (at concentrations of 5 and 2% in drinking water), to protect against A53T α-synuclein-mediated DA degeneration in an adeno-associated virus serotype 1/2 (AAV1/2)-based rat model of PD. Behavioral tests and neurochemical analysis demonstrated a significant attenuation in α-synuclein-mediated deficits in motor asymmetry and DA neurodegeneration including impaired DA neuronal survival and DA turnover, as well as α-synuclein accumulation and aggregation in the nigrostriatal system by commencing 5 and 2% trehalose at the same time as delivery of AAV. Trehalose (0.5%) was ineffective on the above behavioral and neurochemical deficits. Further investigation showed that trehalose enhanced autophagy in the striatum by increasing formation of LC3-II. This study supports the concept of using trehalose as a novel therapeutic strategy that might prevent/reverse α-synuclein aggregation for the treatment of PD. 10.1007/s12035-015-9173-7
    Corrigendum: mTORC1-independent TFEB activation via Akt inhibition promotes cellular clearance in neurodegenerative storage diseases. Palmieri Michela,Pal Rituraj,Nelvagal Hemanth R,Lotfi Parisa,Stinnett Gary R,Seymour Michelle L,Chaudhury Arindam,Bajaj Lakshya,Bondar Vitaliy V,Bremner Laura,Saleem Usama,Tse Dennis Y,Sanagasetti Deepthi,Wu Samuel M,Neilson Joel R,Pereira Fred A,Pautler Robia G,Rodney George G,Cooper Jonathan D,Sardiello Marco Nature communications This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14338. 10.1038/ncomms15793
    Differential ERK activation during autophagy induced by europium hydroxide nanorods and trehalose: Maximum clearance of huntingtin aggregates through combined treatment. Wei Peng-Fei,Jin Pei-Pei,Barui Ayan Kumar,Hu Yi,Zhang Li,Zhang Ji-Qian,Shi Shan-Shan,Zhang Hou-Rui,Lin Jun,Zhou Wei,Zhang Yun-Jiao,Ruan Ren-Quan,Patra Chitta Ranjan,Wen Long-Ping Biomaterials Accelerating the clearance of intracellular protein aggregates through elevation of autophagy represents a viable approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In our earlier report, we have demonstrated the enhanced degradation of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates through autophagy process induced by europium hydroxide nanorods [EHNs: Eu(III)(OH)3], but the underlying molecular mechanism of EHNs mediated autophagy was unclear. The present report reveals that EHNs induced autophagy does not follow the classical AKT-mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways. The inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation using the specific MEK inhibitor U0126 partially abrogates the autophagy as well as the clearance of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates mediated by EHNs suggesting that nanorods stimulate the activation of MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway during autophagy process. In contrast, another mTOR-independent autophagy inducer trehalose has been found to induce autophagy without activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Interestingly, the combined treatment of EHNs and trehalose leads to more degradation of mutant huntingtin protein aggregates than that obtained with single treatment of either nanorods or trehalose. Our results demonstrate the rational that further enhanced clearance of intracellular protein aggregates, needed for diverse neurodegenerative diseases, may be achieved through the combined treatment of two or more autophagy inducers, which stimulate autophagy through different signaling pathways. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.09.006
    Ac-LPFFD-Th: A Trehalose-Conjugated Peptidomimetic as a Strong Suppressor of Amyloid-β Oligomer Formation and Cytotoxicity. Sinopoli Alessandro,Giuffrida Alessandro,Tomasello Marianna Flora,Giuffrida Maria Laura,Leone Marilisa,Attanasio Francesco,Caraci Filippo,De Bona Paolo,Naletova Irina,Saviano Michele,Copani Agata,Pappalardo Giuseppe,Rizzarelli Enrico Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology The inhibition of amyloid formation is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Peptide-based inhibitors, which have been widely investigated, are generally derived from original amyloid sequences. Most interestingly, trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide of α-glucose, is effective in preventing the aggregation of numerous proteins. We have determined that the development of hybrid compounds could provide new molecules with improved properties that might synergically increase the potency of their single moieties. In this work, the ability of Ac-LPFFD-Th, a C-terminally trehalose-conjugated derivative, to slow down the Aβ aggregation process was investigated by means of different biophysical techniques, including thioflavin T fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, ESI-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ac-LPFFD-Th modifies the aggregation features of Aβ and protects neurons from Aβ oligomers' toxic insult. 10.1002/cbic.201600243
    Trehalose Improves Cognition in the Transgenic Tg2576 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Portbury Stuart D,Hare Dominic J,Sgambelloni Charlotte,Perronnes Kali,Portbury Ashley J,Finkelstein David I,Adlard Paul A Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD This study assessed the therapeutic utility of the autophagy enhancing stable disaccharide trehalose in the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) via an oral gavage of a 2% trehalose solution for 31 days. Furthermore, as AD is a neurodegenerative condition in which the transition metals, iron, copper, and zinc, are understood to be intricately involved in the cellular cascades leading to the defining pathologies of the disease, we sought to determine any parallel impact of trehalose treatment on metal levels. Trehalose treatment significantly improved performance in the Morris water maze, consistent with enhanced learning and memory. The improvement was not associated with significant modulation of full length amyloid-β protein precursor or other amyloid-β fragments. Trehalose had no effect on autophagy as assessed by western blot of the LC3-1 to LC3-2 protein ratio, and no alteration in biometals that might account for the improved cognition was observed. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant increase in the hippocampus of both synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle protein and surrogate marker of synapses, and doublecortin, a reliable marker of neurogenesis. The growth factor progranulin was also significantly increased in the hippocampus and cortex with trehalose treatment. This study suggests that trehalose might invoke a suite of neuroprotective mechanisms that can contribute to improved cognitive performance in AD that are independent of more classical trehalose-mediated pathways, such as Aβ reduction and activation of autophagy. Thus, trehalose may have utility as a potential AD therapeutic, with conceivable implications for the treatment of other neurodegenerative disorders. 10.3233/JAD-170322
    The potential of lactulose and melibiose, two novel trehalase-indigestible and autophagy-inducing disaccharides, for polyQ-mediated neurodegenerative disease treatment. Lee Guan-Chiun,Lin Chih-Hsin,Tao Yu-Chen,Yang Jinn-Moon,Hsu Kai-Cheng,Huang Yin-Jung,Huang Shih-Han,Kung Pin-Jui,Chen Wan-Ling,Wang Chien-Ming,Wu Yih-Ru,Chen Chiung-Mei,Lin Jung-Yaw,Hsieh-Li Hsiu Mei,Lee-Chen Guey-Jen Neurotoxicology The unique property of trehalose encourages its pharmaceutical application in aggregation-mediated neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and many polyglutamine (polyQ)-mediated diseases. However, trehalose is digested into glucose by trehalase and which reduced its efficacy in the disease target tissues. Therefore, searching trehalase-indigestible analogs of trehalose is a potential strategy to enhance therapeutic effect. In this study, two trehalase-indigestible trehalose analogs, lactulose and melibiose, were selected through compound topology and functional group analyses. Hydrogen-bonding network analyses suggest that the elimination of the hydrogen bond between the linker ether and aspartate 321 (D321) of human trehalase is the key for lactulose and melibiose to avoid the hydrolyzation. Using polyQ-mediated spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) cell and slice cultures, we found the aggregation was significantly prohibited by trehalose, lactulose, and melibiose, which may through up-regulating of autophagy. These findings suggest the therapeutic applications of trehalase-indigestible trehalose analogs in aggregation-associated neurodegenerative diseases. 10.1016/j.neuro.2015.03.009
    Is trehalose an autophagic inducer? Unraveling the roles of non-reducing disaccharides on autophagic flux and alpha-synuclein aggregation. Yoon Ye-Seul,Cho Eun-Duk,Jung Ahn Woo,Won Lee Kyung,Lee Seung-Jae,Lee He-Jin Cell death & disease Autophagy is a pivotal intracellular process by which cellular macromolecules are degraded upon various stimuli. A failure in the degradation of autophagic substrates such as impaired organelles and protein aggregates leads to their accumulations, which are characteristics of many neurodegenerative diseases. Pharmacological activation of autophagy has thus been considered a prospective therapeutic approach for treating neurodegenerative diseases. Among a number of autophagy-inducing agents, trehalose has received attention for its beneficial effects in different disease models of neurodegeneration. However, how trehalose promotes autophagy has not been fully revealed. We investigated the influence of trehalose and other disaccharides upon autophagic flux and aggregation of α-synuclein, a protein linked to Parkinson's disease. In differentiated human neuroblastoma and primary rat cortical neuron culture models, treatment with trehalose and other disaccharides resulted in accumulation of lipidated LC3 (LC3-II), p62, and autophagosomes, whereas it decreased autolysosomes. On the other hand, addition of Bafilomycin A1 to trehalose treatments had relatively marginal effect, an indicative of autophagic flux blockage. In concordance with these results, the cells treated with trehalose exhibited an incremental tendency in α-synuclein aggregation. Secretion of α-synuclein was also elevated in the culture medium upon trehalose treatment, thereby significantly increasing intercellular transmission of this protein. Despite the substantial increase in α-synuclein aggregation, which normally leads to cell death, cell viability was not affected upon treatment with trehalose, suggesting an autophagy-independent protective function of trehalose against protein aggregates. This study demonstrates that, although trehalose has been widely considered an autophagic inducer, it may be actually a potent blocker of the autophagic flux. 10.1038/cddis.2017.501
    Autophagy induction by trehalose: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic impacts. Hosseinpour-Moghaddam Kiana,Caraglia Michele,Sahebkar Amirhossein Journal of cellular physiology The balance between synthesis and degradation is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis and different mechanisms are known to keep this balance. In this review, we will provide a short overview on autophagy as an intracellular homeostatic degradative machinery. We will also describe the involvement of downregulation of autophagy in numerous diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, aging, metabolic disorders, and other infectious diseases. Therefore, modulation of autophagic processes can represent a promising way of intervention in different diseases including neurodegeneration and cancer. Trehalose, also known as mycose, is a natural disaccharide found extensively but not abundantly among several organisms. It is described that trehalose can work as an important autophagy modulator and can be proficiently used in the control several diseases in which autophagy plays an important role. On these bases, we describe here the role of trehalose as an innovative drug in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and other illnesses opening a new scenario of intervention in conditions difficult to be treated. 10.1002/jcp.26583
    The Alzheimer's β-secretase BACE1 localizes to normal presynaptic terminals and to dystrophic presynaptic terminals surrounding amyloid plaques. Kandalepas Patty C,Sadleir Katherine R,Eimer William A,Zhao Jie,Nicholson Daniel A,Vassar Robert Acta neuropathologica β-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) is the β-secretase that initiates Aβ production in Alzheimer's disease (AD). BACE1 levels are increased in AD, which could contribute to pathogenesis, yet the mechanism of BACE1 elevation is unclear. Furthermore, the normal function of BACE1 is poorly understood. We localized BACE1 in the brain at both the light and electron microscopic levels to gain insight into normal and pathophysiologic roles of BACE1 in health and AD, respectively. Our findings provide the first ultrastructural evidence that BACE1 localizes to vesicles (likely endosomes) in normal hippocampal mossy fiber terminals of both non-transgenic and APP transgenic (5XFAD) mouse brains. In some instances, BACE1-positive vesicles were located near active zones, implying a function for BACE1 at the synapse. In addition, BACE1 accumulated in swollen dystrophic autophagosome-poor presynaptic terminals surrounding amyloid plaques in 5XFAD cortex and hippocampus. Importantly, accumulations of BACE1 and APP co-localized in presynaptic dystrophies, implying increased BACE1 processing of APP in peri-plaque regions. In primary cortical neuron cultures, treatment with the lysosomal protease inhibitor leupeptin caused BACE1 levels to increase; however, exposure of neurons to the autophagy inducer trehalose did not reduce BACE1 levels. This suggests that BACE1 is degraded by lysosomes but not by autophagy. Our results imply that BACE1 elevation in AD could be linked to decreased lysosomal degradation of BACE1 within dystrophic presynaptic terminals. Elevated BACE1 and APP levels in plaque-associated presynaptic dystrophies could increase local peri-plaque Aβ generation and accelerate amyloid plaque growth in AD. 10.1007/s00401-013-1152-3
    TFEB-dependent induction of thermogenesis by the hepatocyte SLC2A inhibitor trehalose. Zhang Yiming,Higgins Cassandra B,Mayer Allyson L,Mysorekar Indira U,Razani Babak,Graham Mark J,Hruz Paul W,DeBosch Brian J Autophagy The macroautophagy/autophagy-inducing disaccharide, trehalose, has been proposed to be a promising therapeutic agent against neurodegenerative and cardiometabolic diseases. We recently showed that trehalose attenuates hepatic steatosis in part by blocking hepatocyte glucose transport to induce hepatocyte autophagic flux. However, although every major demonstration of trehalose action invokes activating autophagic flux as its primary function, the mechanism of action of trehalose in whole-body energy metabolism remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that trehalose induces hepatocyte TFEB (transcription factor EB)-dependent thermogenesis in vivo, concomitant with upregulation of hepatic and white adipose expression of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1 [mitochondrial, protein carrier]). Mechanistically, we provide evidence that hepatocyte fasting transcriptional and metabolic responses depend upon PPARGC1A (peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, gamma, coactivator 1 alpha), TFEB, and FGF21 (fibroblast growth factor 21) signaling. Strikingly, hepatocyte-selective TFEB knockdown abrogated trehalose induction of thermogenesis and white adipose tissue UCP1 upregulation in vivo. In contrast, we found that trehalose action on thermogenesis was independent of LEP (leptin) and the autophagy pathway, as there was robust thermogenic induction in trehalose-treated ob/ob, Becn1, Atg16l1, and Epg5 mutant mice. We conclude that trehalose induces metabolically favorable effects on whole-body thermogenesis in part via hepatocyte-centered fasting-like mechanisms that appear to be independent of autophagic flux. Our findings elucidate a novel mechanism by which trehalose acts as a metabolic therapeutic agent by activating hepatic fasting responses. More broadly, the hepatic glucose fasting response may be of clinical utility against overnutrition-driven disease, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 10.1080/15548627.2018.1493044
    Trehalose upregulates progranulin expression in human and mouse models of GRN haploinsufficiency: a novel therapeutic lead to treat frontotemporal dementia. Holler Christopher J,Taylor Georgia,McEachin Zachary T,Deng Qiudong,Watkins William J,Hudson Kathryn,Easley Charles A,Hu William T,Hales Chadwick M,Rossoll Wilfried,Bassell Gary J,Kukar Thomas Molecular neurodegeneration BACKGROUND:Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted growth factor important for neuronal survival and may do so, in part, by regulating lysosome homeostasis. Mutations in the PGRN gene (GRN) are a common cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and lead to disease through PGRN haploinsufficiency. Additionally, complete loss of PGRN in humans leads to neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disease. Importantly, Grn-/- mouse models recapitulate pathogenic lysosomal features of NCL. Further, GRN variants that decrease PGRN expression increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Together these findings demonstrate that insufficient PGRN predisposes neurons to degeneration. Therefore, compounds that increase PGRN levels are potential therapeutics for multiple neurodegenerative diseases. RESULTS:Here, we performed a cell-based screen of a library of known autophagy-lysosome modulators and identified multiple novel activators of a human GRN promoter reporter including several common mTOR inhibitors and an mTOR-independent activator of autophagy, trehalose. Secondary cellular screens identified trehalose, a natural disaccharide, as the most promising lead compound because it increased endogenous PGRN in all cell lines tested and has multiple reported neuroprotective properties. Trehalose dose-dependently increased GRN mRNA as well as intracellular and secreted PGRN in both mouse and human cell lines and this effect was independent of the transcription factor EB (TFEB). Moreover, trehalose rescued PGRN deficiency in human fibroblasts and neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from GRN mutation carriers. Finally, oral administration of trehalose to Grn haploinsufficient mice significantly increased PGRN expression in the brain. CONCLUSIONS:This work reports several novel autophagy-lysosome modulators that enhance PGRN expression and identifies trehalose as a promising therapeutic for raising PGRN levels to treat multiple neurodegenerative diseases. 10.1186/s13024-016-0114-3
    Trehalose Inhibits Protein Aggregation Caused by Transient Ischemic Insults Through Preservation of Proteasome Activity, Not via Induction of Autophagy. Li Ye,Luo Yinan,Luo Tianfei,Lu Bin,Wang Chen,Zhang Yanhong,Piao Meihua,Feng Chunsheng,Ge Pengfei Molecular neurobiology Protein aggregation has been proved to be a pathological basis accounting for neuronal death caused by either transient global ischemia or oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), and inhibition of protein aggregation is emerging as a potential strategy of preventing brain damage. Trehalose was found to inhibit protein aggregation caused by neurodegenerative diseases via induction of autophagy, whereas its effect is still elusive on ischemia-induced protein aggregation. In this study, we investigated this issue by using rat model of transient global ischemia and SH-SY5Y model of OGD. We found that pretreatment with trehalose inhibited transient global ischemia-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus CA1 neurons and OGD-induced death in SH-SY5Y cells, which was associated with inhibition of the formation of ubiquitin-labeled protein aggregates and preservation of proteasome activity. In vitro study showed that the protection of trehalose against OGD-induced cell death and protein aggregation in SH-SY5Y cells was reversed when proteasome activity was inhibited by MG-132. Further studies revealed that trehalose prevented OGD-induced reduction of proteasome activity via suppression of both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Particularly, our results showed that trehalose inhibited OGD-induced autophagy. Therefore, we demonstrated that proteasome dysfunction contributed to protein aggregation caused by ischemic insults and trehalose prevented protein aggregation via preservation of proteasome activity, not via induction of autophagy. 10.1007/s12035-016-0196-5
    Biosynthesis of Astrocytic Trehalose Regulates Neuronal Arborization in Hippocampal Neurons. Martano Giuseppe,Gerosa Laura,Prada Ilaria,Garrone Giulia,Krogh Vittorio,Verderio Claudia,Passafaro Maria ACS chemical neuroscience Trehalose is a nonreducing disaccharide that has recently attracted much attention because of its ability to inhibit protein aggregation, induce autophagy, and protect against dissections and strokes. In vertebrates, the biosynthesis of trehalose was long considered absent due to the lack of annotated genes involved in this process. In contrast, trehalase (TreH), which is an enzyme required for the cleavage of trehalose, is known to be conserved and expressed. Here, we show that trehalose is present as an endogenous metabolite in the rodent hippocampus. We found that primary astrocytes were able to synthesize trehalose and release it into the extracellular space. Notably, the TreH enzyme was observed only in the soma of neurons, which are the exclusive users of this substrate. A statistical analysis of the metabolome during different stages of maturation indicated that this metabolite is implicated in neuronal maturation. A morphological analysis of primary neurons confirmed that trehalose is required for neuronal arborization. 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00177
    Mechanism of neuroprotection by trehalose: controversy surrounding autophagy induction. Lee He-Jin,Yoon Ye-Seul,Lee Seung-Jae Cell death & disease Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide with two glucose molecules linked through an α, α-1,1-glucosidic bond. Trehalose has received attention for the past few decades for its role in neuroprotection especially in animal models of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson and Huntington diseases. The mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of trehalose remains elusive. The prevailing hypothesis is that trehalose protects neurons by inducing autophagy, thereby clearing protein aggregates. Some of the animal studies showed activation of autophagy and reduced protein aggregates after trehalose administration in neurodegenerative disease models, seemingly supporting the autophagy induction hypothesis. However, results from cell studies have been less certain; although many studies claim that trehalose induces autophagy and reduces protein aggregates, the studies have their weaknesses, failing to provide sufficient evidence for the autophagy induction theory. Furthermore, a recent study with a thorough examination of autophagy flux showed that trehalose interfered with the flux from autophagosome to autolysosome, raising controversy on the direct effects of trehalose on autophagy. This review summarizes the fundamental properties of trehalose and the studies on its effects on neurodegenerative diseases. We also discuss the controversy related to the autophagy induction theory and seek to explain how trehalose works in neuroprotection. 10.1038/s41419-018-0749-9
    Trehalose does not improve neuronal survival on exposure to alpha-synuclein pre-formed fibrils. Redmann Matthew,Wani Willayat Y,Volpicelli-Daley Laura,Darley-Usmar Victor,Zhang Jianhua Redox biology Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder that is pathologically characterized by intracellular inclusions comprised primarily of alpha-synuclein (αSyn) that can also be transmitted from neuron to neuron. Several lines of evidence suggest that these inclusions cause neurodegeneration. Thus exploring strategies to improve neuronal survival in neurons with αSyn aggregates is critical. Previously, exposure to αSyn pre-formed fibrils (PFFs) has been shown to induce aggregation of endogenous αSyn resulting in cell death that is exacerbated by either starvation or inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin, both of which are able to induce autophagy, an intracellular protein degradation pathway. Since mTOR inhibition may also inhibit protein synthesis and starvation itself can be detrimental to neuronal survival, we investigated the effects of autophagy induction on neurons with αSyn inclusions by a starvation and mTOR-independent autophagy induction mechanism. We exposed mouse primary cortical neurons to PFFs to induce inclusion formation in the presence and absence of the disaccharide trehalose, which has been proposed to induce autophagy and stimulate lysosomal biogenesis. As expected, we observed that on exposure to PFFs, there was increased abundance of pS129-αSyn aggregates and cell death. Trehalose alone increased LC3-II levels, consistent with increased autophagosome levels that remained elevated with PFF exposure. Interestingly, trehalose alone increased cell viability over a 14-d time course. Trehalose was also able to restore cell viability to control levels, but PFFs still exhibited toxic effects on the cells. These data provide essential information regarding effects of trehalose on αSyn accumulation and neuronal survival on exposure to PFF. 10.1016/j.redox.2016.12.032
    Poly(trehalose) Nanoparticles Prevent Amyloid Aggregation and Suppress Polyglutamine Aggregation in a Huntington's Disease Model Mouse. Debnath Koushik,Pradhan Nibedita,Singh Brijesh Kumar,Jana Nihar R,Jana Nikhil R ACS applied materials & interfaces Prevention and therapeutic strategies for various neurodegenerative diseases focus on inhibiting protein fibrillation, clearing aggregated protein plaques from the brain, and lowering protein-aggregate-induced toxicity. We have designed poly(trehalose) nanoparticles that can inhibit amyloid/polyglutamine aggregation under extra-/intracellular conditions, reduce such aggregation-derived cytotoxicity, and prevent polyglutamine aggregation in a Huntington's disease (HD) model mouse brain. The nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic size of 20-30 nm and are composed of a 6 nm iron oxide core and a zwitterionic polymer shell containing ∼5-12 wt % covalently linked trehalose. The designed poly(trehalose) nanoparticles are 1000-10000 times more efficient than molecular trehalose in inhibiting protein fibrillation in extra-cellular space, in blocking aggregation of polyglutamine-containing mutant huntingtin protein in model neuronal cells, and in suppressing mutant huntingtin aggregates in HD mouse brain. We show that the nanoparticle form of trehalose with zwitterionic surface charge and a trehalose multivalency (i.e., number of trehalose molecules per nanoparticle) of ∼80-200 are crucial for efficient brain targeting, entry into neuronal cells, and suppression of mutant huntingtin aggregation. The present work shows that nanoscale trehalose can offer highly efficient antiamyloidogenic performance at micromolar concentration, compared with millimollar to molar concentrations for molecular trehalose. This approach can be extended to in vivo application to combat protein-aggregation-derived neurodegenerative diseases. 10.1021/acsami.7b06510
    A systemic view of Alzheimer disease - insights from amyloid-β metabolism beyond the brain. Wang Jun,Gu Ben J,Masters Colin L,Wang Yan-Jiang Nature reviews. Neurology This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrneurol.2017.111. 10.1038/nrneurol.2017.147