PD-L1 on mast cells suppresses effector CD8 T-cell activation in the skin in murine contact hypersensitivity. Hirano Tomoko,Honda Tetsuya,Kanameishi Shuto,Honda Yuki,Egawa Gyohei,Kitoh Akihiko,Nakajima Saeko,Otsuka Atsushi,Nomura Takashi,Dainichi Teruki,Yaguchi Tomonori,Inozume Takashi,Kataoka Tatsuki R,Tamada Koji,Kabashima Kenji The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology BACKGROUND:The programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway is known to inhibit the activation of effector CD8 T cells. However, just how this regulatory pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of CD8 T-cell-mediated inflammatory skin diseases remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:Our aim was to elucidate the mechanisms by which the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway exerts its regulatory roles in CD8 T-cell-mediated cutaneous immune responses. METHODS:PD-L1-deficient (Pdl1) mice were used for the murine contact hypersensitivity model. Inflammatory responses such as IFN-γ production from CD8 T cells in the skin was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS:Compared with wild-type mice, Pdl1 mice exhibited exacerbated ear swelling and increased numbers of IFN-γ CD8 T cells in the skin. Adoptive T-cell transfer experiments revealed the involvement of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in the elicitation phase of contact hypersensitivity. Bone marrow chimera experiments showed that PD-L1 on radioresistant cells was responsible for this regulatory pathway. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that among the radioresistant cells in the skin, PD-L1 was most highly expressed on mast cells (MCs) before and after elicitation. Administration of anti-PD-L1 blocking antibody during the elicitation phase significantly enhanced ear swelling responses and increased the number of IFN-γCD8 T cells in the skin of wild-type mice, whereas no significant effects were observed in MC-deficient (WBB6F1/J-Kit/Kit/J and C57BL/6-KitW/W) mice. The high level of expression of PD-L1 on human skin MCs was confirmed by database analysis and immunohistochemical analysis. CONCLUSION:PD-L1 on MCs negatively regulates CD8 T-cell activation in the skin. 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.12.654
    Comprehensive analyses of the heterogeneity and prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in non-small-cell lung cancer: Development and validation of an individualized prognostic model. Pang Zhaofei,Chen Xiaowei,Wang Yu,Wang Yadong,Yan Tao,Wan Jun,Du Jiajun International immunopharmacology Understanding the role of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is critical to finding new prognostic biomarkers and improving prognostic evaluation. Herein, we aimed to comprehensively analyze tumor-infiltrating pattern of TIICs in NSCLC and build a TIICs-associated, risk-stratification prognostic model for clinical practice. We applied CIBERSORT and ESTIMATE computational methods to analyze RNA-seq samples of 852 NSCLC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Prognotic factors were identified by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses for overall survival (OS). A novel model was developed to predict the 1-, 3- and 5-year OS of NSCLC based on the TCGA cohort, validated by external validation cohorts (GSE31210, GSE37745), and then evaluated by C-indexes and calibration plots. Significant heterogeneity in the infiltrating patterns of TIICs was shown among various pathological subtypes of NSCLC and between different genders. Further analyses showed that abundances of naive B cells (NBCs), T cells and mast cells (MCs) were positively correlated with prognosis. Tumor samples with high T cells abundances tended to have higher expression levels of immune checkpoint genes (PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4). A new immune-gene related index (IGRI) was built by five immune-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including BTK, CCR2, CLEC10A, NCR3 and PRKCB, which were closely correlated with TIICs abundances and prognosis. Tumor stage, IGRI, abundances of NBCs, T cells, MCs and NK cells were significant independent prognostic factors and were included in the nomogram as predictors. The internal and external calibration plots of the nomogram were in excellent agreement. This study reveals that TIICs are significantly correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis in NSCLC and thus can be potential prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target. The remarkable heterogeneity of TIICs suggests that specific infiltrating patterns of TIICs should also be taken into consideration when determining individualized immunotherapy strategies for NSCLC patients. 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106744
    IL33 and Mast Cells-The Key Regulators of Immune Responses in Gastrointestinal Cancers? Eissmann Moritz F,Buchert Michael,Ernst Matthias Frontiers in immunology The Interleukin (IL-)1 family IL33 is best known for eliciting type 2 immune responses by stimulating mast cells (MCs), regulatory T-cells (Tregs), innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and other immune cells. MCs and IL33 provide critical control of immunological and epithelial homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Meanwhile, the role of MCs in solid malignancies appears tissue-specific with both pro and anti-tumorigenic activities. Likewise, IL33 signaling significantly shapes immune responses in the tumor microenvironment, but these effects remain often dichotomous when assessed in experimental models of cancer. Thus, the balance between tumor suppressing and tumor promoting activities of IL33 are highly context dependent, and most likely dictated by the mixture of cell types responding to IL33. Adding to this complexity is the promiscuous nature by which MCs respond to cytokines other than IL33 and release chemotactic factors that recruit immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we integrate the outcomes of recent studies on the role of MCs and IL33 in cancer with our own observations in the GI tract. We propose a working model where the most abundant IL33 responsive immune cell type is likely to dictate an overall tumor-supporting or tumor suppressing outcome . We discuss how these opposing responses affect the therapeutic potential of targeting MC and IL33, and highlight the caveats and challenges facing our ability to effectively harness MCs and IL33 biology for anti-cancer immunotherapy. 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01389
    Interaction between regulatory T cells and mast cells via IL-9 and TGF-β production. Zhao Yi-Bin,Yang Shao-Hui,Shen Jie,Deng Ke,Li Qi,Wang Yu,Cui Wei,Ye Hua Oncology letters Research on the immunosuppression of cancer cells has attracted much attention in recent years. The present study sought to provide a new strategy for tumor immunotherapy targeting mast cells by studying the mechanisms underlying mast cell function in cancer immunosuppression. Between January 2015 and December 2017, the tumor tissues of 40 patients with gastric cancer (GC) were collected and grouped in Lihuili Hospital of Ningbo City, China. Pathological sections were prepared and an immunofluorescence assay was performed to analyze the expression of forkhead Box Protein P3 (FOXP3), tryptase, TGFβ1, TGF-βR, IL-9, IL-9R and Oxford 40 ligand (OX40L). Then, the correlations between FOXP3 and tryptase, TGFβ1 and tryptase expression, and the expression of OX40L in patients with GC with different stages were analyzed. The results revealed that high levels of mast cells were present in patients GC, and tryptase and FOXP3 expressions were positively correlated. Mast cells regulate T regulatory (reg) cells in the gastric tumor microenvironment by secreting TGFβ1. Tregs, in turn, promote the survival of mast cells in the tumor microenvironment by producing IL-9. Furthermore, OX40L expression in mast cells was significantly associated with Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging of GC. Overall, the present study reported a positive feedback system that functions through TGFβ1 and IL-9 to allow cross-talk between Tregs and mast cells. Moreover, OX40L may be a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of GC. These results may provide a new strategy for tumor immunotherapy targeting mast cells. 10.3892/ol.2020.12224
    Mast Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment. Aponte-López Angélica,Muñoz-Cruz Samira Advances in experimental medicine and biology Mast cells are tissue-resident, innate immune cells that play a key role in the inflammatory response and tissue homeostasis. Mast cells accumulate in the tumor stroma of different human cancer types, and increased mast cell density has been associated to either good or poor prognosis, depending on the tumor type and stage. Mast cells play a multifaceted role in the tumor microenvironment by modulating various events of tumor biology, such as cell proliferation and survival, angiogenesis, invasiveness, and metastasis. Moreover, tumor-associated mast cells have the potential to shape the tumor microenvironment by establishing crosstalk with other tumor-infiltrating cells. This chapter reviews the current understanding of the role of mast cells in the tumor microenvironment. These cells have received much less attention than other tumor-associated immune cells but are now recognized as critical components of the tumor microenvironment and could hold promise as a potential target to improve cancer immunotherapy. 10.1007/978-3-030-49270-0_9
    Infiltrating mast cells increase prostate cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistances via modulation of p38/p53/p21 and ATM signals. Xie Hongjun,Li Chong,Dang Qiang,Chang Luke S,Li Lei Oncotarget Early studies indicated that mast cells in prostate tumor microenvironment might influence prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Their impacts to PCa therapy, however, remained unclear. Here we found PCa could recruit more mast cells than normal prostate epithelial cells then alter PCa chemotherapy and radiotherapy sensitivity, leading to PCa more resistant to these therapies. Mechanism dissection revealed that infiltrated mast cells could increase p21 expression via modulation of p38/p53 signals, and interrupting p38-p53 signals via siRNAs of p53 or p21 could reverse mast cell-induced docetaxel chemotherapy resistance of PCa. Furthermore, recruited mast cells could also increase the phosphorylation of ATM at ser-1981 site, and inhibition of ATM activity could reverse mast cell-induced radiotherapy resistance. The in vivo mouse model with xenografted PCa C4-2 cells co-cultured with mast cells also confirmed that mast cells could increase PCa chemotherapy resistance via activating p38/p53/p21 signaling. Together, our results provide a new mechanism showing infiltrated mast cells could alter PCa chemotherapy and radiotherapy sensitivity via modulating the p38/p53/p21 signaling and phosphorylation of ATM. Targeting this newly identified signaling may help us better suppress PCa chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. 10.18632/oncotarget.6372
    Mast Cells and Angiogenesis in Human Plasma Cell Malignancies. Ribatti Domenico,Tamma Roberto,Vacca Angelo International journal of molecular sciences Bone marrow angiogenesis plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of hematological malignancies. It is well known that tumor microenvironment promotes tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, and also mediates mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. An increased number of mast cells has been demonstrated in angiogenesis associated with hematological tumors. In this review we focused on the role of mast cells in angiogenesis in human plasma cell malignancies. In this context, mast cells might act as a new target for the adjuvant treatment of these tumors through the selective inhibition of angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and tumor-promoting molecules, permitting the secretion of cytotoxic cytokines and preventing mast cell-mediated immune suppression. 10.3390/ijms20030481
    Human Skin-Derived Mast Cells Spontaneously Secrete Several Angiogenesis-Related Factors. McHale Cody,Mohammed Zahraa,Gomez Gregorio Frontiers in immunology Mast cells are classically recognized as cells that cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions. However, their ability to store and secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suggests a role in vascular development and tumorigenesis. The current study sought to determine if other angiogenesis-related factors, in addition to VEGF, were also secreted by human tissue-derived mast cells. Using proteome array analysis and ELISA, we found that human skin-derived mast cells spontaneously secrete CXCL16, DPPIV, Endothelin-1, GM-CSF, IL-8, MCP-1, Pentraxin 3, Serpin E1, Serpin F1, TIMP-1, Thrombospondin-1, and uPA. We identified three groups based on their dependency for stem cell factor (SCF), which is required for mast cell survival: Endothelin-1, GM-CSF, IL-8, MCP-1, and VEGF (dependent); Pentraxin 3, Serpin E1, Serpin F1, TIMP-1, and Thrombospondin-1 (partly dependent); and CXCL16, DPPIV, and uPA (independent). Crosslinking of FcεRI with multivalent antigen enhanced the secretion of GM-CSF, Serpin E1, IL-8, and VEGF, and induced Amphiregulin and MMP-8 expression. Interestingly, FcεRI signals inhibited the spontaneous secretion of CXCL16, Endothelin-1, Serpin F1, Thrombospondin-1, MCP-1 and Pentraxin-3. Furthermore, IL-6, which we previously showed could induce VEGF, significantly enhanced MCP-1 secretion. Overall, this study identified several angiogenesis-related proteins that, in addition to VEGF, are spontaneously secreted at high concentrations from human skin-derived mast cells. These findings provide further evidence supporting an intrinsic role for mast cells in blood vessel formation. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01445
    Carcinogenesis: the cancer cell-mast cell connection. Aller Maria-Angeles,Arias Ana,Arias Jose-Ignacio,Arias Jaime Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.] BACKGROUND:In mammals, inflammation is required for wound repair and tumorigenesis. However, the events that lead to inflammation, particularly in non-healing wounds and cancer, are only partly understood. FINDINGS:Mast cells, due to their great plasticity, could orchestrate the inflammatory responses inducing the expression of extraembryonic programs of normal and pathological tissue formation. This heterogeneity of mast cells could allow a microenvironment to be recreated similar to the extraembryonic structures, i.e., amnion and yolk sac, which are needed for embryonic development. Mast cells could provide a framework for understanding the connection between inflammation and tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. In this way, the mast cells could express inflammatory phenotypes, which would enable the cancer stem cells to develop. Thus, the cancer cell uses mast cells to express the extraembryonic functions that are needed to allow the cancer stem cell to proliferate and invade. If so, then by using this appropriate inflammatory interstitial microenvironment, a cancer stem cell can reach maximum levels of growth and invasion inside the host. CONCLUSION:Therefore, the comparison of tumors with wounds that do not heal would be supported since both pathological processes use extraembryonic mechanisms by mast cells. The adoption of these mechanisms warrants tumor survival in an embryonic-like state. 10.1007/s00011-018-1201-4
    Development of an Oncogenic Driver Alteration Associated Immune-Related Prognostic Model for Stage I-II Lung Adenocarcinoma. Xu Jian-Zhao,Gong Chen,Xie Zheng-Fu,Zhao Hua Frontiers in oncology Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) needs to be stratified for its heterogeneity. Oncogenic driver alterations such as mutation, translocation, translocation, and mutation predict response to treatment for LUAD. Since oncogenic driver alterations may modulate immune response in tumor microenvironment that may influence prognosis in LUAD, the effects of , , , and alterations on tumor microenvironment remain unclear. Immune-related prognostic model associated with oncogenic driver alterations is needed. In this study, we performed the Cox-proportional Hazards Analysis based on the L1-penalized (LASSO) Analysis to establish an immune-related prognostic model (IPM) in stage I-II LUAD patients, which was based on 3 immune-related genes (, , and ) significantly enriched in patients without , , , and alterations in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Then, patients were categorized into high-risk and low-risk groups individually according to the IPM defined risk score. The predicting ability of the IPM was validated in GSE31210 and GSE26939 downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. High-risk was significantly associated with lower overall survival (OS) rates in 3 independent stage I-II LUAD cohorts (all < 0.05). Moreover, the IPM defined risk independently predicted OS for patients in TCGA stage I-II LUAD cohort ( = 0.011). High-risk group had significantly higher proportions of macrophages M1 and activated mast cells but lower proportions of memory B cells, resting CD4 memory T cells and resting mast cells than low-risk group (all < 0.05). In addition, the high-risk group had a significantly lower expression of , , , and than the low-risk group (all < 0.05). In summary, we established a novel IPM that could provide new biomarkers for risk stratification of stage I-II LUAD patients. 10.3389/fonc.2020.593022
    Gene co-expression modules integrated with immunoscore predicts survival of non-small cell lung cancer. Li Xue-Tao,Zhang Jia-Tao,Yan Hong-Hong,Su Jian,Cheng Mei-Ling,Sun Qi-Hui,Zhong Wen-Zhao,Wu Yi-Long,Zhang Dr Xu-Chao,Hou Dr Jun Cancer treatment and research communications BACKGROUND:This study aimed to deconvolve the levels of infiltrating immune cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to identify specific gene co-expression modules associated with prognosis of NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS:CIBERSORT algorithm was employed to infer the relative abundance of 22 immune cell subtypes in 1751 NSCLC subjects. The patterns of immune infiltration were identified for NSCLC with different clinical and genomic features and were used to construct an immunoscore by LASSO regression associated with NSCLC survival. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was employed to identify specific modules related to immunoscore and NSCLC survival. An integrated prognostic model was constructed with immunoscore combined with the available clinical variables and the selected gene modules to predict the prognosis of NSCLC. RESULTS:We found distinct immune infiltration patterns for NSCLC with different genotype. EGFR-mutant NSCLC was characterized by enriched resting memory CD4+ T cell. An immunoscore was established based on the infiltration abundance of 17 selected immune cell subtypes. Patients with a low immunoscore had a prolonged survival and higher abundance of CD4+ T cell, resting dendritic cells and resting mast cells. The WGCNA analysis identified the gene modules significantly associated with immunoscore and the prognosis of NSCLC. The immunoscore was further incorporated with clinical parameters and selected gene modules to fit a predictive model which stratified patients into subgroups with significantly different survival. CONCLUSION:The distinct immune profiles are associated with differential overall survival of NSCLC and the integrated model can robustly predict the prognosis of NSCLC. 10.1016/j.ctarc.2020.100297
    The Role of Mast Cells in IgE-Independent Lung Diseases. Komi Daniel Elieh Ali,Mortaz Esmaeil,Amani Saeede,Tiotiu Angelica,Folkerts Gert,Adcock Ian M Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology Mast cells (MCs) are granular cells of the innate immune system which develop from CD34/CD117 progenitors and play a role in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. They have a well-known role in allergic reactions following immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated activation of the cell-surface expressed IgE high-affinity receptor (FcεRI). MCs can also respond to various other stimuli due to the expression of a variety of receptors including toll-like receptors (TLRs), immunoglobulin (IgG) receptors (FcγR), complement receptors such as C5a (CD88) expressed by skin MCs, neuropeptides receptors including nerve growth factor receptor, (NGFR), cytokines receptors such as (IL)-1R and IL-3R, and chemokines receptors including CCR-1 and CCR-3. MCs release three groups of mediators upon degranulation differentiated according to their chemical composition, storage, and time to release. These include preformed mediators (mainly histamine, tryptase, and chymase), de novo synthesized mediators such as prostaglandin (PG)D2, leukotriene (LT)B4 and LTD4, and cytokines including IL-1β, IL-3, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and transforming growth factor(TGF)-β. Emerging evidence indicates a role for IgE-independent MC activation in the late-stage asthmatic response as well as in non-allergic airway diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and lung cancer. MC infiltration/activation has been reported in some, but not all, studies of lung cancer. MC-derived TNF-α possesses tumor-suppressive activity while IL-1β supports tumor progression and metastasis. In IPF lungs, an increase in density of tryptase- and chymase-positive MCs (MCTC) and overexpression of TGF-β support the fibrosis progression. MC-derived chymase activates latent TGF-β that induces the differentiation of fibroblasts to matrix-producing myofibroblasts. In summary, increasing evidence highlights a critical role of MCs in non-allergic diseases that may indicate new approaches for therapy. 10.1007/s12016-020-08779-5
    Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Activation Contributes to Airway Smooth Muscle Growth and Asthma Severity. Naveed Shams-Un-Nisa,Clements Debbie,Jackson David J,Philp Christopher,Billington Charlotte K,Soomro Irshad,Reynolds Catherine,Harrison Timothy W,Johnston Sebastian L,Shaw Dominick E,Johnson Simon R American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine RATIONALE:Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and mast cells are present in the airways of people with asthma. OBJECTIVES:To investigate whether MMP-1 could be activated by mast cells and increase asthma severity. METHODS:Patients with stable asthma and healthy control subjects underwent spirometry, methacholine challenge, and bronchoscopy, and their airway smooth muscle cells were grown in culture. A second asthma group and control subjects had symptom scores, spirometry, and bronchoalveolar lavage before and after rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. Extracellular matrix was prepared from decellularized airway smooth muscle cultures. MMP-1 protein and activity were assessed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Airway smooth muscle cells generated pro-MMP-1, which was proteolytically activated by mast cell tryptase. Airway smooth muscle treated with activated mast cell supernatants produced extracellular matrix, which enhanced subsequent airway smooth muscle growth by 1.5-fold (P < 0.05), which was dependent on MMP-1 activation. In asthma, airway pro-MMP-1 was 5.4-fold higher than control subjects (P = 0.002). Mast cell numbers were associated with airway smooth muscle proliferation and MMP-1 protein associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. During exacerbations, MMP-1 activity increased and was associated with fall in FEV and worsening asthma symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:MMP-1 is activated by mast cell tryptase resulting in a proproliferative extracellular matrix. In asthma, mast cells are associated with airway smooth muscle growth, MMP-1 levels are associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and MMP-1 activation are associated with exacerbation severity. Our findings suggest that airway smooth muscle/mast cell interactions contribute to asthma severity by transiently increasing MMP activation, airway smooth muscle growth, and airway responsiveness. 10.1164/rccm.201604-0822OC
    KIT Inhibition by Imatinib in Patients with Severe Refractory Asthma. Cahill Katherine N,Katz Howard R,Cui Jing,Lai Juying,Kazani Shamsah,Crosby-Thompson Allison,Garofalo Denise,Castro Mario,Jarjour Nizar,DiMango Emily,Erzurum Serpil,Trevor Jennifer L,Shenoy Kartik,Chinchilli Vernon M,Wechsler Michael E,Laidlaw Tanya M,Boyce Joshua A,Israel Elliot The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Mast cells are present in the airways of patients who have severe asthma despite glucocorticoid treatment; these cells are associated with disease characteristics including poor quality of life and inadequate asthma control. Stem cell factor and its receptor, KIT, are central to mast-cell homeostasis. We conducted a proof-of-principle trial to evaluate the effect of imatinib, a KIT inhibitor, on airway hyperresponsiveness, a physiological marker of severe asthma, as well as on airway mast-cell numbers and activation in patients with severe asthma. METHODS:We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-week trial of imatinib in patients with poorly controlled severe asthma who had airway hyperresponsiveness despite receiving maximal medical therapy. The primary end point was the change in airway hyperresponsiveness, measured as the concentration of methacholine required to decrease the forced expiratory volume in 1 second by 20% (PC). Patients also underwent bronchoscopy. RESULTS:Among the 62 patients who underwent randomization, imatinib treatment reduced airway hyperresponsiveness to a greater extent than did placebo. At 6 months, the methacholine PC increased by a mean (±SD) of 1.73±0.60 doubling doses in the imatinib group, as compared with 1.07±0.60 doubling doses in the placebo group (P=0.048). Imatinib also reduced levels of serum tryptase, a marker of mast-cell activation, to a greater extent than did placebo (decrease of 2.02±2.32 vs. 0.56±1.39 ng per milliliter, P=0.02). Airway mast-cell counts declined in both groups. Muscle cramps and hypophosphatemia were more common in the imatinib group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with severe asthma, imatinib decreased airway hyperresponsiveness, mast-cell counts, and tryptase release. These results suggest that KIT-dependent processes and mast cells contribute to the pathobiologic basis of severe asthma. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01097694 .). 10.1056/NEJMoa1613125
    Aspirin-exacerbated Respiratory Disease: A Syndrome of Mast Cell-mediated PgD2 Overproduction. Borish Larry American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 10.1164/rccm.201904-0716ED
    A mast cell-ILC2-Th9 pathway promotes lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis. Moretti Silvia,Renga Giorgia,Oikonomou Vasilis,Galosi Claudia,Pariano Marilena,Iannitti Rossana G,Borghi Monica,Puccetti Matteo,De Zuani Marco,Pucillo Carlo E,Paolicelli Giuseppe,Zelante Teresa,Renauld Jean-Christophe,Bereshchenko Oxana,Sportoletti Paolo,Lucidi Vincenzina,Russo Maria Chiara,Colombo Carla,Fiscarelli Ersilia,Lass-Flörl Cornelia,Majo Fabio,Ricciotti Gabriella,Ellemunter Helmut,Ratclif Luigi,Talesa Vincenzo Nicola,Napolioni Valerio,Romani Luigina Nature communications T helper 9 (Th9) cells contribute to lung inflammation and allergy as sources of interleukin-9 (IL-9). However, the mechanisms by which IL-9/Th9 mediate immunopathology in the lung are unknown. Here we report an IL-9-driven positive feedback loop that reinforces allergic inflammation. We show that IL-9 increases IL-2 production by mast cells, which leads to expansion of CD25 type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and subsequent activation of Th9 cells. Blocking IL-9 or inhibiting CD117 (c-Kit) signalling counteracts the pathogenic effect of the described IL-9-mast cell-IL-2 signalling axis. Overproduction of IL-9 is observed in expectorates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and a sex-specific variant of IL-9 is predictive of allergic reactions in female patients. Our results suggest that blocking IL-9 may be a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate inflammation associated with microbial colonization in the lung, and offers a plausible explanation for gender differences in clinical outcomes of patients with CF. 10.1038/ncomms14017
    The emerging role of mast cell proteases in asthma. Pejler Gunnar The European respiratory journal It is now well established that mast cells (MCs) play a crucial role in asthma. This is supported by multiple lines of evidence, including both clinical studies and studies on MC-deficient mice. However, there is still only limited knowledge of the exact effector mechanism(s) by which MCs influence asthma pathology. MCs contain large amounts of secretory granules, which are filled with a variety of bioactive compounds including histamine, cytokines, lysosomal hydrolases, serglycin proteoglycans and a number of MC-restricted proteases. When MCs are activated, in response to IgE receptor cross-linking, the contents of their granules are released to the exterior and can cause a massive inflammatory reaction. The MC-restricted proteases include tryptases, chymases and carboxypeptidase A3, and these are expressed and stored at remarkably high levels. There is now emerging evidence supporting a prominent role of these enzymes in the pathology of asthma. Interestingly, however, the role of the MC-restricted proteases is multifaceted, encompassing both protective and detrimental activities. Here, the current knowledge of how the MC-restricted proteases impact on asthma is reviewed. 10.1183/13993003.00685-2019
    Aspirin sensitivity: Lessons in the regulation (and dysregulation) of mast cell function. Boyce Joshua A The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology The idiosyncratic activation of mast cells (MCs) in response to administration of nonselective COX inhibitors is a cardinal feature of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Older studies using MC-stabilizing drugs support a critical role for MCs and their products in driving the severe eosinophilic inflammation and respiratory dysfunction that is typical of AERD. Because patients with AERD react to all nonselective COX inhibitors regardless of their chemical structure, the mechanism of MC activation is not caused by classical, antigen-induced cross-linking of IgE receptors. Recent studies in both human subjects and animal models have revealed a complex and multifactorial process culminating in dysregulation of MC function and an aberrant dependency on COX-1-derived prostaglandin E to maintain a tenuous homeostasis. This article reviews the factors most likely to contribute to MC dysregulation in patients with AERD and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.08.022
    Mast Cells Granular Contents Are Crucial for Deep Vein Thrombosis in Mice. Ponomaryov Tatyana,Payne Holly,Fabritz Larissa,Wagner Denisa D,Brill Alexander Circulation research RATIONALE:Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and its complication pulmonary embolism have high morbidity reducing quality of life and leading to death. Cellular mechanisms of DVT initiation remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine the role of mast cells (MCs) in DVT initiation and validate MCs as a potential target for DVT prevention. METHODS AND RESULTS:In a mouse model, DVT was induced by partial ligation (stenosis) of the inferior vena cava. We demonstrated that 2 strains of mice deficient for MCs were completely protected from DVT. Adoptive transfer of in vitro differentiated MCs restored thrombosis. MCs were present in the venous wall, and the number of granule-containing MCs decreased with thrombosis. Pharmacological depletion of MCs granules or prevention of MC degranulation also reduced DVT. Basal plasma levels of von Willebrand factor and recruitment of platelets to the inferior vena cava wall after DVT induction were reduced in MC-deficient mice. Stenosis application increased plasma levels of soluble P-selectin in wild-type but not in MC-deficient mice. MC releasate elevated ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) expression on HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) in vitro. Topical application of compound 48/80, an MC secretagogue, or histamine, a Weibel-Palade body secretagogue from MCs, potentiated DVT in wild-type mice, and histamine restored thrombosis in MC-deficient animals. CONCLUSIONS:MCs exacerbate DVT likely through endothelial activation and Weibel-Palade body release, which is, at least in part, mediated by histamine. Because MCs do not directly contribute to normal hemostasis, they can be considered potential targets for prevention of DVT in humans. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.311185
    An Allosteric Anti-tryptase Antibody for the Treatment of Mast Cell-Mediated Severe Asthma. Maun Henry R,Jackman Janet K,Choy David F,Loyet Kelly M,Staton Tracy L,Jia Guiquan,Dressen Amy,Hackney Jason A,Bremer Meire,Walters Benjamin T,Vij Rajesh,Chen Xiaocheng,Trivedi Neil N,Morando Ashley,Lipari Michael T,Franke Yvonne,Wu Xiumin,Zhang Juan,Liu John,Wu Ping,Chang Diana,Orozco Luz D,Christensen Erin,Wong Manda,Corpuz Racquel,Hang Julie Q,Lutman Jeff,Sukumaran Siddharth,Wu Yan,Ubhayakar Savita,Liang Xiaorong,Schwartz Lawrence B,Babina Magda,Woodruff Prescott G,Fahy John V,Ahuja Rahul,Caughey George H,Kusi Aija,Dennis Mark S,Eigenbrot Charles,Kirchhofer Daniel,Austin Cary D,Wu Lawren C,Koerber James T,Lee Wyne P,Yaspan Brian L,Alatsis Kathila R,Arron Joseph R,Lazarus Robert A,Yi Tangsheng Cell Severe asthma patients with low type 2 inflammation derive less clinical benefit from therapies targeting type 2 cytokines and represent an unmet need. We show that mast cell tryptase is elevated in severe asthma patients independent of type 2 biomarker status. Active β-tryptase allele count correlates with blood tryptase levels, and asthma patients carrying more active alleles benefit less from anti-IgE treatment. We generated a noncompetitive inhibitory antibody against human β-tryptase, which dissociates active tetramers into inactive monomers. A 2.15 Å crystal structure of a β-tryptase/antibody complex coupled with biochemical studies reveal the molecular basis for allosteric destabilization of small and large interfaces required for tetramerization. This anti-tryptase antibody potently blocks tryptase enzymatic activity in a humanized mouse model, reducing IgE-mediated systemic anaphylaxis, and inhibits airway tryptase in Ascaris-sensitized cynomolgus monkeys with favorable pharmacokinetics. These data provide a foundation for developing anti-tryptase as a clinical therapy for severe asthma. 10.1016/j.cell.2019.09.009
    [Infiltrating mast cells promote neuroendocrine differentiation and increase docetaxel resistance of prostate cancer cells by up-regulating p21]. Ou Yi-Hong,Jiang Yao-Dong,Li Qi,Zhuang Yong-Jiang,Dang Qiang,Tan Wan-Long Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of infiltrating mast cells on neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) and docetaxel sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa) cells in vitro. METHODS:Human PCa cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2) were co-cultured with human mast cell line (HMC-1) in Transwell chambers. Androgen receptor (AR) was silenced in C4-2 cells using sh-AR lentivirus, and p21 was knocked down and overexpressed by transfecting C4-2 cells with pLKO.1-sh-p21 and pCMV-p21, respectively. The morphological changes of LNCaP and C4-2 cells were observed. MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to assess the proliferation of LNCaP and C4-2 cells. CCK8 assay was used to detect the cell viability of C4-2 cells following docetaxel trreatment. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of neuroendocrine markers, AR and p21 in the cells. RESULTS:Co-culture with HMC-1 cells enhanced the neuroendocrine phenotypes, inhibited the proliferation and up-regulated the expression of p21 in LNCaP and C4-2 cells. P21 positively regulated NED through a non-AR-dependent signaling pathway, while p21 knockdown partially reversed NED promoted by the mast cells. PCa cells co-cultured with HMC-1 cells showed increased resistance to docetaxel, and silencing p21 partially reversed docetaxel resistance in PCa cells. CONCLUSION:Infiltrating mast cells up-regulates p21 to promote NED and increase docetaxel resistance in PCa cells in vitro.
    Tumor infiltrating mast cells determine oncogenic HIF-2α-conferred immune evasion in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Xiong Ying,Liu Li,Xia Yu,Qi Yangyang,Chen Yifan,Chen Lingli,Zhang Peipei,Kong Yunyi,Qu Yang,Wang Zewei,Lin Zhiyuan,Chen Xiang,Xiang Zhuoyi,Wang Jiajun,Bai Qi,Zhang Weijuan,Yang Yuanfeng,Guo Jianming,Xu Jiejie Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII PURPOSE:Hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) overexpression leads to activation of angiogenic pathways. However, little is known about the association between HIF-2α expression and anti-tumor immunity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We aimed to explore how HIF-2α influenced the microenvironment and the underlying mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We immunohistochemically evaluated immune cells infiltrations and prognostic value of HIF-2α expression in a retrospective Zhongshan Hospital cohort of 280 ccRCC patients. Fresh tumor samples, non-tumor tissues and autologous peripheral blood for RT-PCR, ELISA and flow cytometry analyses were collected from patients who underwent nephrectomy in Zhongshan Hospital from September 2017 to April 2018. The TCGA KIRC cohort and SATO cohort were assessed to support our findings. RESULTS:We demonstrated that ccRCC patients with HIF-2α tumors exhibited reduced overall survival (p = 0.025) and recurrence-free survival (p < 0.001). Functions of CD8 T cells were impaired in HIF-2α patients. In ccRCC patients, HIF-2α induced the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), which served as chemoattractant for mast cells. Tumor infiltrating mast cells impaired anti-tumor immunity partly by secreting IL-10 and TGF-β. HIF-2α mRNA level adversely associated with immunostimulatory genes expression in KIRC and SATO cohorts. CONCLUSIONS:HIF-2α contributed to evasion of anti-tumor immunity via SCF secretion and subsequent recruitment of mast cells in ccRCC patients. 10.1007/s00262-019-02314-y
    Polymer scaffold architecture is a key determinant in mast cell inflammatory and angiogenic responses. Abebayehu Daniel,Spence Andrew J,McClure Michael J,Haque Tamara T,Rivera Kevin O,Ryan John J Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A Implanted polymer scaffolds can induce inflammation leading to the foreign body response (FBR), fibrosis, and implant failure. Thus, it is important to understand how immune cells interact with scaffolds to mitigate inflammation and promote a regenerative response. We previously demonstrated that macrophage phenotype is modulated by fiber and pore diameters of an electrospun scaffold. However, it is unclear if this effect is consistent among other innate immune cells. Mast cells are inflammatory sentinels that play a vital role in the FBR of implanted biomaterials, as well as angiogenesis. We determined if altering electrospun scaffold architecture modulates mast cell responses, with the goal of promoting regenerative cell-scaffold interactions. Polydioxanone (PDO) scaffolds were made from 60 mg/mL or 140 mg/mL PDO solutions, yielding structures with divergent fiber and pore diameters. Mouse mast cells plated on these scaffolds were activated with IL-33 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Relative to the 60 mg/mL scaffold, 140 mg/mL scaffolds yielded less IL-6 and TNF, and greater VEGF secretion. Pores >4-6 μm elicited less IL-6 and TNF secretion. IL-33-induced VEGF regulation was more complex, showing effects of both pore size and fiber diameter. These data indicate parameters that can predict mast cell responses to scaffolds, informing biomaterial design to increase wound healing and diminish implant rejection. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 107A: 884-892, 2019. 10.1002/jbm.a.36605
    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mast cells useful for in vitro mast cell activation assay exhibiting phenotypes and morphological characteristics of human mast cells. Ikuno Tatsuya,Ito Shunsuke,Inoue Tomoaki The Journal of toxicological sciences Mast cells are key players in the inflammatory response with an important role in allergic reactions and are therefore useful for assessing the risk of anaphylaxis. However, they are difficult to isolate due to their low abundance and wide distribution. To overcome this, we generated and characterized mast cell-like cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. These hiPS cell-derived mast cells (hiPS-MCs) were generated using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF), stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-9 (IL-9) in a StemPro-34 medium. The hiPS-MCs exhibited the morphological characteristics of human mast cells, expressing high affinity-IgE receptor (FcεRI) and mast cell markers such as tryptase, chymase, and CD117. In addition, FcεRI stimulation with agonistic anti-IgE functionally increased the expression of activation markers CD63 and CD203c, as well as the amount of released histamine. We think the hiPS-MCs generated in this study will be useful for assessing the pharmacology and toxicity of anti-allergy medicines. 10.2131/jts.44.789
    Interleukin-6 potentiates FcεRI-induced PGD biosynthesis and induces VEGF from human in situ-matured skin mast cells. McHale Cody,Mohammed Zahraa,Deppen Juline,Gomez Gregorio Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects BACKGROUND:Interleukin-6 is a gp130 utilizing cytokine that is consistently associated with allergic diseases like asthma and urticaria in humans where mast cells are known to play a critical role. However, the role of IL-6 in allergic disease in not known. IL-6 was reported to enhance degranulation of in vitro-derived mast cells, but the effect of IL-6 on mediator release from human in situ-matured tissue-isolated mast cells had not been reported. METHODS:Human mature mast cells were isolated and purified from normal skin tissue from different donors. The expression of surface-expressed IL-6 receptors was demonstrated by flow cytometry. The effect of IL-6 on FcεRI-induced degranulation, PGD biosynthesis, and cytokine production was determined with β‑hexosaminidase release assay, Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, and ELISA. The small molecule inhibitor of STAT-3, C188-9, was used to demonstrate STAT3 dependency. RESULTS:IL-6 significantly potentiated FcεRI-induced PGD biosynthesis, but had no effect on degranulation. IL-6 also induced VEGF gene expression and protein secretion, and enhanced FcεRI-induced IL-8 production. Mechanistically, IL-6 enhanced FcεRI-induced COX‑2 expression, PGD2 biosynthesis, and VEGF production in a STAT3 dependent manner. CONCLUSION:Here, we demonstrate that IL-6 is a potentiator of FcεRI-induced PGD biosynthesis, and can induce or enhance production of pro-angiogenesis factors VEGF and IL-8 from human in situ-matured skin mast cells. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:These findings from this study indicate that IL-6 contributes to human allergic disease by enhancing the production of inflammatory PGD from tissue-resident mast cells. Moreover, the data suggest a novel role for IL-6 in mast cell-mediated angiogenesis. 10.1016/j.bbagen.2018.01.020
    IL-33 and Superantigenic Activation of Human Lung Mast Cells Induce the Release of Angiogenic and Lymphangiogenic Factors. Cristinziano Leonardo,Poto Remo,Criscuolo Gjada,Ferrara Anne Lise,Galdiero Maria Rosaria,Modestino Luca,Loffredo Stefania,de Paulis Amato,Marone Gianni,Spadaro Giuseppe,Varricchi Gilda Cells Human lung mast cells (HLMCs) express the high-affinity receptor FcεRI for IgE and are strategically located in different compartments of human lung, where they play a role in several inflammatory disorders and cancer. Immunoglobulin superantigens (e.g., protein A of and protein L of ) bind to the variable regions of either the heavy (V3) or light chain (κ) of IgE. IL-33 is a cytokine expressed by epithelial cells that exerts pleiotropic functions in the lung. The present study investigated whether immunoglobulin superantigens protein A and protein L and IL-33 caused the release of inflammatory (histamine), angiogenic (VEGF-A) and lymphangiogenic (VEGF-C) factors from HLMCs. The results show that protein A and protein L induced the rapid (30 min) release of preformed histamine from HLMCs. By contrast, IL-33 did not induce the release of histamine from lung mast cells. Prolonged incubation (12 h) of HLMCs with superantigens and IL-33 induced the release of VEGF-A and VEGF-C. Preincubation with IL-33 potentiated the superantigenic release of histamine, angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors from HLMCs. Our results suggest that IL-33 might enhance the inflammatory, angiogenic and lymphangiogenic activities of lung mast cells in pulmonary disorders. 10.3390/cells10010145
    Tumor-infiltrating mast cells are associated with resistance to anti-PD-1 therapy. Somasundaram Rajasekharan,Connelly Thomas,Choi Robin,Choi Hyeree,Samarkina Anastasia,Li Ling,Gregorio Elizabeth,Chen Yeqing,Thakur Rohit,Abdel-Mohsen Mohamed,Beqiri Marilda,Kiernan Meaghan,Perego Michela,Wang Fang,Xiao Min,Brafford Patricia,Yang Xue,Xu Xiaowei,Secreto Anthony,Danet-Desnoyers Gwenn,Traum Daniel,Kaestner Klaus H,Huang Alexander C,Hristova Denitsa,Wang Joshua,Fukunaga-Kalabis Mizuho,Krepler Clemens,Ping-Chen Fang,Zhou Xiangyang,Gutierrez Alexis,Rebecca Vito W,Vonteddu Prashanthi,Dotiwala Farokh,Bala Shashi,Majumdar Sonali,Dweep Harsh,Wickramasinghe Jayamanna,Kossenkov Andrew V,Reyes-Arbujas Jorge,Santiago Kenisha,Nguyen Tran,Griss Johannes,Keeney Frederick,Hayden James,Gavin Brian J,Weiner David,Montaner Luis J,Liu Qin,Peiffer Lukas,Becker Jürgen,Burton Elizabeth M,Davies Michael A,Tetzlaff Michael T,Muthumani Kar,Wargo Jennifer A,Gabrilovich Dmitry,Herlyn Meenhard Nature communications Anti-PD-1 therapy is used as a front-line treatment for many cancers, but mechanistic insight into this therapy resistance is still lacking. Here we generate a humanized (Hu)-mouse melanoma model by injecting fetal liver-derived CD34 cells and implanting autologous thymus in immune-deficient NOD-scid IL2Rγ (NSG) mice. Reconstituted Hu-mice are challenged with HLA-matched melanomas and treated with anti-PD-1, which results in restricted tumor growth but not complete regression. Tumor RNA-seq, multiplexed imaging and immunohistology staining show high expression of chemokines, as well as recruitment of FOXP3 Treg and mast cells, in selective tumor regions. Reduced HLA-class I expression and CD8/Granz B T cells homeostasis are observed in tumor regions where FOXP3 Treg and mast cells co-localize, with such features associated with resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment. Combining anti-PD-1 with sunitinib or imatinib results in the depletion of mast cells and complete regression of tumors. Our results thus implicate mast cell depletion for improving the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. 10.1038/s41467-020-20600-7
    The CD20 homologue MS4A4 directs trafficking of KIT toward clathrin-independent endocytosis pathways and thus regulates receptor signaling and recycling. Cruse Glenn,Beaven Michael A,Music Stephen C,Bradding Peter,Gilfillan Alasdair M,Metcalfe Dean D Molecular biology of the cell MS4A family members differentially regulate the cell cycle, and aberrant, or loss of, expression of MS4A family proteins has been observed in colon and lung cancer. However, the precise functions of MS4A family proteins and their mechanistic interactions remain unsolved. Here we report that MS4A4 facilitates trafficking of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT through endocytic recycling rather than degradation pathways by a mechanism that involves recruitment of KIT to caveolin-1-enriched microdomains. Silencing of MS4A4 in human mast cells altered ligand-induced KIT endocytosis pathways and reduced receptor recycling to the cell surface, thus promoting KIT signaling in the endosomes while reducing that in the plasma membrane, as exemplified by Akt and PLCγ1 phosphorylation, respectively. The altered endocytic trafficking of KIT also resulted in an increase in SCF-induced mast cell proliferation and migration, which may reflect altered signaling in these cells. Our data reveal a novel function for MS4A family proteins in regulating trafficking and signaling, which could have implications in both proliferative and immunological diseases. 10.1091/mbc.E14-07-1221
    Serine 207 phosphorylated lysyl-tRNA synthetase predicts disease-free survival of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Boulos Suliman,Park Min Chul,Zeibak Marian,Foo Shen Yun,Jeon Yoon Kyung,Kim Young Tae,Motzik Alex,Tshori Sagi,Hamburger Tamar,Kim Sunghoon,Nechushtan Hovav,Razin Ehud Oncotarget It has been shown that various tRNA synthetases exhibit non-canonical activities unrelated to their original role in translation. We have previously described a signal transduction pathway in which serine 207 phosphorylated lysyl-tRNA synthetase (P-s207 LysRS) is released from the cytoplasmic multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) into the nucleus, where it activates the transcription factor MITF in stimulated cultured mast cells and cardiomyocytes. Here we describe a similar transformation of LysRS due to EGFR signaling activation in human lung cancer. Our data shows that activation of the EGFR results in phosphorylation of LysRS at position serine 207, its release from the MSC and translocation to the nucleus. We then generated a P-s207 LysRS rabbit polyclonalantibody and tested 242 tissue micro-array samples derived from non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Highly positive nuclear staining for P-s207 LysRS was noted in patients with EGFR mutations as compared to WT EGFR patients and was associated with improved mean disease-free survival (DFS). In addition, patients with mutated EGFR and negative lymph node metastases had better DFS when P-s207 LysRS was present in the nucleus. The data presented strongly suggests functional and prognostic significance of P-s207 LysRS in non-small-cell lung cancer. 10.18632/oncotarget.18053
    Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis! Khatami Mahin Cancers Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates) is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags) in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for "targeted" therapies or "personalized" medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation ("Yin"-"Yang" or immune surveillance). Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our "accidental" discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host) and recruited immune cells: (a), acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs), IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b), intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos) infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs), tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c), chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mfs), increased (irregular size) B and plasma cells, loss of integrity of lymphoid tissue capsular membrane, presence of histiocytes, follicular and germinal center formation, increased ratios of local IgG1/IgG2, epithelial thickening (growth) and/or thinning (necrosis) and angiogenesis. Results are suggestive of first evidence for direct association between inflammation and identifiable phases of immune dysfunction in the direction of tumorigenesis. Activated MFs (TAMs or M2) and Eos that are recruited by tissues (e.g., conjunctiva or perhaps lung airways) whose principal resident immune cells are MCs and lymphocytes are suggested to play crucial synergistic roles in enhancing growth promoting capacities of host toward tumorigenesis. Under oxidative stress, M-CSF may produce signals that are cumulative/synergistic with host mediators (e.g., low levels of histamine), facilitating tumor-directed expression of decoy receptors and immune suppressive factors (e.g., dTNFR, IL-5, IL-10, TGF-b, PGE2). M-CSF, possessing superior sensitivity and specificity, compared with conventional markers (e.g., CA-125, CA-19-9) is potentially a suitable biomarker for cancer diagnosis and technology development. Systematic monitoring of interactions between resident and recruited cells should provide key information not only about early events in loss of immune surveillance, but it would help making informed decisions for balancing the inherent tumoricidal (Yin) and tumorigenic (Yang) properties of immune system and effective preventive and therapeutic approaches and accurate risk assessment toward improvement of public health. 10.3390/cancers6010297
    Smoker and non-smoker lung adenocarcinoma is characterized by distinct tumor immune microenvironments. Li Xufan,Li Jia,Wu Pin,Zhou Liyuan,Lu Bingjian,Ying Kejing,Chen Enguo,Lu Yan,Liu Pengyuan Oncoimmunology Tobacco smoking causes DNA damages in epithelial cells and immune dysfunction in the lung, which collectively contribute to lung carcinogenesis and progression. However, potential mechanisms by which tumor-infiltrating immune cells contribute to lung cancer survival and their differential contributions in ever-smokers and never-smokers are not well studied. Here, we performed integrative analysis of 11 lung cancer gene-expression datasets, including 1,111 lung adenocarcinomas and 200 adjacent normal lung samples. Distinct pathways were altered in lung carcinogenesis in ever-smokers and never-smokers. Never-smoker patients had a better outcome than ever-smoker patients. We characterized compositional patterns of 21 types of immune cells in lung adenocarcinomas and revealed the complex association between immune cell composition and clinical outcomes. Interestingly, we found two subsets of immune cells, mast cells and CD4 memory T cells, which had completely opposite associations with outcomes in resting and activated status. We further discovered that several chemokines and their associated receptors (e.g., CXCL11-CX3CR1 axis) were selectively altered in lung tumors in response to cigarette smoking and their abundances showed stronger correlation with fractions of these immune subsets in ever-smokers than never-smokers. The status switched from the resting to activated forms in mast cells and CD4 memory T cells might manifest some important processes induced by cigarette smoking during tumor development and progression. Our findings suggested that aberrant activation of mast cells and CD4+ memory T cells plays crucial roles in cigarette smoking-induced immune dysfunction in the lung, which contributes to tumor development and progression. 10.1080/2162402X.2018.1494677
    Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains in the Pathogenesis of Lung Disorders. Mortaz Esmaeil,Adcock Ian M,Jamaati Hamidreza,Khosravi Adnan,Movassaghi Masoud,Garssen Johan,Alavi Mogadam Mostafa,Redegeld Frank A Iranian journal of allergy, asthma, and immunology Inflammation is an important component of numerous cancers and chronic diseases and many inflammatory mediators have been shown to have potential prognostic roles. Tumor-infiltrating mast cells can promote tumor growth and angiogenesis, but the mechanism of mast cell activation is unclear. Early studies have shown that immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) can trigger mast cell activation in an antigen-specific manner. Increased expression of FLC is observed within the stroma of many human cancers including those of breast, colon, lung, pancreas, kidney, and skin. These overexpressed FLCs are co-localized to areas of mast cell infiltration. Importantly, FLC expression is associated with basal-like cancers with an aggressive phenotype. Moreover, FLC is expressed in areas of inflammatory cell infiltration and its expression is significantly associated with poor clinical outcome. In addition, serum and bronchoalveolar fluid FLC concentrations are increased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) compared to control subjects. In this review, we provide an update on the role of FLC in the pathogenesis of several lung disorders and indicate how this may contribute to new therapeutic opportunities.
    Prognostic value of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment of early-stage lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Tuminello Stephanie,Veluswamy Rajwanth,Lieberman-Cribbin Wil,Gnjatic Sacha,Petralia Francesca,Wang Pei,Flores Raja,Taioli Emanuela Oncotarget BACKGROUND:Early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carry significant risk of recurrence post-surgery. In-depth characterization of the immune tumor microenvironment (TME) can have prognostic value. This study aimed to evaluate the association of individual immune cell types in the TME with clinical outcomes in surgically resected, early-stage NSCLC. METHODS:We performed a systematic literature search of the National Library of Medicine database through November 2019, investigating predefined biomarkers (CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T helper cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD20+ B cells, CD56+ & CD57+ Natural Killer (NK) cells, CD68+ Tissue Associated Macrophages (TAMS), FoxP3+ T regulatory cells, and Mast Cells (MC)), and their association with survival following PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS:Studies that adjusted for important clinical covariates (such as stage and age) showed that higher levels of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells were associated with improved OS (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.50-0.93) and DFS (HR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.41-0.87), while increased CD20+ B cells (HR = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.04-0.64) and CD 56/57+ NK cells (HR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.95) were associated with improved OS; lung cancers with increased FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (HR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.47-3.34) had worse OS. CONCLUSIONS:Immune cell components of the TME have prognostic value in early-stage, surgically resected NSCLC, and may reveal which patients are more likely to need additional systemic treatment, including immunotherapy. Clinical covariates need to be considered when evaluating the prognostic value of immune cells in the TME. 10.18632/oncotarget.27392
    Interleukin-1β provided by KIT-competent mast cells is required for -mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Lilis Ioannis,Ntaliarda Giannoula,Papaleonidopoulos Vassilios,Giotopoulou Georgia A,Oplopoiou Maria,Marazioti Antonia,Spella Magda,Marwitz Sebastian,Goldmann Torsten,Bravou Vasiliki,Giopanou Ioanna,Stathopoulos Georgios T Oncoimmunology Mast cells (MC) have been identified in human lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) tissues, but their functional role has not been investigated . For this, we applied three mouse models of mutant LADC to two different MC-deficient mouse strains ( and ). Moreover, we derived MC gene signatures from murine bone marrow-derived MC and used them to interrogate five human cohorts of LADC patients. Tumor-free and mice were deficient in alveolar and skin KIT-dependent (KIT+) MC, but mice retained normal KIT-independent (KIT-) MC in the airways. Both KIT+ and KIT- MC infiltrated murine LADC to varying degrees, but KIT+ MC were more abundant and promoted LADC initiation and progression through interleukin-1β secretion. KIT+ MC and their transcriptional signature were significantly enriched in human LADC compared to adjacent normal tissue, especially in the subset of patients with mutations. Importantly, MC density increased with tumor stage and high overall expression of the KIT+ MC signature portended poor survival. Collectively, our results indicate that KIT+ MC foster LADC development and represent marked therapeutic targets. 10.1080/2162402X.2019.1593802
    Role of JunB in adenosine A2B receptor-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor production. Ryzhov Sergey,Biktasova Asel,Goldstein Anna E,Zhang Qinkun,Biaggioni Italo,Dikov Mikhail M,Feoktistov Igor Molecular pharmacology Interstitial adenosine stimulates neovascularization in part through A2B adenosine receptor-dependent upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that A2B receptors upregulate JunB, which can contribute to stimulation of VEGF production. Using the human microvascular endothelial cell line, human mast cell line, mouse cardiac Sca1-positive stromal cells, and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, we found that adenosine receptor-dependent upregulation of VEGF production was associated with an increase in VEGF transcription, activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity, and JunB accumulation in all cells investigated. Furthermore, the expression of JunB, but not the expression of other genes encoding transcription factors from the Jun family, was specifically upregulated. In LLC cells expressing A2A and A2B receptor transcripts, only the nonselective adenosine agonist NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine), but not the selective A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenylethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine], significantly increased JunB reporter activity and JunB nuclear accumulation, which were inhibited by the A2B receptor antagonist PSB603 [(8-[4-[4-((4-chlorophenzyl)piperazide-1-sulfonyl)phenyl]]-1-propylxanthine]. Using activators and inhibitors of intracellular signaling, we demonstrated that A2B receptor-dependent accumulation of JunB protein and VEGF secretion share common intracellular pathways. NECA enhanced JunB binding to the murine VEGF promoter, whereas mutation of the high-affinity AP-1 site (-1093 to -1086) resulted in a loss of NECA-dependent VEGF reporter activity. Finally, NECA-dependent VEGF secretion and reporter activity were inhibited by the expression of a dominant negative JunB or by JunB knockdown. Thus, our data suggest an important role of the A2B receptor-dependent upregulation of JunB in VEGF production and possibly other AP-1-regulated events. 10.1124/mol.113.088567
    Role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with solid tumors: Can a drop dig a stone? Badalamenti Giuseppe,Fanale Daniele,Incorvaia Lorena,Barraco Nadia,Listì Angela,Maragliano Rossella,Vincenzi Bruno,Calò Valentina,Iovanna Juan Lucio,Bazan Viviana,Russo Antonio Cellular immunology In recent years, multiple strategies for eliciting anti-tumor immunity have been developed in different clinical studies. Currently, immunotherapy was clinically validated as effective treatment option for many tumors such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Some surface receptors of immune cells, called immune checkpoint receptors, may inhibit activity of proinflammatory lymphocytes, following binding with specific ligands. Cancer cells exploit these mechanisms to inactivate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) to escape from immunosurveillance. Among the different tumor-infiltrating immune cell populations, including leucocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and mast cells, TILs are considered a selected population of T-cells with a higher specific immunological reactivity against tumor cells than the non-infiltrating lymphocytes. In this review we will discuss the promising role of TILs as biomarkers reflecting the immune response to the tumor, describing their potential ability to predict the prognosis and clinical outcome of immunotherapy in some solid tumors. 10.1016/j.cellimm.2018.01.013
    PD-L1 expression levels on tumor cells affect their immunosuppressive activity. Zheng Yang,Fang You-Chen,Li Jing Oncology letters Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an immuno-checkpoint receptor which is primarily expressed on T cells, monocytes, natural killer cells and macrophages. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is the primary ligand of PD-1 and is constitutively expressed on antigen presenting cells, mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells. In addition, PD-L1 is also expressed on a wide range of tumor cells, including lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. PD-1 and PD-L1 are important members of the immunoglobulin super-family and participate in immune regulation. In the present study, the immune-suppressive effects of a number of tumor cell lines were determined. The breast tumor cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 displayed the largest inhibitory effects on T-cell activation and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system. The HepG2, A549 and A375 cells displayed limited inhibitory effects. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressed the highest level of PD-L1 among the cells used, which may explain their higher immuno-suppressive effects. Compound A0-L, a small molecule inhibitor of the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, restored T cell functions. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the tumor cells with higher levels of PD-L1 expression suppressed signaling pathways involved in T-cell activation, such as the T-cell receptor- zeta chain of T cell receptor associated protein kinase ZAP70-RAS-GTPase-extracellular-signal-regulated kinases and CD28-PI3K-Akt serine/threonine kinases pathways. These findings suggest that tumor cells with higher expression levels of PD-L1 may exhibit higher immuno-suppressive activity, and that drugs targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction may have improved therapeutic effects on tumors expressing higher levels of PD-L1. 10.3892/ol.2019.10903
    Interleukin-33 and ST2 Signaling in Tumor Microenvironment. Hong Jaewoo,Kim Soohyun,Lin P Charles Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is one of the members of the IL-1 family of cytokines and a ligand of ST2 and IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) that is known to affect Th2 inflammatory response with partial effects on Th1 responses. This cytokine is released by epithelial and smooth muscle cells of the airway system during their injury by several environmental stimuli, such as allergens, viruses, helminths, and pollutants. IL-33 is an alarmin that acts as an endogenous danger signal, and it has been known to affect various types of cells, such as mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, T cells, and specific subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). In recent findings, this cytokine is believed to have a critical role in several types of cancers, such as lung cancer, liver cancer, and head and neck squamous cell cancer. The expression of IL-33/ST2 in cancer tissues shows a close association with tumor growth and tumor progression in several types of cancer, suggesting the IL-33/ST2 pathway as a potential target for therapy. 10.1089/jir.2018.0044
    The role of Sema4D/CD100 as a therapeutic target for tumor microenvironments and for autoimmune, neuroimmune and bone diseases. Wu Mingfu,Li Jing,Gao Qinglei,Ye Fei Expert opinion on therapeutic targets INTRODUCTION:Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), also known as CD100, has been implicated in physiologic roles in the immune and nervous systems. However, the interaction of Sema4D with its high affinity receptor, Plexin-B1, reveals a novel role for Sema4D produced by the tumor microenvironment in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. AREAS COVERED:The ligation of Sema4D/CD100 with CD72 on immune and inflammatory cells is known to stimulate immune responses and regulation. Because CD100 and CD72 are expressed on lung immune and nonimmune cells, as well as on mast cells, the CD100/CD72 interaction plays another important role in allergic airway inflammation and mast cell functions. A better understanding of Sema4D-mediated cell signaling in physiological and pathological processes may be crucial for crafting new Sema4D-based therapeutics for human disease and tumor microenvironments. Strategies to achieve effective management through treatment with Sema4D include special siRNAs, neutralizing antibodies and knockdown. EXPERT OPINION:This review focuses on the links between Sema4D and human diseases such as cancer, bone metabolism, immune responses and organ development. The current knowledge regarding the expression of Sema4D and its receptors and its functional roles is systemically reviewed to explore Sema4D as both a target and a therapeutic in human diseases. 10.1517/14728222.2016.1139083
    The Tim-3-Galectin-9 Pathway and Its Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Breast Cancer. Yasinska Inna M,Sakhnevych Svetlana S,Pavlova Ludmila,Teo Hansen Selnø Anette,Teuscher Abeleira Ana Maria,Benlaouer Ouafa,Gonçalves Silva Isabel,Mosimann Marianne,Varani Luca,Bardelli Marco,Hussain Rohanah,Siligardi Giuliano,Cholewa Dietmar,Berger Steffen M,Gibbs Bernhard F,Ushkaryov Yuri A,Fasler-Kan Elizaveta,Klenova Elena,Sumbayev Vadim V Frontiers in immunology Human cancer cells operate a variety of effective molecular and signaling mechanisms which allow them to escape host immune surveillance and thus progress the disease. We have recently reported that the immune receptor Tim-3 and its natural ligand galectin-9 are involved in the immune escape of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. These cells use the neuronal receptor latrophilin 1 (LPHN1) and its ligand fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 3 (FLRT3, and possibly other ligands) to trigger the pathway. We hypothesized that the Tim-3-galectin-9 pathway may be involved in the immune escape of cancer cells of different origins. We found that studied breast tumors expressed significantly higher levels of both galectin-9 and Tim-3 compared to healthy breast tissues of the same patients and that these proteins were co-localized. Increased levels of LPHN2 and expressions of LPHN3 as well as FLRT3 were also detected in breast tumor cells. Activation of this pathway facilitated the translocation of galectin-9 onto the tumor cell surface, however no secretion of galectin-9 by tumor cells was observed. Surface-based galectin-9 was able to protect breast carcinoma cells against cytotoxic T cell-induced death. Furthermore, we found that cell lines from brain, colorectal, kidney, blood/mast cell, liver, prostate, lung, and skin cancers expressed detectable amounts of both Tim-3 and galectin-9 proteins. The majority of cell lines expressed one of the LPHN isoforms and FLRT3. We conclude that the Tim-3-galectin-9 pathway is operated by a wide range of human cancer cells and is possibly involved in prevention of anti-tumor immunity. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01594
    MicroRNA-26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 Loop Regulates Allergic Inflammation and Allergic Inflammation-promoted Enhanced Tumorigenic and Metastatic Potential of Cancer Cells. Kwon Yoojung,Kim Youngmi,Eom Sangkyung,Kim Misun,Park Deokbum,Kim Hyuna,Noh Kyeonga,Lee Hansoo,Lee Yun Sil,Choe Jongseon,Kim Young Myeong,Jeoung Dooil The Journal of biological chemistry Cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) knock-out mouse experiments showed that COX-2 was necessary for in vivo allergic inflammation, such as passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, passive systemic anaphylaxis, and triphasic cutaneous allergic reaction. TargetScan analysis predicted COX-2 as a target of miR-26a and miR-26b. miR-26a/-26b decreased luciferase activity associated with COX-2-3'-UTR. miR-26a/-26b exerted negative effects on the features of in vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation by targeting COX-2. ChIP assays showed the binding of HDAC3 and SNAIL, but not COX-2, to the promoter sequences of miR-26a and miR-26b. Cytokine array analysis showed that the induction of chemokines, such as MIP-2, in the mouse passive systemic anaphylaxis model occurred in a COX-2-dependent manner. ChIP assays showed the binding of HDAC3 and COX-2 to the promoter sequences of MIP-2. In vitro and in vivo allergic inflammation was accompanied by the increased expression of MIP-2. miR-26a/-26b negatively regulated the expression of MIP-2. Allergic inflammation enhanced the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of cancer cells and induced positive feedback involving cancer cells and stromal cells, such as mast cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. miR-26a mimic and miR-26b mimic negatively regulated the positive feedback between cancer cells and stromal cells and the positive feedback among stromal cells. miR-26a/-26b negatively regulated the enhanced tumorigenic potential by allergic inflammation. COX-2 was necessary for the enhanced metastatic potential of cancer cells by allergic inflammation. Taken together, our results indicate that the miR26a/-26b-COX-2-MIP-2 loop regulates allergic inflammation and the feedback relationship between allergic inflammation and the enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic potential. 10.1074/jbc.M115.645580
    Immunoglobulin free light chains are biomarkers of poor prognosis in basal-like breast cancer and are potential targets in tumor-associated inflammation. Groot Kormelink Tom,Powe Desmond G,Kuijpers Sylvia A,Abudukelimu Abulikemu,Fens Marcel H A M,Pieters Ebel H E,Kassing van der Ven Willemiek W,Habashy Hany O,Ellis Ian O,Blokhuis Bart R,Thio Marco,Hennink Wim E,Storm Gert,Redegeld Frank A,Schiffelers Raymond M Oncotarget Inflammation is an important component of various cancers and its inflammatory cells and mediators have been shown to have prognostic potential. Tumor-infiltrating mast cells can promote tumor growth and angiogenesis, but the mechanism of mast cell activation is unclear. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) can trigger mast cells in an antigen-specific manner. Increased expression of FLC was observed within stroma of various human cancers including those of breast, colon, lung, pancreas, kidney and skin, and FLC expression co-localized with areas of mast cell infiltration. In a large cohort of breast cancer patients, FLC expression was shown associated with basal-like cancers with an aggressive phenotype. Moreover, lambda FLC was found expressed in areas of inflammatory infiltration and its expression was significantly associated with poor clinical outcome. Functional importance of FLCs was shown in a murine B16F10 melanoma model, where inhibition of FLC-mediated mast cell activation strongly reduced tumor growth. Collectively, this study identifies FLCs as a ligand in the pro-tumorigenic activation of mast cells. Blocking this pathway may open new avenues for the inhibition of tumor growth, while immunohistochemical staining of FLC may be helpful in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. 10.18632/oncotarget.1868
    Pathological Significance and Prognostic Value of Surfactant Protein D in Cancer. Mangogna Alessandro,Belmonte Beatrice,Agostinis Chiara,Ricci Giuseppe,Gulino Alessandro,Ferrara Ines,Zanconati Fabrizio,Tripodo Claudio,Romano Federico,Kishore Uday,Bulla Roberta Frontiers in immunology Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pattern recognition molecule belonging to the Collectin (collagen-containing C-type lectin) family that has pulmonary as well as extra-pulmonary existence. In the lungs, it is a well-established opsonin that can agglutinate a range of microbes, and enhance their clearance phagocytosis and super-oxidative burst. It can interfere with allergen-IgE interaction and suppress basophil and mast cell activation. However, it is now becoming evident that SP-D is likely to be an innate immune surveillance molecule against tumor development. SP-D has been shown to induce apoptosis in sensitized eosinophils derived from allergic patients and a leukemic cell line p53 pathway. Recently, SP-D has been shown to suppress lung cancer progression interference with the epidermal growth factor signaling. In addition, a truncated form of recombinant human SP-D has been reported to induce apoptosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma Fas-mediated pathway in a p53-independent manner. To further establish a correlation between SP-D presence/levels and normal and cancer tissues, we performed a bioinformatics analysis, using Oncomine dataset and the survival analysis platforms Kaplan-Meier plotter, to assess if SP-D can serve as a potential prognostic marker for human lung cancer, in addition to human gastric, breast, and ovarian cancers. We also analyzed immunohistochemically the presence of SP-D in normal and tumor human tissues. We conclude that (1) in the lung, gastric, and breast cancers, there is a lower expression of SP-D than normal tissues; (2) in ovarian cancer, there is a higher expression of SP-D than normal tissue; and (3) in lung cancer, the presence of SP-D could be associated with a favorable prognosis. On the contrary, at non-pulmonary sites such as gastric, breast, and ovarian cancers, the presence of SP-D could be associated with unfavorable prognosis. Correlation between the levels of SP-D and overall survival requires further investigation. Our analysis involves a large number of dataset; therefore, any trend observed is reliable. Despite apparent complexity within the results, it is evident that cancer tissues that produce less levels of SP-D compared to their normal tissue counterparts are probably less susceptible to SP-D-mediated immune surveillance mechanisms infiltrating immune cells. 10.3389/fimmu.2018.01748
    Integrative analysis of imaging and transcriptomic data of the immune landscape associated with tumor metabolism in lung adenocarcinoma: Clinical and prognostic implications. Choi Hongyoon,Na Kwon Joong Theranostics Although metabolic modulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is one of the key mechanisms of cancer immune escape, there is a lack of understanding of the comprehensive immune landscape of the TME and its association with tumor metabolism based on clinical evidence. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the immune landscape in the TME and tumor glucose metabolism in lung adenocarcinoma. Using RNA sequencing and image data, we developed a transcriptome-based tumor metabolism estimation model. The comprehensive TME cell types enrichment scores and overall immune cell enrichment (ImmuneScore) were estimated. Subjects were clustered by cellular heterogeneity in the TME and the clusters were characterized by tumor glucose metabolism and immune cell composition. Moreover, the prognostic value of ImmuneScore, tumor metabolism and the cell type-based clusters was also evaluated. Four clusters were identified based on the cellular heterogeneity in the TME. They showed distinct immune cell composition, different tumor metabolism, and close relationship with overall survival. A cluster with high regulatory T cells showed relative hypermetabolism and poor prognosis. Another cluster with high mast cells and CD4+ central memory T cells showed relative hypometabolism and favorable prognosis. A cluster with high ImmuneScore showed favorable prognosis. Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that ImmuneScore was a predictive prognostic factor independent of other clinical features. Our results showed the association between predicted tumor metabolism and immune cell composition in the TME. Our studies also suggest that tumor glucose metabolism and immune cell infiltration in the TME can be clinically applicable for developing a prognostic stratification model. 10.7150/thno.23767
    Prognostic significance of immune cells in non-small cell lung cancer: meta-analysis. Soo Ross A,Chen Zhaojin,Yan Teng Rebecca Siew,Tan Hon-Lyn,Iacopetta Barry,Tai Bee Choo,Soong Richie Oncotarget Background:Tumor-associated immune cells are prognostic in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but findings have been conflicting. Objectives:To determine the prognostic role of immune cells according to localization in NSCLC patients. Methods:A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was performed on dendritic cell (DC), tumor associated macrophages (TAM), mast cells (MC), natural killer (NK) cells, T and B cells and tumor CTLA-4 and PD-L1 studies. Results:We analysed 96 articles (= 21,752 patients). Improved outcomes were seen with increased tumor DCs (overall survival (OS) hazard ratio (HR) 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.68), NK cells (OS HR 0.45; 0.31-0.65), TAMs (OS HR 0.33; 0.17-0.62), M1 TAMs (OS HR 0.10; 0.05-0.21), CD3+ T cells (disease specific survival (DSS) HR 0.64; 0.48-0.86), CD8+ T cells (OS HR 0.78; 0.66-0.93), B cells (OS HR 0.65; 0.42-0.99) and with increased stroma DC (DSS HR 0.62; 0.47-0.83), NK cells (DSS HR 0.51; 0.32-0.82), M1 TAMs (OS HR 0.63; 0.42-0.94), CD4+ T cells (OS HR 0.45; 0.21-0.94), CD8+ T cells (OS HR 0.77; 0.69-0.86) and B cells (OS HR 0.74;0.56-0.99). Poor outcomes were seen with stromal M2 TAMs (OS HR 1.44; 1.06-1.96) and Tregs (relapse free survival (RFS) HR 1.80; 1.34-2.43). Tumor PD-L1 was associated with worse OS (1.40; 1.20-1.69), RFS (1.67) and DFS (1.24). Conclusion:Tumor and stroma DC, NK cells, M1 TAMs, CD8+ T cells and B cells were associated with improved prognosis and tumor PD-L1, stromal M2 TAMs and Treg cells had poorer prognosis. Higher quality studies are required for confirmation. 10.18632/oncotarget.24835
    Mast Cell Infiltration in Human Brain Metastases Modulates the Microenvironment and Contributes to the Metastatic Potential. Roy Ananya,Libard Sylwia,Weishaupt Holger,Gustavsson Ida,Uhrbom Lene,Hesselager Göran,Swartling Fredrik J,Pontén Fredrik,Alafuzoff Irina,Tchougounova Elena Frontiers in oncology Metastatic brain tumors continue to be a clinical problem, despite new therapeutic advances in cancer treatment. Brain metastases (BMs) are among the most common mass lesions in the brain that are resistant to chemotherapies, have a very poor prognosis, and currently lack any efficient diagnostic tests. Predictions estimate that about 40% of lung and breast cancer patients will develop BM. Despite this, very little is known about the immunological and genetic aberrations that drive tumorigenesis in BM. In this study, we demonstrate the infiltration of mast cells (MCs) in a large cohort of human BM samples with different tissues of origin for primary cancer. We applied patient-derived BM cell models to the study of BM cell-MC interactions. BM cells when cocultured with MCs demonstrate enhanced growth and self-renewal capacity. Gene set enrichment analyses indicate increased expression of signal transduction and transmembrane proteins related genes in the cocultured BM cells. MCs exert their effect by release of mediators such as IL-8, IL-10, matrix metalloprotease 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby permitting metastasis. In conclusion, we provide evidence for a role of MCs in BM. Our findings indicate MCs' capability of modulating gene expression in BM cells and suggest that MCs can serve as a new target for drug development against metastases in the brain. 10.3389/fonc.2017.00115
    Increased expression of TTC21A in lung adenocarcinoma infers favorable prognosis and high immune infiltrating level. Wang Wei,Ren Shiqi,Wang Ziheng,Zhang Chenlin,Huang Jianfei International immunopharmacology BACKGROUND:Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a crucial pathological type of lung cancer. Immune-infiltration of the tumor microenvironment positively associated with overall survival in LUAD. TTC21A is a gene has not reported in cancer, and the mechanism behind it is still unclear. Our study assesses TTC21A role in LUAD, via TCGA data. METHODS:GEPIA was utilized to analyze the expression of TTC21A in LUAD. We evaluated the influence of TTC21A on survival of LUAD patients by survival module. Then, data sets of LUAD were downloaded from TCGA. The correlations between clinical information and TTC21A expression were analyzed using logistic regression. Clinicopathologic characteristics associated with overall survival in TCGA patients using Cox regression. In addition, we explored the correlation between TTC21A and cancer immune infiltrates using CIBERSORT and "Correlation" module of GEPIA. RESULTS:The univariate analysis using logistic regression, wherein TTC21A expression served as a categorical dependent variable (with a median expression value of 2.5), indicated that increased TTC21A expression is significantly correlated with pathological stage, tumor status and lymph nodes. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that the up-regulated TTC21A expression, negative results of pathological stage and distant metastasis are independent prognostic factors for good prognosis. Specifically, a positive correlation between increased TTC21A expression and immune infiltrating level of B cells, Neutrophils, Mast cells and T cells was established using CIBERSORT analysis. Furthermore, we confirmed it in "correlation" module of GEPIA. CONCLUSION:Together with all these findings, increased TTC21A expression correlates with favorable prognosis and increased proportion of immune cells, such as B cells, Neutrophils, Mast cells and T cells in LUAD. These conclusions indicate that TTC21A could serve as a potential biomarker to assess prognosis and immune infiltration level in LUAD. 10.1016/j.intimp.2019.106077
    Mast cells induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration in non-small cell lung cancer through IL-8/Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Qu Jingjing,Cheng Tianli,Liu Li,Heng Jianfu,Liu Xiaobao,Sun Ziyi,Wang Wenxiang,Li Kunyan,Yang Nong Journal of Cancer [This retracts the article DOI: 10.7150/jca.29953.]. 10.7150/jca.38671
    The role of mast cell density in tumor-associated angiogenesis and survival of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Ozdemir Oner Journal of cancer research and therapeutics 10.4103/0973-1482.140983
    Immune Cell Composition in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer. Stankovic Branislava,Bjørhovde Heidi Anine Korsmo,Skarshaug Renate,Aamodt Henrik,Frafjord Astri,Müller Elisabeth,Hammarström Clara,Beraki Kahsai,Bækkevold Espen S,Woldbæk Per Reidar,Helland Åslaug,Brustugun Odd Terje,Øynebråten Inger,Corthay Alexandre Frontiers in immunology Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Immunological analysis of the tumor microenvironment (immunoscore) shows great promise for improved prognosis and prediction of response to immunotherapy. However, the exact immune cell composition in NSCLC remains unclear. Here, we used flow cytometry to characterize the immune infiltrate in NSCLC tumors, non-cancerous lung tissue, regional lymph node, and blood. The cellular identity of >95% of all CD45 immune cells was determined. Thirteen distinct immune cell types were identified in NSCLC tumors. T cells dominated the lung cancer landscape (on average 47% of all CD45 immune cells). CD4 T cells were the most abundant T cell population (26%), closely followed by CD8 T cells (22%). Double negative CD4CD8 T cells represented a small fraction (1.4%). CD19 B cells were the second most common immune cell type in NSCLC tumors (16%), and four different B cell sub-populations were identified. Macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells composed 4.7 and 4.5% of the immune cell infiltrate, respectively. Three types of dendritic cells (DCs) were identified (plasmacytoid DCs, CD1c DCs, and CD141 DCs) which together represented 2.1% of all immune cells. Among granulocytes, neutrophils were frequent (8.6%) with a high patient-to-patient variability, while mast cells (1.4%), basophils (0.4%), and eosinophils (0.3%) were less common. Across the cohort of patients, only B cells showed a significantly higher representation in NSCLC tumors compared to the distal lung. In contrast, the percentages of macrophages and NK cells were lower in tumors than in non-cancerous lung tissue. Furthermore, the fraction of macrophages with high HLA-DR expression levels was higher in NSCLC tumors relative to distal lung tissue. To make the method readily accessible, antibody panels and flow cytometry gating strategy used to identify the various immune cells are described in detail. This work should represent a useful resource for the immunomonitoring of patients with NSCLC. 10.3389/fimmu.2018.03101
    Mast cells and their activation in lung disease. Virk Harvinder,Arthur Greer,Bradding Peter Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine Mast cells and their activation contribute to lung health via innate and adaptive immune responses to respiratory pathogens. They are also involved in the normal response to tissue injury. However, mast cells are involved in disease processes characterized by inflammation and remodeling of tissue structure. In these diseases mast cells are often inappropriately and chronically activated. There is evidence for activation of mast cells contributing to the pathophysiology of asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary hypertension. They may also play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and lung cancer. The diverse mechanisms through which mast cells sense and interact with the external and internal microenvironment account for their role in these diseases. Newly discovered mechanisms of redistribution and interaction between mast cells, airway structural cells, and other inflammatory cells may offer novel therapeutic targets in these disease processes. 10.1016/j.trsl.2016.01.005
    Risk of solid cancer in patients with mast cell activation syndrome: Results from Germany and USA. Molderings Gerhard J,Zienkiewicz Thomas,Homann Jürgen,Menzen Markus,Afrin Lawrence B F1000Research  It has been shown repeatedly that mast cells can promote or prevent cancer development and growth. If development and/or progression of a solid cancer is substantially influenced by mast cell activity, the frequencies of occurrence of solid cancers in patients with primary mast cells disorders would be expected to differ from the corresponding prevalence data in the general population. In fact, a recent study demonstrated that patients with systemic mastocytosis (i.e., a rare neoplastic variant of the primary mast cell activation disease) have increased risk for solid cancers, in particular melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. The aim of the present study is to examine whether the risk of solid cancer is increased in systemic mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS), the common systemic variant of mast cell activation disease. In the present descriptive study, we have analysed a large (n=828) patient group with MCAS, consisting of cohorts from Germany and the USA, for occurrence of solid forms of cancer and compared the frequencies of the different cancers with corresponding prevalence data for German and U.S. general populations. Sixty-eight of the 828 MCAS patients (46 female, 22 male) had developed a solid tumor before the diagnosis of MCAS was made. Comparison of the frequencies of the malignancies in the MCAS patients with their prevalence in the general population revealed a significantly increased prevalence for melanoma and cancers of the breast, cervix uteri, ovary, lung, and thyroid in MCAS patients. Our data support the view that mast cells may promote development of certain malignant tumors. These findings indicate a need for increased surveillance of certain types of cancer in MCAS patients irrespective of its individual clinical presentation. 10.12688/f1000research.12730.1
    Association of Lung Inflammatory Cells with Small Airways Function and Exhaled Breath Markers in Smokers - Is There a Specific Role for Mast Cells? Nussbaumer-Ochsner Yvonne,Stolk Jan,Ferraz da Silva Luiz F,van Schadewijk Annemarie,de Jeu Ronald C,Prins Frans A,Mauad Thais,Rabe Klaus F,Hiemstra Pieter S PloS one BACKGROUND:Smoking is associated with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate in the airways. We evaluated whether airway inflammation in smokers is related to lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. METHODS:Thirty-seven smokers undergoing lung resection for primary lung cancer were assessed pre-operatively by lung function testing including single-breath-nitrogen washout test (sb-N2-test), measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and pH/8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Lung tissue sections containing cancer-free large (LA) and small airways (SA) were stained for inflammatory cells. Mucosal (MCT) respectively connective tissue mast cells (MCTC) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) expression by mast cells was analysed using a double-staining protocol. RESULTS:The median number of neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells infiltrating the lamina propria and adventitia of SA was higher than in LA. Both MCTC and MCT were higher in the lamina propria of SA compared to LA (MCTC: 49 vs. 27.4 cells/mm2; MCT: 162.5 vs. 35.4 cells/mm2; P<0.005 for both instances). IL-17A expression was predominantly detected in MCTC of LA. Significant correlations were found for the slope of phase III % pred. of the sb-N2-test (rs= -0.39), for the FEV1% pred. (rs= 0.37) and for FEV1/FVC ratio (rs=0.38) with MCT in SA (P<0.05 for all instances). 8-isoprostane concentration correlated with the mast cells in the SA (rs=0.44), there was no correlation for pH or FeNO with cellular distribution in SA. CONCLUSIONS:Neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells are more prominent in the SA indicating that these cells are involved in the development of small airway dysfunction in smokers. Among these cell types, the best correlation was found for mast cells with lung function parameters and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath. Furthermore, the observed predominant expression of IL-17A in mast cells warrants further investigation to elucidate their role in smoking-induced lung injury, despite the lack of correlation with lung function and exhaled breath parameters. 10.1371/journal.pone.0129426
    Angiogenesis correlates with macrophage and mast cell infiltration in lung tissue of animals exposed to fluoro-edenite fibers. Musumeci Giuseppe,Loreto Carla,Giunta Salvatore,Rapisarda Venerando,Szychlinska Marta Anna,Imbesi Rosa,Castorina Alessandro,Annese Tiziana,Castorina Sergio,Castrogiovanni Paola,Ribatti Domenico Experimental cell research Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in progression of pleural malignant mesothelioma. A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite, a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. In this study, we have investigated the expression of CD68-positive macrophages, tryptase-positive mast cells and CD31 positive areas, as expression of microvascular density, in lung tissue of sheeps exposed to fluoro-edenite fibers vs controls, by immunohistochemical, morphometric and Western blot analysis. The result have evidenced a significant increase in the expression of CD68-positive macrophages, tryptase-positive mast cells as well as a significant increase in microvascular density evaluated as CD31 positive areas in lung tissue of of sheeps exposed to fluoro-edenite fibers vs controls. These data confirmed the important role played by tumor microenvironment components, including macrophages and mast cells, in favour of angiogenesis in pleural mesothelioma induced by fluoro-edenite exposure. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2016.06.017
    Mast cell disorders: From infancy to maturity. Wilcock Amy,Bahri Rajia,Bulfone-Paus Silvia,Arkwright Peter D Allergy Mast cells are typically linked to immediate hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis. This review looks beyond this narrow role, focusing on how these cells have evolved and diversified via natural selection promoting serine protease gene duplication, augmenting their innate host defense function against helminths and snake envenomation. Plasticity of mast cell genes has come at a price. Somatic activating mutations in the mast cell growth factor KIT gene cause cutaneous mastocytosis in young children and systemic mastocytosis with a more guarded prognosis in adults who may also harbor other gene mutations with oncogenic potential as they age. Allelic TPSAB1 gene duplication associated with higher basal mast cell tryptase is possibly one of the commonest autosomal dominantly inherited multi-system diseases affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, circulation and musculoskeletal system. Mast cells are also establishing a new-found importance in severe asthma, and in remodeling of blood vessels in cancer and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that mast cells sense changes in oxygen tension, particularly in neonates, and that subsequent degranulation may contribute to common lung, eye, and brain diseases of prematurity classically associated with hypoxic insults. One hundred and forty years since Paul Ehrlich's initial description of "mastzellen," this review collates and highlights the complex and diverse roles that mast cells play in health and disease. 10.1111/all.13657
    Mast cell chymase affects the proliferation and metastasis of lung carcinoma cells . Jiang Yuan,Wu Yudan,Hardie William James,Zhou Xiaoying Oncology letters Metastasis of lung carcinoma cells is a major cause of organ failure and mortality of patients with lung cancer. Lung mast cells are a type of immune cell which reside in the respiratory mucosa. High numbers of mast cells are associated with the majority of common types of cancer; however, the effects of mast cells on cancer remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of mast cell chymase (MCC) on the proliferation and adhesion of the lung carcinoma cell lines A549 and H520 was investigated. After 24 h of treatment, the highest dose of MCC (50 mU/ml) decreased the proliferation rate of A549 and H520 cells, whereas the lowest dose of MCC (5 mU/ml) resulted in a small increase in the viability. A549 cells treated with MCC lost adhesion ability in a MCC dose-dependent manner; however, these detached cells were able to regrow when transferred to a fresh culture. The protein expression of epithelial (E-) cadherin, p53 and p21 in A549 lung carcinoma cells were detected by western blot analysis. The results of the present study revealed that, following 24 h of treatment, the expression level of E-cadherin was decreased, the p53 tumor suppressor protein was expressed in limited quantities and the expression of p21 was decreased. Zymography was used to examine the effects of MCC on the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in A549 and H520 cells. The expression of MMP-9 in the two cell lines was time- and MCC dose-dependent. The results of the present study demonstrated that MCC stimulated lung carcinoma cell proliferation and adhesion, as well as regulated E-cadherin expression and the cell cycle, all of which are associated with cancer metastasis. Therefore, MCC may be a potential candidate for lung carcinoma therapy. 10.3892/ol.2017.6487
    Mast cells promote melanoma colonization of lungs. Öhrvik Helena,Grujic Mirjana,Waern Ida,Gustafson Ann-Marie,Ernst Nancy,Roers Axel,Hartmann Karin,Pejler Gunnar Oncotarget Mast cells have been implicated in malignant processes, mainly through clinical correlative studies and by experiments performed using animals lacking mast cells due to defective c-kit signaling. However, mast cell-deficient mouse models based on c-kit defects have recently been questioned for their relevance. Here we addressed the effect of mast cells in a tumor setting by using transgenic Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ mice, in which the deficiency of mast cells is independent of c-kit defects. Melanoma cells (B16.F10) were administered either subcutaneously or intravenously into Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ mice or Mcpt5-Cre- R-DTA+ littermate controls, followed by the assessment of formed tumors. In the subcutaneous model, mast cells were abundant in the tumor stroma of control mice but were absent in Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ mice. However, the absence of mast cells did not affect tumor size. In contrast, after intravenous administration of B16.F10 cells, melanoma colonization of the lungs was markedly reduced in Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ vs. Mcpt5-Cre- R-DTA+ animals. Decreased melanoma colonization of the lungs in Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ animals was accompanied by increased inflammatory cell recruitment into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suggesting that mast cells suppress inflammation in this setting. Further, qPCR analysis revealed significant alterations in the expression of Twist and E-cadherin in lungs of Mcpt5-Cre+ R-DTA+ vs. control Mcpt5-Cre- R-DTA+ animals, suggesting an impact of mast cells on epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In conclusion, this study reveals that mast cells promote melanoma colonization of the lung. 10.18632/oncotarget.11837
    Mast cells are directly activated by contact with cancer cells by a mechanism involving autocrine formation of adenosine and autocrine/paracrine signaling of the adenosine A3 receptor. Gorzalczany Yaara,Akiva Eyal,Klein Ofir,Merimsky Ofer,Sagi-Eisenberg Ronit Cancer letters Mast cells (MCs) constitute an important part of the tumor microenvironment (TME). However, their underlying mechanisms of activation within the TME remain poorly understood. Here we show that recapitulating cell-to-cell contact interactions by exposing MCs to membranes derived from a number of cancer cell types, results in MC activation, evident by the increased phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases and Akt, in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase dependent fashion. Activation is unidirectional since MC derived membranes do not activate cancer cells. Stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation is strictly dependent on the ecto enzyme CD73 that mediates autocrine formation of adenosine, and is inhibited by knockdown of the A3 adenosine receptor (A3R) as well as by an A3R antagonist or by agonist-stimulated down-regulation of the A3R. We also show that cancer cell mediated triggering upregulates expression and stimulates secretion of interleukin 8 from the activated MCs. These findings provide evidence for a novel mode of unidirectional crosstalk between MCs and cancer cells implicating direct activation by cancer cells in MC reprogramming into a pro tumorigenic profile. 10.1016/j.canlet.2017.03.026
    Mast cell exosomes promote lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation - role of KIT-stem cell factor signaling. Xiao Hui,Lässer Cecilia,Shelke Ganesh Vilas,Wang Juan,Rådinger Madeleine,Lunavat Taral Rameshchand,Malmhäll Carina,Lin Li Hui,Li Jia,Li Li,Lötvall Jan Cell communication and signaling : CCS BACKGROUND:Human cells release nano-sized vesicles called exosomes, containing mRNA, miRNA and specific proteins. Exosomes from one cell can be taken up by another cell, which is a recently discovered cell-to-cell communication mechanism. Also, exosomes can be taken up by different types of cancer cells, but the potential functional effects of mast cell exosomes on tumor cells remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS:Exosomes were isolated from the human mast cell line, HMC-1, and uptake of PKH67-labelled exosomes by the lung epithelial cell line, A549, was examined using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The RNA cargo of the exosomes was analyzed with a Bioanalyzer and absence or presence of the c-KIT mRNA was determined by RT-PCR. The cell proliferation was determined in a BrdU incorporation assay, and proteins in the KIT-SCF signaling pathway were detected by Western blot. Our result demonstrates that exosomes from mast cells can be taken up by lung cancer cells. Furthermore, HMC-1 exosomes contain and transfer KIT protein, but not the c-KIT mRNA to A549 cells and subsequently activate KIT-SCF signal transduction, which increase cyclin D1 expression and accelerate the proliferation in the human lung adenocarcinoma cells. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that exosomes can transfer KIT as a protein to tumor cells, which can affect recipient cell signaling events through receptor-ligand interactions. 10.1186/s12964-014-0064-8
    A transcriptomic insight into the impacts of mast cells in lung, breast, and colon cancers. Ko Eun-A,Sanders Kenton M,Zhou Tong Oncoimmunology To date, the exact impact of mast cells in tumor microenvironment is still controversial because of inconsistency in observations regarding the relationship between mast cell infiltrates and cancer development and prognosis. The discrepancies in previous studies have motivated us to examine the roles of mast cells in cancer pathology from different perspectives. Here, we investigated the impact of mast cells on transcriptomic profiles in the tissue microenvironment. Mice carrying the mutation in ( ) are deficient in mast cell production and were used to assess the influence of mast cells on gene expression. By examining the transcriptomic profile among wild-type mice, mice, and mice with mast cell engraftment, we identified a list of "mast cell-dependent genes," which are enriched for cancer-related pathways. Utilizing whole-genome gene expression data from both mouse models and human cancer patients, we demonstrated that the expression profile of the mast cell-dependent genes differs between tumor and normal tissues from lung, breast, and colon, respectively. Mast cell infiltration is potentially increased in tumors compared with normal tissues, suggesting that mast cells might participate in tumor development. Accordingly, a prognostic molecular signature was developed based on the mast cell-dependent genes, which predicted recurrence-free survival for human patients with lung, breast, and colon cancers, respectively. Our study provides a novel transcriptomic insight into the impact of mast cells in the tumor microenvironment, though further experimental investigation is needed to validate the exact role of individual mast cell-dependent genes in different cancers. 10.1080/2162402X.2017.1360457
    The combined action of mast cell chymase, tryptase and carboxypeptidase A3 protects against melanoma colonization of the lung. Grujic Mirjana,Paivandy Aida,Gustafson Ann-Marie,Thomsen Allan R,Öhrvik Helena,Pejler Gunnar Oncotarget Mast cell secretory granules are densely packed with various bioactive mediators including proteases of chymase, tryptase and CPA3 type. Previous studies have indicated that mast cells can affect the outcome of melanoma but the contribution of the mast cell granule proteases to such effects has not been clear. Here we addressed this issue by assessing mice lacking either the chymase Mcpt4, the tryptase Mcpt6 or carboxypeptidase A3 (Cpa3), as well as mice simultaneously lacking all three proteases, in a model of melanoma dissemination from blood to the lung. Although mice with individual deficiency in the respective proteases did not differ significantly from wildtype mice in the extent of melanoma colonization, mice with multiple protease deficiency (Mcpt4/Mcpt6/Cpa3-deficient) exhibited a higher extent of melanoma colonization in lungs as compared to wildtype animals. This was supported by higher expression of melanoma-specific genes in lungs of Mcpt4/Mcpt6/CPA3-deficient vs. wildtype mice. Cytokine profiling showed that the levels of CXCL16, a chemokine with effects on T cell populations and NKT cells, were significantly lower in lungs of Mcpt4/Mcpt6/Cpa3-deficient animals vs. controls, suggesting that multiple mast cell protease deficiency might affect T cell or NKT cell populations. In line with this, we found that the Mcpt4/Mcpt6/Cpa3-deficiency was associated with a reduction in cells expressing CD1d, a MHC class 1-like molecule that is crucial for presenting antigen to invariant NKT (iNKT) cells. Together, these findings indicate a protective role of mast cell-specific proteases in melanoma dissemination, and suggest that this effect involves a CXCL16/CD1d/NKT cell axis. 10.18632/oncotarget.15339
    The release of tryptase from mast cells promote tumor cell metastasis via exosomes. Xiao Hui,He Mudan,Xie Guogang,Liu Yanan,Zhao Yuxia,Ye Xiong,Li Xingjing,Zhang Min BMC cancer BACKGROUND:Cancer cells release exosomes and can be taken up by mast cells (MCs), but the potential functional effects of MCs on tumor metastasis remain unknown. METHOD:Exosomes were isolated from the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, and the uptake of PKH26-labeled exosomes by bone marrow MCs was examined via flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Cytokines and tryptase in MC supernatant were analyzed using an ELISA kit, and the presence of tryptase was evaluated by Western blotting. Cell proliferation and migration were determined through CCK-8 and transwell assays. Proteins in the tryptase-JAK-STAT signaling pathway were detected by Western blotting. RESULTS:In this study, we show that exosomes from A549 cells can be taken up by MCs. Moreover, A549 exosomes contain stem cell factor (SCF) to MCs and subsequently induce the activation of MCs through SCF-KIT signal transduction, which leads to MC degranulation and the release of tryptase. Tryptase accelerates the proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Our results reveal a mechanism for metastasis in which exosomes can transfer SCF to and activate MCs, which can affect the release of tryptase and the angiogenesis of HUVECs. 10.1186/s12885-019-6203-2
    Non-invasive visualization of mast cell recruitment and its effects in lung cancer by optical reporter gene imaging and glucose metabolism monitoring. Oh Seul-Gi,Li Xian,Lee Ho Won,Singh Thoudam Debraj,Lee Sang Bong,Ji Hyun Dong,Yoon GhilSuk,Cho Sung Jin,Lee In-Kyu,Jeong Shin Young,Ahn Byeong-Cheol,Lee Jaetae,Chang Hyeun Wook,Lee Sang-Woo,Jeon Yong Hyun Biomaterials The inability to monitor the in vivo dynamics of mast cells (MCs) limits the better understanding of its role in cancer progression. Here, we report on noninvasive imaging of MC migration to tumor lesions in mice and evaluation of the effects of migrated MCs on tumor progression through reporter gene-based in vivo optical imaging and glucose metabolism monitoring in cancer with F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) in vitro and in vivo. Murine MCs (MC-9) and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) expressing an enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc) gene were established, termed MC-9/effluc and LLC/effluc, respectively. MC-9/effluc cell migration to LLC tumor lesions was initially detected within 1 h post-transfer and distinct bioluminescence imaging signals emitted from MC-9/effluc cells were observed at tumor sites until 96 h. In vivo optical imaging as well as a biodistribution study with F-FDG demonstrated more rapid tumor growth and upregulated glucose uptake potentially associated with MC migration to tumor lesions. These results suggest that the combination of a reporter gene-based optical imaging approach and glucose metabolism status monitoring with F-FDG represents a promising tool to better understand the biological role of MCs in tumor microenvironments and to develop new therapeutic drugs to regulate their involvement in enhanced tumor growth. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.10.023
    Mast cells mediate malignant pleural effusion formation. Giannou Anastasios D,Marazioti Antonia,Spella Magda,Kanellakis Nikolaos I,Apostolopoulou Hara,Psallidas Ioannis,Prijovich Zeljko M,Vreka Malamati,Zazara Dimitra E,Lilis Ioannis,Papaleonidopoulos Vassilios,Kairi Chrysoula A,Patmanidi Alexandra L,Giopanou Ioanna,Spiropoulou Nikolitsa,Harokopos Vaggelis,Aidinis Vassilis,Spyratos Dionisios,Teliousi Stamatia,Papadaki Helen,Taraviras Stavros,Snyder Linda A,Eickelberg Oliver,Kardamakis Dimitrios,Iwakura Yoichiro,Feyerabend Thorsten B,Rodewald Hans-Reimer,Kalomenidis Ioannis,Blackwell Timothy S,Agalioti Theodora,Stathopoulos Georgios T The Journal of clinical investigation Mast cells (MCs) have been identified in various tumors; however, the role of these cells in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, we quantified MCs in human and murine malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) and evaluated the fate and function of these cells in MPE development. Evaluation of murine MPE-competent lung and colon adenocarcinomas revealed that these tumors actively attract and subsequently degranulate MCs in the pleural space by elaborating CCL2 and osteopontin. MCs were required for effusion development, as MPEs did not form in mice lacking MCs, and pleural infusion of MCs with MPE-incompetent cells promoted MPE formation. Once homed to the pleural space, MCs released tryptase AB1 and IL-1β, which in turn induced pleural vasculature leakiness and triggered NF-κB activation in pleural tumor cells, thereby fostering pleural fluid accumulation and tumor growth. Evaluation of human effusions revealed that MCs are elevated in MPEs compared with benign effusions. Moreover, MC abundance correlated with MPE formation in a human cancer cell-induced effusion model. Treatment of mice with the c-KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate limited effusion precipitation by mouse and human adenocarcinoma cells. Together, the results of this study indicate that MCs are required for MPE formation and suggest that MC-dependent effusion formation is therapeutically addressable. 10.1172/JCI79840
    The transcription factors GATA2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor regulate Hdc gene expression in mast cells and are required for IgE/mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis. Li Yapeng,Liu Bing,Harmacek Laura,Long Zijie,Liang Jinyi,Lukin Kara,Leach Sonia M,O'Connor Brian,Gerber Anthony N,Hagman James,Roers Axel,Finkelman Fred D,Huang Hua The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology BACKGROUND:Histamine is a critical mediator of IgE/mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis. Histamine is synthesized by decarboxylating the amino acid histidine, a reaction catalyzed by the histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) gene-encoded enzyme HDC. However, regulation of the Hdc gene in mast cells is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE:We sought to investigate the in vivo regulation of IgE/mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis by the transcription factors GATA2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and the mechanisms by which GATA2 and MITF regulate Hdc gene expression in mouse and human mast cells. METHODS:Mice deficient in the transcription factors Gata2, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (Ahrr), or basic helix-loop-helix family member E40 (Bhlhe40) were assessed for anaphylactic reactions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis identified putative Hdc enhancers. Luciferase reporter transcription assay confirmed enhancer activities of putative enhancers in the Hdc gene. The short hairpin RNA knockdown approach was used to determine the role of MITF in regulating mouse and human HDC gene expression. RESULTS:Connective tissue mast cell-specific Gata2-deficient mice did not have IgE/mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis. GATA2 induced the expression of Mitf, Ahr, Ahrr, and Bhlhe40 in mast cells. MITF, but not AHR, AHRR, or BHLHE40, was required for anaphylaxis. MITF bound to an enhancer located 8.8 kb upstream of the transcription start site of the Hdc gene and directed enhancer activity. MITF overexpression largely restored Hdc gene expression in the Gata2-deficient mast cells. In the human mast cell line LAD2, MITF was required for the HDC gene expression and histamine synthesis. CONCLUSION:The transcription factors GATA2 and MITF regulate Hdc gene expression in mast cells and are required for IgE/mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis. 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.10.043
    Human mast cells present antigen to autologous CD4 T cells. Lotfi-Emran Sahar,Ward Brant R,Le Quang T,Pozez Andrea L,Manjili Masoud H,Woodfolk Judith A,Schwartz Lawrence B The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology BACKGROUND:Mast cells (MCs), the primary effector cell of the atopic response, participate in immune defense at host/environment interfaces, yet the mechanisms by which they interact with CD4 T cells has been controversial. OBJECTIVE:We used in situ-matured primary human MCs and matched CD4 T cells to diligently assess the ability of MCs to act as antigen-presenting cells. METHODS:We examined mature human skin-derived MCs using flow cytometry for expression of antigen-presenting molecules, for their ability to stimulate CD4 T cells to express CD25 and proliferate when exposed to superantigen or to cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigen using matched T cells and MCs from CMV-seropositive or CMV-seronegative donors, and for antigen uptake. Subcellular localization of antigen, HLA molecules, and tryptase was analyzed by using structured illumination microscopy. RESULTS:Our data show that IFN-γ induces HLA class II, HLA-DM, CD80, and CD40 expression on MCs, whereas MCs take up soluble and particulate antigens in an IFN-γ-independent manner. IFN-γ-primed MCs guide activation of T cells by Staphylococcus aureus superantigen and, when preincubated with CMV antigens, induce a recall CD4 T1 proliferation response only in CMV-seropositive donors. MCs co-opt their secretory granules for antigen processing and presentation. Consequently, MC degranulation increases surface delivery of HLA class II/peptide, further enhancing stimulation of T-cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS:IFN-γ primes human MCs to activate T cells through superantigen and to present CMV antigen to T1 cells, co-opting MC secretory granules for antigen processing and presentation and creating a feed-forward loop of T-cell-MC cross-activation. 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.02.048
    Mast Cells Are Directly Activated by Cancer Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles by a CD73- and Adenosine-Dependent Mechanism. Gorzalczany Yaara,Merimsky Ofer,Sagi-Eisenberg Ronit Translational oncology We have recently shown that mast cells (MCs), which constitute an important part of the tumor microenvironment (TME), can be directly activated by cancer cells under conditions that recapitulate cell to cell contact. However, MCs are often detected in the tumor periphery rather than intratumorally. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of MC activation by cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here we show that exposure of MCs to EVs derived from pancreatic cancer cells or non-small cell lung carcinoma results in MC activation, evident by the increased phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinases. Further, we show that, similarly to activation by cancer cell contact, activation by EVs is dependent on the ecto enzyme CD73 that mediates extracellular formation of adenosine and on signaling by the A3 adenosine receptor. Finally, we show that activation by either cell contact or EVs upregulates expression of angiogenic and tissue remodeling genes, including IL8, IL6, VEGF, and amphiregulin. Collectively, our findings indicate that both intratumorally localized MCs and peripheral MCs are activated and reprogrammed in the TME either by contact with the cancer cells or by their released EVs. 10.1016/j.tranon.2019.08.005
    Mast cells induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration in non-small cell lung cancer through IL-8/Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Qu Jingjing,Cheng Tianli,Liu Li,Heng Jianfu,Liu Xiaobao,Sun Ziyi,Wang Wenxiang,Li Kunyan,Yang Nong Journal of Cancer : In the various cancer, mast cells (MCs) infiltration is correlated with a worse prognosis. There is an increasing evidence that MCs and their mediators are participated in remodeling of the tumor microenvironment and facilitate tumor growth, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. : The transwell was conducted to evaluate the correlations between MCs and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro. The RNA interference of β-catenin was performed to further explore the signaling pathway. Lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and human MC (HMC-1) were subcutaneously injected into BALB/c nude mice. The conventional experiment methods (such as quantitative RT-PCR Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, and ELISA) were used in the present study. : We found that high density of MCs in NSCLC correlates with worse prognosis. The NSCLC cells could release CCL5 and recruit MCs to the tumor microenvironment. Then, we explored that HMC-1 transplantation accelerated the growth of A549 cell in nude mice. Moreover, the MCs-derived factors were responsible for tumor growth. When NSCLC cells were activated, MCs produced various factors that induced EMT and migration. We also identified that CXCL8/interleukin (IL)-8 served as the major modulator containing in the activated MC conditioned medium. Furthermore, MCs and exogenous IL-8 promoted β-catenin phosphorylation in NSCLC cells. Inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by RNA interference could revert EMT and migration of NSCLC. : Our study suggests that MCs are recruited into NSCLC microenvironment and improve the EMT and migration of cancer cells, thereby accelerating the growth of NSCLC. 10.7150/jca.29953
    Mast cell-based molecular subtypes and signature associated with clinical outcome in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. Bao Xuanwen,Shi Run,Zhao Tianyu,Wang Yanfang Molecular oncology Mast cells are a major component of the immune microenvironment in tumour tissues and modulate tumour progression by releasing pro-tumorigenic and antitumorigenic molecules. Regarding the impact of mast cells on the outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patient, several published studies have shown contradictory results. Here, we aimed at elucidating the role of mast cells in early-stage LUAD. We found that high mast cell abundance was correlated with prolonged survival in early-stage LUAD patients. The mast cell-related gene signature and gene mutation data sets were used to stratify early-stage LUAD patients into two molecular subtypes (subtype 1 and subtype 2). The neural network-based framework constructed with the mast cell-related signature showed high accuracy in predicting response to immunotherapy. Importantly, the prognostic mast cell-related signature predicted the survival probability and the potential relationship between TP53 mutation, c-MYC activation and mast cell activities. The meta-analysis confirmed the prognostic value of the mast cell-related gene signature. In summary, this study might improve our understanding of the role of mast cells in early-stage LUAD and aid in the development of immunotherapy and personalized treatments for early-stage LUAD patients. 10.1002/1878-0261.12670
    Lung cancer-derived extracellular vesicles: a possible mediator of mast cell activation in the tumor microenvironment. Salamon Pazit,Mekori Yoseph A,Shefler Irit Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII Activated mast cells are often found in the tumor microenvironment. They have both pro- and anti-tumorigenic roles, depending on the tumor type. Several lines of evidence suggest that the tumor microenvironment contains multiple soluble factors that can drive mast cell recruitment and activation. However, it is not yet clear how mast cells are activated by tumor cells. In this study, we explored whether tumor-derived microvesicles (TMV) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells interact with human mast cells, activate them to release cytokines, and affect their migratory ability. PKH67-labelled TMV isolated from NSCLC cell lines were found to be internalized by mast cells. This internalization was first noticed after 4 h and peaked within 24 h of co-incubation. Furthermore, internalization of TMV derived from NSCLC cell lines or from surgical lung tissue specimens resulted in ERK phosphorylation, enhanced mast cell migratory ability and increased release of cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α and MCP-1. Our data are thus, consistent with the conclusion that TMV have the potential to influence mast cell activity and thereby, affect tumorigenesis. 10.1007/s00262-019-02459-w
    Mast cells as sources of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Mukai Kaori,Tsai Mindy,Saito Hirohisa,Galli Stephen J Immunological reviews Mast cells are hematopoietic cells that reside in virtually all vascularized tissues and that represent potential sources of a wide variety of biologically active secreted products, including diverse cytokines and growth factors. There is strong evidence for important non-redundant roles of mast cells in many types of innate or adaptive immune responses, including making important contributions to immediate and chronic IgE-associated allergic disorders and enhancing host resistance to certain venoms and parasites. However, mast cells have been proposed to influence many other biological processes, including responses to bacteria and virus, angiogenesis, wound healing, fibrosis, autoimmune and metabolic disorders, and cancer. The potential functions of mast cells in many of these settings is thought to reflect their ability to secrete, upon appropriate activation by a range of immune or non-immune stimuli, a broad spectrum of cytokines (including many chemokines) and growth factors, with potential autocrine, paracrine, local, and systemic effects. In this review, we summarize the evidence indicating which cytokines and growth factors can be produced by various populations of rodent and human mast cells in response to particular immune or non-immune stimuli, and comment on the proven or potential roles of such mast cell products in health and disease. 10.1111/imr.12634
    Mast cells: A double-edged sword in cancer. Derakhshani Afshin,Vahidian Fatemeh,Alihasanzadeh Mohammad,Mokhtarzadeh Ahad,Lotfi Nezhad Parisa,Baradaran Behzad Immunology letters Mast cells (MCs), a type of innate immune cells, are derived from myeloid stem cells, sometimes known as mastocytes or labrocytes, and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. The mentioned cells are able to release various mediators such as cytokines, leukotrienes, and a large number of proteases into the environment. Many studies and experiments have established the infiltration of MCs into the tumor site. However, the findings are highly controversial to determine whether these immune cells contribute to the growth and development of the tumor or cause anti-tumor immune responses. Various studies have revealed that MCs have a pro-tumorigenic or anti-tumorigenic role depending on the type of cancer, the degree of tumor progression, and the location of these immune cells in the tumor bulk. Although these types of immune cells cause angiogenesis and tumor progression in some cancers, they have a significant anti-tumor role in some other types of cancers. In general, although a number of studies have specified the protective role of MCs in cancers, the increased number of MCs in the blood and microenvironment of tumors, as well as the increased level of angiogenesis and tumor progression, has been indicated in another array of studies. The function of MCs against or in favor of the cancers still requires further investigations to more accurately and specifically determine the role of MCs in the cancers. The function of MCs in tumors and their various roles in case of exposure to the cancer cells have been addressed in the present review. The concluding section of the present study recommends a number of methods for modification of MCs in cancer immunotherapy. 10.1016/j.imlet.2019.03.011
    TGF-β1 Suppresses IL-33-Induced Mast Cell Function. Ndaw Victor S,Abebayehu Daniel,Spence Andrew J,Paez Patrick A,Kolawole E Motunrayo,Taruselli Marcela T,Caslin Heather L,Chumanevich Alena P,Paranjape Anuya,Baker Bianca,Barnstein Brian O,Haque Tamara T,Kiwanuka Kasalina N,Oskeritzian Carole A,Ryan John J Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) TGF-β1 is involved in many pathological conditions, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular and allergic diseases. We have previously found that TGF-β1 can suppress IgE-mediated mast cell activation of human and mouse mast cells. IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 family capable of inducing mast cell responses and enhancing IgE-mediated activation. In this study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β on IL-33-mediated mast cell activation. Bone marrow-derived mast cells cultured in TGF-β1, β2, or β3 showed reduced IL-33-mediated production of TNF, IL-6, IL-13, and MCP-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. TGF-β1 inhibited IL-33-mediated Akt and ERK phosphorylation as well as NF-κB- and AP-1-mediated transcription. These effects were functionally important, as TGF-β1 injection suppressed IL-33-induced systemic cytokines in vivo and inhibited IL-33-mediated cytokine release from human mast cells. TGF-β1 also suppressed the combined effects of IL-33 and IgE-mediated activation on mouse and human mast cells. The role of IL-33 in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases is incompletely understood. These findings, consistent with our previously reported effects of TGF-β1 on IgE-mediated activation, demonstrate that TGF-β1 can provide broad inhibitory signals to activated mast cells. 10.4049/jimmunol.1601983
    Mast cells and basophils in inflammatory and tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Marone Gianni,Varricchi Gilda,Loffredo Stefania,Granata Francescopaolo European journal of pharmacology Angiogenesis, namely, the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is an essential process of embryonic development and post-natal growth. In adult life, it may occur in physiological conditions (menstrual cycle and wound healing), during inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases and allergic disorders) and in tumor growth. The angiogenic process requires a tightly regulated interaction among different cell types (e.g. endothelial cells and pericytes), the extracellular matrix, several specific growth factors (e.g. VEGFs, Angiopoietins), cytokines and chemokines. Lymphangiogenesis, namely, the growth of new lymphatic vessels, is an important process in tumor development, in the formation of metastasis and in several inflammatory and metabolic disorders. In addition to tumors, several effector cells of inflammation (mast cells, macrophages, basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, etc.) are important sources of a wide spectrum of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Human mast cells produce a large array of angiogenic and lymphangiogenic molecules. Primary human mast cells and two mast cell lines constitutively express several isoforms of angiogenic (VEGF-A and VEGF-B) and the two lymphangiogenic factors (VEGF-C and VEGF-D). In addition, human mast cells express the VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) and 2 (VEGFR-2), the co-receptors neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and -2 (NRP2) and the Tie1 and Tie2 receptors. Immunologically activated human basophils selectively produce VEGF-A and -B, but not VEGF-C and -D. They also release Angiopoietin1 that activates Tie2 on human mast cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that human mast cells and basophils might participate in the complex network involving inflammatory and tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.088
    Didox (3,4-dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid) suppresses IgE-mediated mast cell activation through attenuation of NFκB and AP-1 transcription. McLeod Jamie Josephine Avila,Caslin Heather L,Spence Andrew J,Kolawole Elizabeth M,Qayum Amina Abdul,Paranjape Anuya,Taruselli Marcela,Haque Tamara T,Kiwanuka Kasalina N,Elford Howard L,Ryan John J Cellular immunology Mast cell activation via the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) elicits production of inflammatory mediators central to allergic disease. As a synthetic antioxidant and a potent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, Didox (3,4-dihyroxybenzohydroxamic acid) has been tested in clinical trials for cancer and is an attractive therapeutic for inflammatory disease. We found that Didox treatment of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) reduced IgE-stimulated degranulation and cytokine production, including IL-6, IL-13, TNF and MIP-1a (CCL3). These effects were consistent using BMMC of different genetic backgrounds and peritoneal mast cells. While the RNR inhibitor hydroxyurea had little or no effect on IgE-mediated function, high concentrations of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine mimicked Didox-mediated suppression. Furthermore, Didox increased expression of the antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and suppressed DCFH-DA fluorescence, indicating reduced reactive oxygen species production. Didox effects were not due to changes in FcεRI expression or cell viability, suggesting it inhibits signaling required for inflammatory cytokine production. In support of this, we found that Didox reduced FcεRI-mediated AP-1 and NFκB transcriptional activity. Finally, Didox suppressed mast cell-dependent, IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo. These data demonstrate the potential use for Didox asa means of antagonizing mast cell responses in allergic disease. 10.1016/j.cellimm.2017.09.008
    Mast cell phenotype, TNFα expression and degranulation status in non-small cell lung cancer. Shikotra A,Ohri C M,Green R H,Waller D A,Bradding P Scientific reports Mast cell infiltration of tumour islets represents a survival advantage in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phenotype and activation status of these mast cells is unknown. We investigated the mast cell phenotype in terms of protease content (tryptase-only [MC], tryptase + chymase [MC]) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) expression, and extent of degranulation, in NSCLC tumour stroma and islets. Surgically resected tumours from 24 patients with extended survival (ES; mean survival 86.5 months) were compared with 25 patients with poor survival (PS; mean survival 8.0 months) by immunohistochemistry. Both MC and MC in tumour islets were higher in ES (20.0 and 5.6 cells/mm respectively) compared to PS patients (0.0 cells/mm) (p < 0.0001). Both phenotypes expressed TNFα in the islets and stroma. In ES 44% of MC and 37% of MC expressed TNFα in the tumour islets. MC in the ES stroma were more degranulated than in those with PS (median degranulation index = 2.24 versus 1.73 respectively) (p = 0.0022), and ES islet mast cells (2.24 compared to 1.71, p < 0.0001). Since both MC and MC infiltrating tumour islets in ES NSCLC patients express TNFα, the cytotoxic activity of this cytokine may confer improved survival in these patients. Manipulating mast cell microlocalisation and functional responses in NSCLC may offer a novel approach to the treatment of this disease. 10.1038/srep38352
    Mast cells decrease efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy by secreting matrix-degrading granzyme B. Wroblewski M,Bauer R,Cubas Córdova M,Udonta F,Ben-Batalla I,Legler K,Hauser C,Egberts J,Janning M,Velthaus J,Schulze C,Pantel K,Bokemeyer C,Loges S Nature communications Resistance towards VEGF-centered anti-angiogenic therapy still represents a substantial clinical challenge. We report here that mast cells alter the proliferative and organizational state of endothelial cells which reduces the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy. Consequently, absence of mast cells sensitizes tumor vessels for anti-angiogenic therapy in different tumor models. Mechanistically, anti-angiogenic therapy only initially reduces tumor vessel proliferation, however, this treatment effect was abrogated over time as a result of mast cell-mediated restimulation of angiogenesis. We show that mast cells secrete increased amounts of granzyme b upon therapy, which mobilizes pro-angiogenic laminin- and vitronectin-bound FGF-1 and GM-CSF from the tumor matrix. In addition, mast cells also diminish efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy by secretion of FGF-2. These pro-angiogenic factors act beside the targeted VEGFA-VEGFR2-axis and reinduce endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis despite the presence of anti-angiogenic therapy. Importantly, inhibition of mast cell degranulation with cromolyn is able to improve efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy. Thus, concomitant mast cell-targeting might lead to improved efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy.Resistance towards VEGF-centered anti-angiogenic therapy is an important clinical challenge. Here, the authors show that mast cells mediate resistance to anti-angiogenetic inhibitors by altering the proliferative and organizational state of endothelial cells through mobilization of FGF-1 and GM-CSF from the tumor matrix and secretion of FGF-2. 10.1038/s41467-017-00327-8
    Is it time for a new classification of mast cells? What do we know about mast cell heterogeneity? Frossi Barbara,Mion Francesca,Sibilano Riccardo,Danelli Luca,Pucillo Carlo E M Immunological reviews Mast cells (MCs) are derived from committed precursors that leave the hematopoietic tissue, migrate in the blood, and colonize peripheral tissues where they terminally differentiate under microenvironment stimuli. They are distributed in almost all vascularized tissues where they act both as immune effectors and housekeeping cells, contributing to tissue homeostasis. Historically, MCs were classified into 2 subtypes, according to tryptic enzymes expression. However, MCs display a striking heterogeneity that reflects a complex interplay between different microenvironmental signals delivered by various tissues, and a differentiation program that decides their identity. Moreover, tissue-specific MCs show a trained memory, which contributes to shape their function in a specific microenvironment. In this review, we summarize the current state of our understanding of MC heterogeneity that reflects their different tissue experiences. We describe the discovery of unique cell molecules that can be used to distinguish specific MC subsets in vivo, and discuss how the improved ability to recognize these subsets provided new insights into the biology of MCs. These recent advances will be helpful for the understanding of the specific role of individual MC subsets in the control of tissue homeostasis, and in the regulation of pathological conditions such as infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. 10.1111/imr.12636
    The relationship between breast cancer molecular subtypes and mast cell populations in tumor microenvironment. Glajcar Anna,Szpor Joanna,Pacek Agnieszka,Tyrak Katarzyna Ewa,Chan Florence,Streb Joanna,Hodorowicz-Zaniewska Diana,Okoń Krzysztof Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology Mast cells (MCs) are a part of the innate immune system. The MC functions toward cancer are partially based on the release of chymase and tryptase. However, the MC effect on breast cancer is controversial. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of MCs in breast cancer tumors of different molecular subtypes and their relationships with other pathological prognostic factors. Tryptase- and chymase-positive mast cell densities were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 108 primary invasive breast cancer tissue samples. Positive cells were counted within the tumor bed and at the invasive margin. For all analyzed MC subpopulations, we observed statistically significant differences between individual molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The significantly higher numbers of intratumoral chymase- and tryptase-positive mast cells were observed in luminal A and luminal B tumors compared to triple-negative and HER2+ non-luminal lesions. A denser MC infiltration was associated with lower tumor grade, higher ER and PR expression, lower proliferation rate as well as the lack of HER2 overexpression. The results obtained in our study indicate a possible association of chymase- and tryptase-positive MCs with more favorable cancer immunophenotype and with beneficial prognostic indicators in breast cancer. 10.1007/s00428-017-2103-5
    Mast cell-neural interactions contribute to pain and itch. Gupta Kalpna,Harvima Ilkka T Immunological reviews Mast cells are best recognized for their role in allergy and anaphylaxis, but increasing evidence supports their role in neurogenic inflammation leading to pain and itch. Mast cells act as a "power house" by releasing algogenic and pruritogenic mediators, which initiate a reciprocal communication with specific nociceptors on sensory nerve fibers. Consequently, nerve fibers release inflammatory and vasoactive neuropeptides, which in turn activate mast cells in a feedback mechanism, thus promoting a vicious cycle of mast cell and nociceptor activation leading to neurogenic inflammation and pain/pruritus. Mechanisms underlying mast cell differentiation, activation, and intercellular interactions with inflammatory, vascular, and neural systems are deeply influenced by their microenvironment, imparting enormous heterogeneity and complexity in understanding their contribution to pain and pruritus. Neurogenic inflammation is central to both pain and pruritus, but specific mediators released by mast cells to promote this process may vary depending upon their location, stimuli, underlying pathology, gender, and species. Therefore, in this review, we present the contribution of mast cells in pathological conditions, including distressing pruritus exacerbated by psychologic stress and experienced by the majority of patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis and in different pain syndromes due to mastocytosis, sickle cell disease, and cancer. 10.1111/imr.12622
    Mast Cell-Dependent CD8 T-cell Recruitment Mediates Immune Surveillance of Intestinal Tumors in Apc Mice. Bodduluri Sobha R,Mathis Steven,Maturu Paramahamsa,Krishnan Elangovan,Satpathy Shuchismita R,Chilton Paula M,Mitchell Thomas C,Lira Sergio,Locati Massimo,Mantovani Alberto,Jala Venkatakrishna R,Haribabu Bodduluri Cancer immunology research The presence of mast cells in some human colorectal cancers is a positive prognostic factor, but the basis for this association is incompletely understood. Here, we found that mice with a heterozygous mutation in the displayed reduced intestinal tumor burdens and increased survival in a chemokine decoy receptor, ACKR2-null background, which led to discovery of a critical role for mast cells in tumor defense. ACKR2Apc tumors showed increased infiltration of mast cells, their survival advantage was lost in mast cell-deficient ACKR2SAApc mice as the tumors grew rapidly, and adoptive transfer of mast cells restored control of tumor growth. Mast cells from ACKR2 mice showed elevated CCR2 and CCR5 expression and were also efficient in antigen presentation and activation of CD8 T cells. Mast cell-derived leukotriene B (LTB) was found to be required for CD8 T lymphocyte recruitment, as mice lacking the LTB receptor (ACKR2BLT1Apc) were highly susceptible to intestinal tumor-induced mortality. Taken together, these data demonstrate that chemokine-mediated recruitment of mast cells is essential for initiating LTB/BLT1-regulated CD8 T-cell homing and generation of effective antitumor immunity against intestinal tumors. We speculate that the pathway reported here underlies the positive prognostic significance of mast cells in selected human tumors. . 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-17-0424
    3-Benzyl-5-((2-nitrophenoxy) methyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one suppresses FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation via the inhibition of mTORC2-Akt signaling. Rakhmanova Valeriya,Park Sukyoung,Lee Sungwook,Kim Young Hyo,Shin Jinwook Biochemical and biophysical research communications Mast cells express high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) on their surface, cross-linking of which leads to the immediate release of proinflammatory mediators such as histamine but also late-phase cytokine secretion, which are central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Despite the growing evidences that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays important roles in the immune system, it is still unclear how mTOR signaling regulates mast cell function. In this study, we investigated the effects of 3-benzyl-5-((2-nitrophenoxy) methyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (3BDO) as an mTOR agonist on FcεRI-mediated allergic responses of mast cells. Our data showed that administration of 3BDO decreased β-hexosaminidase, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) after FcεRI cross-linking, which was associated with an increase in mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling but a decrease in activation of Erk1/2, Jnk, and mTORC2-Akt. In addition, we found that a specific Akt agonist, SC79, is able to fully restore the decrease of β-hexosaminidase release in 3BDO-treated BMMCs but has no effect on IL-6 release in these cells, suggesting that 3BDO negatively regulates FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine release through differential mechanisms in mast cells. The present data demonstrate that proper activation of mTORC1 is crucial for mast cell effector function, suggesting the applicability of the mTORC1 activator as a useful therapeutic agent in mast cell-related diseases. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.10.075
    Mast cells promote small bowel cancer in a tumor stage-specific and cytokine-dependent manner. Saadalla Abdulrahman M,Osman Abu,Gurish Michael F,Dennis Kristen L,Blatner Nichole R,Pezeshki Abdulmohammad,McNagny Kelly M,Cheroutre Hilde,Gounari Fotini,Khazaie Khashayarsha Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident sentinels that mature and orchestrate inflammation in response to infection and allergy. While they are also frequently observed in tumors, the contribution of MCs to carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that sequential oncogenic events in gut epithelia expand different types of MCs in a temporal-, spatial-, and cytokine-dependent manner. The first wave of MCs expands focally in benign adenomatous polyps, which have elevated levels of IL-10, IL-13, and IL-33, and are rich in type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). These vanguard MCs adhere to the transformed epithelial cells and express murine mast cell protease 2 (mMCP2; a typical mucosal MC protease) and, to a lesser extent, the connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) protease mMCP6. Persistence of MCs is strictly dependent on T cell-derived IL-10, and their loss in the absence of IL-10-expressing T cells markedly delays small bowel (SB) polyposis. MCs expand profusely in polyposis-prone mice when T cells overexpress IL-10. The frequency of polyp-associated MCs is unaltered in response to broad-spectrum antibiotics, arguing against a microbial component driving their recruitment. Intriguingly, when polyps become invasive, a second wave of mMCP5/mMCP6 CTMCs expands in the tumor stroma and at invasive tumor borders. Ablation of mMCP6 expression attenuates polyposis, but invasive properties of the remaining lesions remain intact. Our findings argue for a multistep process in SB carcinogenesis in which distinct MC subsets, and their elaborated proteases, guide disease progression. 10.1073/pnas.1716804115
    Although Abundant in Tumor Tissue, Mast Cells Have No Effect on Immunological Micro-milieu or Growth of HPV-Induced or Transplanted Tumors. Ghouse Shanawaz Mohammed,Polikarpova Anastasia,Muhandes Lina,Dudeck Jan,Tantcheva-Poór Iliana,Hartmann Karin,Lesche Matthias,Dahl Andreas,Eming Sabine,Müller Werner,Behrendt Rayk,Roers Axel Cell reports High numbers of mast cells populate the stroma of many types of neoplasms, including human papilloma virus-induced benign and malignant tumors in man and mouse. Equipped with numerous pattern recognition receptors and capable of executing important pro-inflammatory responses, mast cells are considered innate sentinels that significantly impact tumor biology. Mast cells were reported to promote human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and neo-angiogenesis in an HPV-driven mouse model of skin cancer. We analyzed HPV-induced epithelial hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma formation, as well as growth of tumors inoculated into the dermis, in mice lacking skin mast cells. Unexpectedly, the absence of mast cells had no effect on HPV-induced epithelial growth or angiogenesis, on growth kinetics of inoculated tumors, or on the immunological tumor micro-milieu. Thus, the conspicuous recruitment of mast cells into tumor tissues cannot necessarily be equated with important mast cell functions in tumor growth. 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.12.010
    Mast cells signal their importance in health and disease. Olivera Ana,Beaven Michael A,Metcalfe Dean D The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology FcεRI is the primary receptor in mast cells that mediates allergic reactions by inducing rapid release of mediators, an adaptive immune response that might have evolved as a host defense against parasites and venoms. Yet it is apparent that mast cells are also activated through non-IgE receptors, the significance of which is just beginning to be understood. This includes the Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2, which might contribute to reactions to diverse antimicrobials and polybasic compounds, and the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E2, variants of which are associated with familial vibratory urticaria and are activated by mechanical vibration. Similarly, mast cells have long been recognized as the main repository for histamine, heparin, and proteases. Recent evidence also points to new functions, modes of delivery, and mechanisms of action of mast cell proteases that add new dimensions to the roles of mast cells in human biology. In addition, exposure of mast cells to environmental cues can quantitatively and qualitatively modulate their responses and thus their effect on allergic inflammation. Illustrating this paradigm, we summarize a number of recent studies implicating the injury/tissue damage cytokine IL-33 as a modulator of allergen-induced mast cell responses. We also discuss the discovery of markers associated with transformed mast cells and new potential directions in suppressing mast cell activity. 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.01.034
    Mast Cell Responses to Viruses and Pathogen Products. Marshall Jean S,Portales-Cervantes Liliana,Leong Edwin International journal of molecular sciences Mast cells are well accepted as important sentinel cells for host defence against selected pathogens. Their location at mucosal surfaces and ability to mobilize multiple aspects of early immune responses makes them critical contributors to effective immunity in several experimental settings. However, the interactions of mast cells with viruses and pathogen products are complex and can have both detrimental and positive impacts. There is substantial evidence for mast cell mobilization and activation of effector cells and mobilization of dendritic cells following viral challenge. These cells are a major and under-appreciated local source of type I and III interferons following viral challenge. However, mast cells have also been implicated in inappropriate inflammatory responses, long term fibrosis, and vascular leakage associated with viral infections. Progress in combating infection and boosting effective immunity requires a better understanding of mast cell responses to viral infection and the pathogen products and receptors we can employ to modify such responses. In this review, we outline some of the key known responses of mast cells to viral infection and their major responses to pathogen products. We have placed an emphasis on data obtained from human mast cells and aim to provide a framework for considering the complex interactions between mast cells and pathogens with a view to exploiting this knowledge therapeutically. Long-lived resident mast cells and their responses to viruses and pathogen products provide excellent opportunities to modify local immune responses that remain to be fully exploited in cancer immunotherapy, vaccination, and treatment of infectious diseases. 10.3390/ijms20174241
    Mast Cell, the Neglected Member of the Tumor Microenvironment: Role in Breast Cancer. Aponte-López Angélica,Fuentes-Pananá Ezequiel M,Cortes-Muñoz Daniel,Muñoz-Cruz Samira Journal of immunology research Mast cells are unique tissue-resident immune cells that secrete a diverse array of biologically active compounds that can stimulate, modulate, or suppress the immune response. Although mounting evidence supports that mast cells are consistently infiltrating tumors, their role as either a driving or an opposite force for cancer progression is still controversial. Particularly, in breast cancer, their function is still under discussion. While some studies have shown a protective role, recent evidence indicates that mast cells enhance blood and lymphatic vessel formation. Interestingly, one of the most important components of the mast cell cargo, the serine protease tryptase, is a potent angiogenic factor, and elevated serum tryptase levels correlate with bad prognosis in breast cancer patients. Likewise, histamine is known to induce tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth. In agreement, mast cell depletion reduces the size of mammary tumors and metastasis in murine models that spontaneously develop breast cancer. In this review, we will discuss the evidence supporting protumoral and antitumoral roles of mast cells, emphasizing recent findings placing mast cells as important drivers of tumor progression, as well as the potential use of these cells or their mediators as therapeutic targets. 10.1155/2018/2584243
    Future Needs in Mast Cell Biology. Varricchi Gilda,de Paulis Amato,Marone Gianni,Galli Stephen J International journal of molecular sciences The pathophysiological roles of mast cells are still not fully understood, over 140 years since their description by Paul Ehrlich in 1878. Initial studies have attempted to identify distinct "subpopulations" of mast cells based on a relatively small number of biochemical characteristics. More recently, "subtypes" of mast cells have been described based on the analysis of transcriptomes of anatomically distinct mouse mast cell populations. Although mast cells can potently alter homeostasis, in certain circumstances, these cells can also contribute to the restoration of homeostasis. Both solid and hematologic tumors are associated with the accumulation of peritumoral and/or intratumoral mast cells, suggesting that these cells can help to promote and/or limit tumorigenesis. We suggest that at least two major subsets of mast cells, MC1 (meaning anti-tumorigenic) and MC2 (meaning pro-tumorigenic), and/or different mast cell mediators derived from otherwise similar cells, could play distinct or even opposite roles in tumorigenesis. Mast cells are also strategically located in the human myocardium, in atherosclerotic plaques, in close proximity to nerves and in the aortic valve. Recent studies have revealed evidence that cardiac mast cells can participate both in physiological and pathological processes in the heart. It seems likely that different subsets of mast cells, like those of cardiac macrophages, can exert distinct, even opposite, effects in different pathophysiological processes in the heart. In this chapter, we have commented on possible future needs of the ongoing efforts to identify the diverse functions of mast cells in health and disease. 10.3390/ijms20184397
    IL-33-mediated mast cell activation promotes gastric cancer through macrophage mobilization. Eissmann Moritz F,Dijkstra Christine,Jarnicki Andrew,Phesse Toby,Brunnberg Jamina,Poh Ashleigh R,Etemadi Nima,Tsantikos Evelyn,Thiem Stefan,Huntington Nicholas D,Hibbs Margaret L,Boussioutas Alex,Grimbaldeston Michele A,Buchert Michael,O'Donoghue Robert J J,Masson Frederick,Ernst Matthias Nature communications The contribution of mast cells in the microenvironment of solid malignancies remains controversial. Here we functionally assess the impact of tumor-adjacent, submucosal mast cell accumulation in murine and human intestinal-type gastric cancer. We find that genetic ablation or therapeutic inactivation of mast cells suppresses accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages, reduces tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and diminishes tumor burden. Mast cells are activated by interleukin (IL)-33, an alarmin produced by the tumor epithelium in response to the inflammatory cytokine IL-11, which is required for the growth of gastric cancers in mice. Accordingly, ablation of the cognate IL-33 receptor St2 limits tumor growth, and reduces mast cell-dependent production and release of the macrophage-attracting factors Csf2, Ccl3, and Il6. Conversely, genetic or therapeutic macrophage depletion reduces tumor burden without affecting mast cell abundance. Therefore, tumor-derived IL-33 sustains a mast cell and macrophage-dependent signaling cascade that is amenable for the treatment of gastric cancer. 10.1038/s41467-019-10676-1
    Comparative aspects of mast cell neoplasia in animals and the role of KIT in prognosis and treatment. Tamlin Vanessa S,Bottema Cynthia D K,Peaston Anne E Veterinary medicine and science Mast cell neoplasia clinical presentation and biological behaviour vary considerably across mammalian species, ranging from a solitary benign mass to an aggressive systemic malignancy. Mutations in the KIT Proto-Oncogene Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (KIT) gene are common molecular abnormalities involved in mast cell tumorigenesis. KIT mutations often occur in dog, cat and human neoplastic mast cells and result in altered Kit protein structure and function. In dogs, certain KIT mutations are associated with more malignant and lethal disease. In contrast, KIT mutations in feline and human mast cell neoplasms are not correlated with prognosis, but are of value in diagnosis and treatment planning in humans. KIT genetic abnormalities have not been well investigated in other species, although aberrant cytoplasmic Kit protein staining detected in neoplasms of the ferret, horse and cow resembles aberrant Kit staining patterns detected in neoplastic mast cells of dogs, cats and humans. Mutations within KIT are classified as either regulatory-type or enzymatic pocket-type mutations according to their location within the KIT Proto-Oncogene. Mutations within the enzymatic pocket domain confer tumour resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Hence, knowledge of tumour KIT mutation status adds valuable information for optimizing patient treatment strategies. The use of TKIs in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics has opened a new treatment avenue for patients unresponsive to existing drugs. This review highlights the similarities and differences of mast cell neoplasia in mammals with a special focus on the involvement of KIT in the canine and feline forms in comparison to human mast cell neoplasia. 10.1002/vms3.201
    Tumor-infiltrating tryptase mast cells predict unfavorable clinical outcome in solid tumors. Hu Guoming,Wang Shimin,Cheng Pu International journal of cancer The prognostic role of tumor-infiltrating tryptase mast cells in human solid tumors remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis including 28 published studies with 4224 patients identified from PubMed and EBSCO to assess the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating tryptase mast cells in human solid tumors. We found that tryptase mast cell infiltration significantly decreased overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in all types of solid tumors. In stratified analyses, tryptase mast cell infiltration was significantly associated with worse OS in non-small cell lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and 5-year survival in colorectal cancer. And these cells were inversely associated with DFS in hepatocellular and colorectal cancer. In addition, high density of intratumoral tryptase mast cells significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis of solid tumor. In conclusion, Tryptase mast cell infiltration leads to an unfavorable clinical outcome in solid tumors, implicating that it is a valuable biomarker for prognostic prediction for human solid malignances and targeting it may have a potential for effective treatment. 10.1002/ijc.31099
    Mast Cells, Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Human Gastric Cancer. Sammarco Giuseppe,Varricchi Gilda,Ferraro Valentina,Ammendola Michele,De Fazio Michele,Altomare Donato Francesco,Luposella Maria,Maltese Lorenza,Currò Giuseppe,Marone Gianni,Ranieri Girolamo,Memeo Riccardo International journal of molecular sciences Gastric cancer is diagnosed in nearly one million new patients each year and it remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although gastric cancer represents a heterogeneous group of diseases, chronic inflammation has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis. Cancer development is a multistep process characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations during tumour initiation and progression. The stromal microenvironment is important in maintaining normal tissue homeostasis or promoting tumour development. A plethora of immune cells (i.e., lymphocytes, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, Treg cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells) are components of gastric cancer microenvironment. Mast cell density is increased in gastric cancer and there is a correlation with angiogenesis, the number of metastatic lymph nodes and the survival of these patients. Mast cells exert a protumorigenic role in gastric cancer through the release of angiogenic (VEGF-A, CXCL8, MMP-9) and lymphangiogenic factors (VEGF-C and VEGF-F). Gastric mast cells express the programmed death ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) which are relevant as immune checkpoints in cancer. Several clinical undergoing trials targeting immune checkpoints could be an innovative therapeutic strategy in gastric cancer. Elucidation of the role of subsets of mast cells in different human gastric cancers will demand studies of increasing complexity beyond those assessing merely mast cell density and microlocalization. 10.3390/ijms20092106