NDR1-Dependent Regulation of Kindlin-3 Controls High-Affinity LFA-1 Binding and Immune Synapse Organization.
Kondo Naoyuki,Ueda Yoshihiro,Kita Toshiyuki,Ozawa Madoka,Tomiyama Takashi,Yasuda Kaneki,Lim Dae-Sik,Kinashi Tatsuo
Molecular and cellular biology
Antigen-specific adhesion between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC) during the formation of the immunological synapse (IS) is mediated by LFA-1 and ICAM-1. Here, LFA-1-ICAM-1 interactions were measured at the single-molecule level on supported lipid bilayers. High-affinity binding was detected at low frequencies in the inner peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (SMAC) zone that contained high levels of activated Rap1 and kindlin-3. Rap1 was essential for T cell attachment, whereas deficiencies of ste20-like kinases, Mst1/Mst2, diminished high-affinity binding and abrogated central SMAC (cSMAC) formation with mislocalized kindlin-3 and vesicle transport regulators involved in T cell receptor recycling/releasing machineries, resulting in impaired T cell-APC interactions. We found that NDR1 kinase, activated by the Rap1 signaling cascade through RAPL and Mst1/Mst2, associated with and recruited kindlin-3 to the IS, which was required for high-affinity LFA-1/ICAM-1 binding and cSMAC formation. Our findings reveal crucial roles for Rap1 signaling via NDR1 for recruitment of kindlin-3 and IS organization.
Hippo Signal Transduction Mechanisms in T Cell Immunity.
Bouchard Antoine,Witalis Mariko,Chang Jinsam,Panneton Vincent,Li Joanna,Bouklouch Yasser,Suh Woong-Kyung
Hippo signaling pathways are evolutionarily conserved signal transduction mechanisms mainly involved in organ size control, tissue regeneration, and tumor suppression. However, in mammals, the primary role of Hippo signaling seems to be regulation of immunity. As such, humans with null mutations in (mammalian homologue of ; also known as ) suffer from recurrent infections and autoimmune symptoms. Although dysregulated T cell homeostasis and functions have been identified in MST1-deficient human patients and mouse models, detailed cellular and molecular bases of the immune dysfunction remain to be elucidated. Although the canonical Hippo signaling pathway involves transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein (YAP) or transcriptional coactivator with PDZ motif (TAZ), the major Hippo downstream signaling pathways in T cells are YAP/TAZ-independent and they widely differ between T cell subsets. Here we will review Hippo signaling mechanisms in T cell immunity and describe their implications for immune defects found in MST1-deficient patients and animals. Further, we propose that mutual inhibition of Mst and Akt kinases and their opposing roles on the stability and function of forkhead box O and β-catenin may explain various immune defects discovered in mutant mice lacking Hippo signaling components. Understanding these diverse Hippo signaling pathways and their interplay with other evolutionarily-conserved signaling components in T cells may uncover molecular targets relevant to vaccination, autoimmune diseases, and cancer immunotherapies.
T cell receptor "inside-out" pathway via signaling module SKAP1-RapL regulates T cell motility and interactions in lymph nodes.
Raab Monika,Wang Hongyan,Lu Yuning,Smith Xin,Wu Zhonglin,Strebhardt Klaus,Ladbury John E,Rudd Christopher E
Although essential for T cell function, the identity of the T cell receptor "inside-out" pathway for lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) adhesion has proved elusive. Here, we define the "inside-out" pathway mediated by N-terminal SKAP1 (SKAP-55) domain binding to the C-terminal SARAH domain of RapL. TcR induced Rap1-RapL complex formation and LFA-1 binding failed to occur in Skap1(-/-) primary T cells. SKAP1 generated a SKAP1-RapL-Rap1 complex that bound to LFA-1, whereas a RapL mutation (L224A) that abrogated SKAP1 binding without affecting MST1 disrupted component colocalization in vesicles as well as T cell-dendritic cell (DC) conjugation. RapL expression also "slowed" T cell motility in D011.10 transgenic T cells in lymph nodes (LNs), an effect reversed by the L224A mutation with reduced dwell times between T cells and DCs. Overall, our findings define a TCR "inside-out" pathway via N-SKAP1-C-RapL that regulates T cell adhesion, motility, and arrest times with DCs in LNs.
Role of Hippo signaling in regulating immunity.
Hong Lixin,Li Xun,Zhou Dawang,Geng Jing,Chen Lanfen
Cellular & molecular immunology
The Hippo signaling pathway has been established as a key regulator of organ size control, tumor suppression, and tissue regeneration in multiple organisms. Recently, emerging evidence has indicated that Hippo signaling might play an important role in regulating the immune system in both Drosophila and mammals. In particular, patients bearing a loss-of-function mutation of MST1 are reported to have an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome. MST1/2 kinases, the mammalian orthologs of Drosophila Hippo, may activate the non-canonical Hippo signaling pathway via MOB1A/B and/or NDR1/2 or cross-talk with other essential signaling pathways to regulate both innate and adaptive immunity. In this review, we present and discuss recent findings of cellular mechanisms/functions of Hippo signaling in the innate immunity in Drosophila and in mammals, T cell immunity, as well as the implications of Hippo signaling for tumor immunity.
Mst1 regulates integrin-dependent thymocyte trafficking and antigen recognition in the thymus.
Ueda Yoshihiro,Katagiri Koko,Tomiyama Takashi,Yasuda Kaneki,Habiro Katsuyoshi,Katakai Tomoya,Ikehara Susumu,Matsumoto Mitsuru,Kinashi Tatsuo
Thymocyte trafficking has an important role in thymic selection. Here we show that the Hippo homologue Mst1 is required for thymocyte migration and antigen recognition by LFA-1 and ICAM-1 within the medulla. Using two-photon imaging of thymic tissues, we found that highly motile mature thymocytes arrest and are activated in the vicinity of rare populations of Aire(+) ICAM-1(hi) medullary thymic epithelia in a negatively selecting environment. Notably, Mst1 deficiency or blocking the cell adhesion molecules LFA-1 and ICAM-1 results in inefficient migration and antigen recognition of CD4(+) thymocytes within the medulla. Consistent with these defects, thymocyte selection is impaired in Mst1(-/-) mice, which display T cell-dependent inflammatory infiltrates in multiple organs and develop autoantibodies. Our results suggest that Mst1 has a key role in regulating thymocyte self-antigen recognition in the medulla.
The Mst1 and Mst2 kinases control activation of rho family GTPases and thymic egress of mature thymocytes.
Mou Fan,Praskova Maria,Xia Fan,Van Buren Denille,Hock Hanno,Avruch Joseph,Zhou Dawang
The Journal of experimental medicine
The Mst1 kinase is an important regulator of murine T cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. In this study, we analyze mice lacking both Mst1 and Mst2 in hematopoietic cells. Compared with wild-type mice, these double knockout (DKO) mice exhibit a severe reduction in the number of mature T cells in the circulation and in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). CD4(+)CD8(-) and CD4(-)CD8(+) single-positive (SP) thymocytes in DKO mice resemble mature T cells of wild-type mice but undergo excessive apoptosis, and their egress from the thymus is reduced by >90%. Even when placed directly in the circulation, DKO SP thymocytes failed to enter SLOs. In SP thymocytes, deficiency of Mst1 and Mst2 abolished sphingosine-1 phosphate- and CCL21-induced Mob1 phosphorylation, Rac1 and RhoA GTP charging, and subsequent cell migration. When phosphorylated by Mst1 or Mst2, Mob1 binds and activates the Rac1 guanyl nucleotide exchanger Dock8, which is abundant in the thymus. Thus, the Mst1 and Mst2 kinases control Rho GTPase activation and the migratory responses of SP thymocytes.
Non-canonical Hippo signaling regulates immune responses.
Advances in immunology
The Hippo signaling pathway has been shown to play a pivotal role in controlling organ size and maintaining tissue homeostasis in multiple organisms ranging from Drosophila to mammals. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that Hippo signaling is also essential for maintaining the immune system homeostasis. Unlike the canonical Mst-Lats-Yap signal pathway, which controls tissue growth during development and regeneration, most studies regarding Hippo signaling in immune regulation is focusing in Mst1/2, the core kinases of Hippo signaling, cross-talking with other signaling pathways in various immune cells. In particular, patients bearing a loss-of-function mutation of Mst1 develop a complex immunodeficiency syndrome. Regarding the Hippo signaling in innate immunity, we have reported that Mst1/2 kinases are required for phagocytosis and efficient clearance of bacteria in phagocytes by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; and at the same time, by sensing the excessive ROS, Mst1/2 kinases maintain cellular redox homeostasis and prevent phagocytes aging and death through modulating the stability of the key antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. In addition, we have revealed that the Mst1/2 kinases are critical in regulating T cells activation and Mst1/2-TAZ axis regulates the reciprocal differentiation of Treg cells and Th17 cells to modulate autoimmune inflammation by altering interactions between the transcription factors Foxp3 and RORγt. These results indicate that Hippo signaling maintains the balance between tolerance and inflammation of adaptive immunity.
Mst1 controls lymphocyte trafficking and interstitial motility within lymph nodes.
Katagiri Koko,Katakai Tomoya,Ebisuno Yukihiko,Ueda Yoshihiro,Okada Takaharu,Kinashi Tatsuo
The EMBO journal
The regulation of lymphocyte adhesion and migration plays crucial roles in lymphocyte trafficking during immunosurveillance. However, our understanding of the intracellular signalling that regulates these processes is still limited. Here, we show that the Ste20-like kinase Mst1 plays crucial roles in lymphocyte trafficking in vivo. Mst1(-/-) lymphocytes exhibited an impairment of firm adhesion to high endothelial venules, resulting in an inefficient homing capacity. In vitro lymphocyte adhesion cascade assays under physiological shear flow revealed that the stopping time of Mst1(-/-) lymphocytes on endothelium was markedly reduced, whereas their L-selectin-dependent rolling/tethering and transition to LFA-1-mediated arrest were not affected. Mst1(-/-) lymphocytes were also defective in the stabilization of adhesion through alpha4 integrins. Consequently, Mst1(-/-) mice had hypotrophic peripheral lymphoid tissues and reduced marginal zone B cells and dendritic cells in the spleen, and defective emigration of single positive thymocytes. Furthermore, Mst1(-/-) lymphocytes had impaired motility over lymph node-derived stromal cells and within lymph nodes. Thus, our data indicate that Mst1 is a key enzyme involved in lymphocyte entry and interstitial migration.
A cell-intrinsic role for Mst1 in regulating thymocyte egress.
Dong Yongli,Du Xingrong,Ye Jian,Han Min,Xu Tian,Zhuang Yuan,Tao Wufan
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
The MST1 kinase was recently identified as playing an essential role in the promotion of lymphocyte polarization and adhesion stimulated by chemokines and TCR signaling. However, the physiological relevance of the Mst1 pathway in thymocyte development is not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed the effect of Mst1 disruption on thymocyte development and migration. Mst1-deficient (Mst1(-/-)) mice displayed an accumulation of mature thymocytes in the thymus, a dramatic reduction of lymphocytes in blood and peripheral lymphoid tissues, and a decrease of homing ability to peripheral lymph nodes. Mst1(-/-) thymocytes were impaired in chemotactic response to chemokines, such as CCL19, but not to sphingosine-1-phosphate. Further analyses of Mst1(-/-) mice revealed a severe impairment in the egress of mature T cells from the thymus. T lineage-specific knockout of the Mst1 gene demonstrates a cell-intrinsic role for Mst1 in regulating T cell development. Our study indicates that Mst1 is crucial in controlling lymphocyte chemotaxis and thymocyte emigration.
MST1 mutations in autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by defective naive T-cell survival.
Nehme Nadine T,Schmid Jana Pachlopnik,Debeurme Franck,André-Schmutz Isabelle,Lim Annick,Nitschke Patrick,Rieux-Laucat Frédéric,Lutz Patrick,Picard Capucine,Mahlaoui Nizar,Fischer Alain,de Saint Basile Geneviève
The molecular mechanisms that underlie T-cell quiescence are poorly understood. In the present study, we report a primary immunodeficiency phenotype associated with MST1 deficiency and primarily characterized by a progressive loss of naive T cells. The in vivo consequences include recurrent bacterial and viral infections and autoimmune manifestations. MST1-deficient T cells poorly expressed the transcription factor FOXO1, the IL-7 receptor, and BCL2. Conversely, FAS expression and the FAS-mediating apoptotic pathway were up-regulated. These abnormalities suggest that increased cell death of naive and proliferating T cells is the main mechanism underlying this novel immunodeficiency. Our results characterize a new mechanism in primary T-cell immunodeficiencies and highlight a role of the MST1/FOXO1 pathway in controlling the death of human naive T cells.
MST1/MST2 Protein Kinases: Regulation and Physiologic Roles.
Galan Jacob A,Avruch Joseph
The MST1 and MST2 protein kinases comprise the GCK-II subfamily of protein kinases. In addition to their amino-terminal kinase catalytic domain, related to that of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Ste20, their most characteristic feature is the presence near the carboxy terminus of a unique helical structure called a SARAH domain; this segment allows MST1/MST2 to homodimerize and to heterodimerize with the other polypeptides that contain SARAH domains, the noncatalytic polypeptides RASSF1-6 and Sav1/WW45. Early studies emphasized the potent ability of MST1/MST2 to induce apoptosis upon being overexpressed, as well as the conversion of the endogenous MST1/MST2 polypeptides to constitutively active, caspase-cleaved catalytic fragments during apoptosis initiated by any stimulus. Later, the cleaved, constitutively active form of MST1 was identified in nonapoptotic, quiescent adult hepatocytes as well as in cells undergoing terminal differentiation, where its presence is necessary to maintain those cellular states. The physiologic regulation of full length MST1/MST2 is controlled by the availability of its noncatalytic SARAH domain partners. Interaction with Sav1/WW45 recruits MST1/MST2 into a tumor suppressor pathway, wherein it phosphorylates and activates the Sav1-bound protein kinases Lats1/Lats2, potent inhibitors of the Yap1 and TAZ oncogenic transcriptional regulators. A constitutive interaction with the Rap1-GTP binding protein RASSF5B (Nore1B/RAPL) in T cells recruits MST1 (especially) and MST2 as an effector of Rap1's control of T cell adhesion and migration, a program crucial to immune surveillance and response; loss of function mutation in human MST1 results in profound immunodeficiency. MST1 and MST2 are also regulated by other protein kinases, positively by TAO1 and negatively by Par1, SIK2/3, Akt, and cRaf1. The growing list of candidate MST1/MST2 substrates suggests that the full range of MST1/MST2's physiologic programs and contributions to pathophysiology remains to be elucidated.
The Role of Mst1 in Lymphocyte Homeostasis and Function.
Cheng Jiali,Jing Yukai,Kang Danqing,Yang Lu,Li Jingwen,Yu Ze,Peng Zican,Li Xingbo,Wei Yin,Gong Quan,Miron Richard J,Zhang Yufeng,Liu Chaohong
Frontiers in immunology
The Hippo pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway crucial for regulating tissue size and for limiting cancer development. However, recent work has also uncovered key roles for the mammalian Hippo kinases, Mst1/2, in driving appropriate immune responses by directing T cell migration, morphology, survival, differentiation, and activation. In this review, we discuss the classical signaling pathways orchestrated by the Hippo signaling pathway, and describe how Mst1/2 direct T cell function by mechanisms not seeming to involve the classical Hippo pathway. We also discuss why Mst1/2 might have different functions within organ systems and the immune system. Overall, understanding how Mst1/2 transmit signals to discrete biological processes in different cell types might allow for the development of better drug therapies for the treatments of cancers and immune-related diseases.
Rab13 acts downstream of the kinase Mst1 to deliver the integrin LFA-1 to the cell surface for lymphocyte trafficking.
Nishikimi Akihiko,Ishihara Sayaka,Ozawa Madoka,Etoh Kan,Fukuda Mitsunori,Kinashi Tatsuo,Katagiri Koko
In lymphocytes, the kinase Mst1 is required for the proper organization of integrins in the plasma membrane at the leading edge of migrating cells, which is critical for lymphocyte trafficking. We found a functional link between the small G protein Rab13 and Mst1 in lymphocyte adhesion and migration. In response to stimulation of T lymphocytes with chemokine, Mst1 promoted phosphorylation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DENND1C (differentially expressed in normal and neoplastic cells domain 1C), which activated Rab13. Active Rab13 associated with Mst1 to facilitate the delivery of the integrin LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) to the leading edge of lymphocytes. Delivery of LFA-1 involved the recruitment of myosin Va along actin filaments, which extended as a result of the localization of the actin regulatory protein VASP to the cell periphery through phosphorylation of VASP at Ser(157) by Mst1. Inhibition of Rab13 function reduced the adhesion and migration of lymphocytes on ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), the ligand for LFA-1, and inhibited the formation of a ring-like arrangement of LFA-1 at the contact sites between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. The lymphoid tissues of Rab13-deficient mice had reduced numbers of lymphocytes because of the defective trafficking capability of these cells. These results suggest that Rab13 acts with Mst1 to regulate the spatial distribution of LFA-1 and the motility and trafficking of lymphocytes.
Genetic deletion of Mst1 alters T cell function and protects against autoimmunity.
Salojin Konstantin V,Hamman Brian D,Chang Wei Chun,Jhaver Kanchan G,Al-Shami Amin,Crisostomo Jeannette,Wilkins Carrie,Digeorge-Foushee Ann Marie,Allen Jason,Patel Nita,Gopinathan Suma,Zhou Julia,Nouraldeen Amr,Jessop Theodore C,Bagdanoff Jeffrey T,Augeri David J,Read Robert,Vogel Peter,Swaffield Jonathan,Wilson Alan,Platt Kenneth A,Carson Kenneth G,Main Alan,Zambrowicz Brian P,Oravecz Tamas
Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is a MAPK kinase kinase kinase which is involved in a wide range of cellular responses, including apoptosis, lymphocyte adhesion and trafficking. The contribution of Mst1 to Ag-specific immune responses and autoimmunity has not been well defined. In this study, we provide evidence for the essential role of Mst1 in T cell differentiation and autoimmunity, using both genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Absence of Mst1 in mice reduced T cell proliferation and IL-2 production in vitro, blocked cell cycle progression, and elevated activation-induced cell death in Th1 cells. Mst1 deficiency led to a CD4+ T cell development path that was biased toward Th2 and immunoregulatory cytokine production with suppressed Th1 responses. In addition, Mst1-/- B cells showed decreased stimulation to B cell mitogens in vitro and deficient Ag-specific Ig production in vivo. Consistent with altered lymphocyte function, deletion of Mst1 reduced the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and protected against collagen-induced arthritis development. Mst1-/- CD4+ T cells displayed an intrinsic defect in their ability to respond to encephalitogenic antigens and deletion of Mst1 in the CD4+ T cell compartment was sufficient to alleviate CNS inflammation during EAE. These findings have prompted the discovery of novel compounds that are potent inhibitors of Mst1 and exhibit desirable pharmacokinetic properties. In conclusion, this report implicates Mst1 as a critical regulator of adaptive immune responses, Th1/Th2-dependent cytokine production, and as a potential therapeutic target for immune disorders.
The Nore1B/Mst1 complex restrains antigen receptor-induced proliferation of naïve T cells.
Zhou Dawang,Medoff Benjamin D,Chen Lanfen,Li Lequn,Zhang Xian-feng,Praskova Maria,Liu Matthew,Landry Aimee,Blumberg Richard S,Boussiotis Vassiliki A,Xavier Ramnik,Avruch Joseph
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The Mst1 and Mst2 protein kinases are the mammalian homologs of hippo, a major inhibitor of cell proliferation in Drosophila. Mst1 is most abundant in lymphoid tissues. Mice lacking Mst1 exhibit markedly reduced levels of the Mst1 regulatory protein Nore1B/RAPL in lymphoid cells, whereas Mst2 abundance is unaltered. Mst1-null mice exhibit normal T cell development but low numbers of mature naïve T cells with relatively normal numbers of effector/memory T cells. In vitro, the Mst1-deficient naïve T cells exhibit markedly greater proliferation in response to stimulation of the T cell receptor whereas the proliferative responses of the Mst1-null effector/memory T cell cohort is similar to wild type. Thus, elimination of Mst1 removes a barrier to the activation and proliferative response of naïve T cells. The levels of Mst1 and Nore1B/RAPL in wild-type effector/memory T cells are approximately 10% those seen in wild-type naïve T cells, which may contribute to the enhanced proliferative responses of the former. Freshly isolated Mst1-null T cells exhibit high rates of ongoing apoptosis, a likely basis for their low numbers in vivo; they also exhibit defective clustering of LFA-1, as previously observed for Nore1B/RAPL-deficient T cells. Among known Mst1 substrates, only the phosphorylation of the cell cycle inhibitory proteins MOBKL1A/B is lost entirely in TCR-stimulated, Mst1-deficient T cells. Mst1/2-catalyzed MOBKL1A/B phosphorylation slows proliferation and is therefore a likely contributor to the anti-proliferative action of Mst1 in naïve T cells. The Nore1B/RAPL-Mst1 complex is a negative regulator of naïve T cell proliferation.
Mst1 directs Myosin IIa partitioning of low and higher affinity integrins during T cell migration.
Xu Xiaolu,Jaeger Emily R,Wang Xinxin,Lagler-Ferrez Erica,Batalov Serge,Mathis Nancy L,Wiltshire Tim,Walker John R,Cooke Michael P,Sauer Karsten,Huang Yina H
Chemokines promote T cell migration by transmitting signals that induce T cell polarization and integrin activation and adhesion. Mst1 kinase is a key signal mediator required for both of these processes; however, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a mouse model in which Mst1 function is disrupted by a hypomorphic mutation. Microscopic analysis of Mst1-deficient CD4 T cells revealed a necessary role for Mst1 in controlling the localization and activity of Myosin IIa, a molecular motor that moves along actin filaments. Using affinity specific LFA-1 antibodies, we identified a requirement for Myosin IIa-dependent contraction in the precise spatial distribution of low and higher affinity LFA-1 on the membrane of migrating T cells. Mst1 deficiency or Myosin inhibition resulted in multipolar cells, difficulties in uropod detachment and mis-localization of low affinity LFA-1. Thus, Mst1 regulates Myosin IIa dynamics to organize high and low affinity LFA-1 to the anterior and posterior membrane during T cell migration.
MST1 deficiency promotes B cell responses by CD4 T cell-derived IL-4, resulting in hypergammaglobulinemia.
Park Eunchong,Kim Myun Soo,Song Ju Han,Roh Kyung-Hye,Lee Rana,Kim Tae Sung
Biochemical and biophysical research communications
MST1 deficiency causes T and B cell lymphopenia, resulting in combined immunodeficiency. However, MST1-deficient patients also exhibit autoimmune-like symptoms such as hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibody production. Recent studies have shown that the autoimmune responses observed in MST1-deficient patients were most likely attributable to defective regulatory T (Treg) cells instead of intrinsic signals in MST1-lacking B cells. Nevertheless, it is not determined how MST1 deficiency in T cells breaks B cell tolerance and causes systemic autoimmune-like phenotypes. In this study, we confirmed that Mst1 mice developed hypergammaglobulinemia associated with increased levels of IgG, IgA, and IgE. We also showed that uncontrolled B cell responses were resulted from the IL-4-rich environment created by CD4 T cells. Defective MST1-FOXO1 signaling down-regulated Treg cells, resulting in the collapse of immune tolerance where the populations of Th2 and T follicular helper cells expanded. In conclusion, we suggest that MST1 acts as a molecular brake to maintain immune tolerance by regulating T cell-mediated B cell activation.
Mst1-FoxO signaling protects Naïve T lymphocytes from cellular oxidative stress in mice.
Choi Juhyun,Oh Sangphil,Lee Dongjun,Oh Hyun Jung,Park Jik Young,Lee Sean Bong,Lim Dae-Sik
BACKGROUND:The Ste-20 family kinase Hippo restricts cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis for proper organ development in Drosophila. In C. elegans, Hippo homolog also regulates longevity. The mammalian Ste20-like protein kinase, Mst1, plays a role in apoptosis induced by various types of apoptotic stress. Mst1 also regulates peripheral naïve T cell trafficking and proliferation in mice. However, its functions in mammals are not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Here, we report that the Mst1-FoxO signaling pathway plays a crucial role in survival, but not apoptosis, of naïve T cells. In Mst1(-/-) mice, peripheral T cells showed impaired FoxO1/3 activation and decreased FoxO protein levels. Consistently, the FoxO targets, Sod2 and catalase, were significantly down-regulated in Mst1(-/-) T cells, thereby resulting in elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of apoptosis. Expression of constitutively active FoxO3a restored Mst1(-/-) T cell survival. Crossing Mst1 transgenic mice (Mst1 Tg) with Mst1(-/-) mice reduced ROS levels and restored normal numbers of peripheral naïve T cells in Mst1 Tg;Mst1(-/-) progeny. Interestingly, peripheral T cells from Mst1(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to gamma-irradiation and paraquat-induced oxidative stresses, whereas those from Mst1 Tg mice were resistant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:These data support the hypothesis that tolerance to increased levels of intracellular ROS provided by the Mst1-FoxOs signaling pathway is crucial for the maintenance of naïve T cell homeostasis in the periphery.
Mst1 Kinase Regulates the Actin-Bundling Protein L-Plastin To Promote T Cell Migration.
Xu Xiaolu,Wang Xinxin,Todd Elizabeth M,Jaeger Emily R,Vella Jennifer L,Mooren Olivia L,Feng Yunfeng,Hu Jiancheng,Cooper John A,Morley Sharon Celeste,Huang Yina H
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Exploring the mechanisms controlling lymphocyte trafficking is essential for understanding the function of the immune system and the pathophysiology of immunodeficiencies. The mammalian Ste20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) has been identified as a critical signaling mediator of T cell migration, and loss of Mst1 results in immunodeficiency disease. Although Mst1 is known to support T cell migration through induction of cell polarization and lamellipodial formation, the downstream effectors of Mst1 are incompletely defined. Mice deficient for the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) have phenotypes similar to mice lacking Mst1, including decreased T cell polarization, lamellipodial formation, and cell migration. We therefore asked whether LPL functions downstream of Mst1. The regulatory N-terminal domain of LPL contains a consensus Mst1 phosphorylation site at Thr(89) We found that Mst1 can phosphorylate LPL in vitro and that Mst1 can interact with LPL in cells. Removal of the Mst1 phosphorylation site by mutating Thr(89) to Ala impaired localization of LPL to the actin-rich lamellipodia of T cells. Expression of the T89A LPL mutant failed to restore migration of LPL-deficient T cells in vitro. Furthermore, expression of T89A LPL in LPL-deficient hematopoietic cells, using bone marrow chimeras, failed to rescue the phenotype of decreased thymic egress. These results identify LPL as a key effector of Mst1 and establish a novel mechanism linking a signaling intermediate to an actin-binding protein critical to T cell migration.
Enhanced cytotoxic T-cell function and inhibition of tumor progression by Mst1 deficiency.
Yasuda Kaneki,Ueda Yoshihiro,Ozawa Madoka,Matsuda Tadashi,Kinashi Tatsuo
Mammalian ste-20 like kinase Mst1 plays important roles during apoptosis, proliferation, cell polarity, and migration. Here, we report a novel role of Mst1 for cytotoxic T-cell responses and tumor suppression. The defect of Mst1 caused decreased levels of FoxO, and promoted cytotoxicity in vitro. Mst1(-/-) cytotoxic T cells also exhibited enhanced T-bet expression that was associated with elevated expression levels of IFNγ and granzyme B. Moreover, Mst1(-/-) cytotoxic T cells suppressed tumor growth in vivo. The data suggest that Mst1 inhibits cytotoxicity via T-bet suppression by FoxO1 and FoxO3a. Thus, Mst1 is a potential therapeutic target for tumor immunotherapy.
Hippo Pathway Kinase Mst1 Is Required for Long-Lived Humoral Immunity.
Bagherzadeh Yazdchi Sahar,Witalis Mariko,Meli Alexandre P,Leung Joanne,Li Xin,Panneton Vincent,Chang Jinsam,Li Joanna,Nutt Stephen L,Johnson Randy L,Lim Dae-Sik,Gu Hua,King Irah L,Suh Woong-Kyung
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
The protein kinase Mst1 is a key component of the evolutionarily conserved Hippo pathway that regulates cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In humans, Mst1 deficiency causes primary immunodeficiency. Patients with MST1-null mutations show progressive loss of naive T cells but, paradoxically, mildly elevated serum Ab titers. Nonetheless, the role of Mst1 in humoral immunity remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that early T cell-dependent IgG1 responses in young adult Mst1-deficient mice were largely intact with signs of impaired affinity maturation. However, the established Ag-specific IgG1 titers in Mst1-deficient mice decayed more readily because of a loss of Ag-specific but not the overall bone marrow plasma cells. Despite the impaired affinity and longevity of Ag-specific Abs, Mst1-deficient mice produced plasma cells displaying apparently normal maturation markers with intact migratory and secretory capacities. Intriguingly, in immunized Mst1-deficient mice, T follicular helper cells were hyperactive, expressing higher levels of IL-21, IL-4, and surface CD40L. Accordingly, germinal center B cells progressed more rapidly into the plasma cell lineage, presumably forgoing rigorous affinity maturation processes. Importantly, Mst1-deficient mice had elevated levels of CD138Blimp1 splenic plasma cell populations, yet the size of the bone marrow plasma cell population remained normal. Thus, overproduced low-affinity plasma cells from dysregulated germinal centers seem to underlie humoral immune defects in Mst1-deficiency. Our findings imply that vaccination of Mst1-deficient human patients, even at the early stage of life, may fail to establish long-lived high-affinity humoral immunity and that prophylactic Ab replacement therapy can be beneficial to the patients.
MST1/2 Balance Immune Activation and Tolerance by Orchestrating Adhesion, Transcription, and Organelle Dynamics in Lymphocytes.
Ueda Yoshihiro,Kondo Naoyuki,Kinashi Tatsuo
Frontiers in immunology
The STE20-like serine/threonine kinases MST1 and MST2 (MST1/2) are mammalian homologs of Hippo in flies. MST1/2 regulate organ size by suppressing the transcription factor YAP, which promotes proliferation. MST1 is predominantly expressed in immune cells, where it plays distinct roles. Here, we review the functions of MST1/2 in immune cells, uncovered by a series of recent studies, and discuss the connection between MST1/2 function and immune responses. MST1/2 regulate lymphocyte development, trafficking, survival, and antigen recognition by naive T cells. MST1/2 also regulate the function of regulatory T cells and effector T cell differentiation, thus acting to balance immune activation and tolerance. Interestingly, MST1/2 elicit these functions not by the "canonical" Hippo pathway, but by the non-canonical Hippo pathway or alternative pathways. In these pathways, MST1/2 regulates cellular processes relating to immune response, such as chemotaxis, cell adhesion, immunological synapse, gene transcriptions. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these processes have revealed important roles of MST1/2 in regulating cytoskeleton remodeling, integrin activation, and vesicular transport in lymphocytes. We discuss the significance of the MST1/2 signaling in lymphocytes in the regulation of organelle dynamics.