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    Melatonin and Fertoprotective Adjuvants: Prevention against Premature Ovarian Failure during Chemotherapy. Jang Hoon,Hong Kwonho,Choi Youngsok International journal of molecular sciences Premature ovarian failure is one of the side effects of chemotherapy in pre-menopausal cancer patients. Preservation of fertility has become increasingly important in improving the quality of life of completely recovered cancer patients. Among the possible strategies for preserving fertility such as ovarian tissue cryopreservation, co-treatment with a pharmacological adjuvant is highly effective and poses less of a burden on the human body. Melatonin is generally produced in various tissues and acts as a universally acting antioxidant in cells. Melatonin is now more widely used in various biological processes including treating insomnia and an adjuvant during chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the information indicating that melatonin may be useful for reducing and preventing premature ovarian failure in chemotherapy-treated female patients. We also mention that many adjuvants other than melatonin are developed and used to inhibit chemotherapy-induced infertility. This information will give us novel insights on the clinical use of melatonin and other agents as fertoprotective adjuvants for female cancer patients. 10.3390/ijms18061221
    Effect of human amniotic epithelial cells on ovarian function, fertility and ovarian reserve in primary ovarian insufficiency rats and analysis of underlying mechanisms by mRNA sequencing. Zhang Yulin,Ouyang Xiaolan,You Shuang,Zou Heng,Shao Xiaoyan,Zhang Guanghui,Zhang Chanyu,Hu Lina American journal of translational research Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) show similar features to stem cells and have low immunogenicity. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of hAEC transplantation on cyclophosphamide-induced primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) rats and evaluate the underlying mechanisms by mRNA sequencing of ovarian samples. Notably, hAECs mainly located in the interstitial area of the ovaries rather than follicles. hAEC transplantation led to a slight increase in body and ovary weight, normalized irregular estrous cycles, decreased serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and increased anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level and restored follicle pools in POI rats. Ovarian expression of AMH, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and klotho in POI rats was also significantly upregulated following hAEC transplantation. Fetus number was higher in the hAEC transplantation group than the POI group. The mRNA sequencing results showed that hAEC transplantation led to the upregulation of several angiogenesis and inflammation molecules including interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), Mx dynamin-like GTPase 1 (Mx1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)1 and VEGFR2. Moreover, hAEC therapy had an effect on ribosomes, protein digestion, protein absorption, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, cAMP signaling pathway and steroid biosynthesis pathways. The expression of several steroid biosynthesis proteins was significantly upregulated as measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. In summary, hAECs can significantly restore ovarian function, and improve both ovarian reserve and fertility. This may be due to the paracrine effect of hAECs in regulating steroid biosynthesis, modulating follicle development from initiation to ovulation, promoting angiogenesis and reducing inflammation.
    Therapeutic efficacy of amniotic membrane stem cells and adipose tissue stem cells in rats with chemically induced ovarian failure. Fouad Hanan,Sabry Dina,Elsetohy Khaled,Fathy Naglaa Journal of advanced research The present study was conducted to compare between the therapeutic efficacies of human amniotic membrane-derived stem cells (hAM-MSCs) vs. adipose tissue derived stem cells (AD-MSCs) in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced ovarian failure in rats. Forty-eight adult female rats were included in the study; 10 rats were used as control group. Thirty-eight rats were injected with CTX to induce ovarian failure and divided into four groups: ovarian failure (IOF) (IOF group), IOF + phosphate buffer saline (PBS group), IOF + hAM-MSCs group and IOF + AD-MSCs group. Serum levels of FSH and estradiol (E2) were assessed. Histopathological examination of the ovarian tissues was performed and quantitative gene expressions of Oct-4, Stra8 and integrin beta-1 genes were conducted by quantitative real time PCR. Results showed that IOF and IOF + PBS rat groups exhibited decreased ovarian follicles, increased interstitial fibrosis with significant decrease of serum E2, significant increase serum FSH level and significant down-regulation of Stra8 and integrin beta-1. In hAM-MSCs and AD-MSCs rat groups, there were increased follicles and corpora with evident the presence of oocytes, significant increase in serum E2, significant decrease in serum FSH levels (in hAM-MSCs treated group only) and significant up-regulation of the three studied genes with higher levels in hAM-MSCs treated rats group when compared to AD-MSCs treated rats group. In Conclusion, administration of either hAM-derived MSCs or AD-MSCs exerts a significant therapeutic efficacy in chemotherapy induced ovarian insult in rats. hAM-MSCs exert higher therapeutic efficacy as compared to AD-MSCs. 10.1016/j.jare.2015.05.002
    Small extracellular vesicles derived from embryonic stem cells restore ovarian function of premature ovarian failure through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Liu Mengyu,Qiu Yu,Xue Zhuowei,Wu Ruoyu,Li Jie,Niu Xin,Yuan Ji,Wang Yang,Wu Qingkai Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Premature ovarian failure (POF) has a great impact on reproductive endocrine function in females, and it is an important cause of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) derived from stem cells play an important role in tissue regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of sEVs derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs-sEVs) on damaged ovaries and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS:Mice POF models were established by injecting mice with cyclophosphamide and busulfan. Then, ESCs-sEVs were intravenously transplanted into POF mice. The plasma of mice was harvested at 1 and 2 weeks after treatment to analyze the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), estradiol (E), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by ELISA. The morphology of ovaries and follicles was observed by H&E staining, and apoptosis of granulosa cells was detected by TUNEL. In vitro, EdU and CCK-8 tests were used to evaluate the proliferation of cultured granulosa cells stimulated by ESCs-sEVs. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of PI3K/AKT and apoptotic-related proteins. RESULTS:After transplantation of ESCs-sEVs, the levels of serum sex hormones recovered to normal levels. In addition, the number of follicles was significantly increased, and the number of apoptotic cells was decreased. The results in vitro revealed that ESCs-sEVs could significantly improve the proliferation rate of granulosa cells and increase the expression of phosphorylated PI3K and AKT. Meanwhile, the positive effect on proliferation and the negative effect on apoptosis observed in granulosa cells were obviously decreased when the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was inhibited. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggested that ESCs-sEVs could improve ovarian function by regulating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, which could provide a promising clinical therapy for POF. 10.1186/s13287-019-1508-2
    Niacin Inhibits Apoptosis and Rescues Premature Ovarian Failure. Wang Shufang,Sun Min,Yu Ling,Wang Yixuan,Yao Yuanqing,Wang Deqing Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology BACKGROUND/AIMS:Over 99% of mouse and human ovarian follicles will undergo specialized cell death including atresia and apoptosis. Reduction of apoptosis may help reduce infertility and maintain the reproductive ability in women. METHODS:3-day B6D2F1 mice were used to culture small follicle and ovary tissue with niacin and 18-day mice were intraperitoneal injected with niacin to determine its effect on follicle development. Then establish 8-weeks POF animal model with cytoxan (CTX) or radiation. Treatment group was given 0.1 mL of 100 mM niacin by an intraperitoneal injection twice before ovulation. The ovaries were collected and the follicles were counted and categorized, and ovarian histologic sections were stained for TUNEL. Ovarian function was then evaluated by monitoring ovulation. Microarray analyses, Western blot, immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR were used to assess the mechanism of ovarian injury and repair. RESULTS:We found that niacin promotes follicle growth in the immature oocyte and it increased the levels of a germ-line cell marker DDX4, and a cell proliferation marker PCNA in the ovary. Addition of niacin to the cell culture reduced oocyte apoptosis in vitro. Administration of niacin to treat premature ovarian failure (POF) in mouse models showed inhibition of follicular apoptosis under harmful conditions, such as radiation and chemotherapy damage, by markedly reducing cumulus cell apoptosis. Additionally, the number of developing follicles increased after administration of niacin. CONCLUSION:Niacin may have an important function in treating POF by reducing apoptosis in clinical applications. 10.1159/000495051
    Transplantation of human menstrual blood stem cells to treat premature ovarian failure in mouse model. Liu Te,Huang Yongyi,Zhang Jian,Qin Wenxing,Chi Huiying,Chen Jiulin,Yu Zhihua,Chen Chuan Stem cells and development The incidence of premature ovarian failure (POF), also known as ovarian insufficiency, has been increasing in recent years. Although some treatments are currently available, improved treatment strategies are urgently required. Many researchers have reported that human endometrial stem cells (HuMenSCs), which exhibit stem/progenitor cell properties in vitro repaired damaged cells in vivo. Thus, we aimed to determine whether HuMenSCs can serve as cell therapy tools and be used for the treatment of POF. After treating with cyclophosphamide, on the first estrus period (we predicted mouse estrus cycle was generally 5 days), HuMenSCs were injected into a cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model of POF. The results revealed that the HuMenSCs could survive within POF mouse ovaries for at least 14 days in vivo; further, ovaries of the HuMenSCs-transplanted group expressed higher levels of ovarian markers [AMH, inhibin α/β, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR)], and the proliferative marker Ki67. In addition, the ovarian weight, plasma E2 level, and the number of normal follicles increased over time in the HuMenSC group compared with the control group. Further, microarray analysis of cDNA expression patterns revealed that, after HuMenSC transplantation, the gene mRNA expression patterns in the ovarian cells following stimulation of the host ovarian niche became increasingly similar to those observed in human ovarian tissue compared with the pretransplantation mRNA expression pattern in HuMenSCs. Hence, we can safely conclude that the mesenchymal stem cell properties and in vivo survival of HuMenSCs make them ideal seed cells for stem cell transplantation in the treatment of POF. 10.1089/scd.2013.0371
    Heat shock pretreatment of mesenchymal stem cells for inhibiting the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells enhanced the repair effect on chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure. Chen Xiaoying,Wang Qing,Li Xinran,Wang Qingru,Xie Jiaxin,Fu Xiafei Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a severe complication associated with chemotherapy for female patients of childbearing age. A previous study has shown that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can partially repair the damaged ovarian structure and function following chemotherapy. Heat shock (HS) is a pretreatment to enhance cell survival. The present study aimed to demonstrate the repair effect and potential working mechanism of HS MSCs on chemotherapy-induced POF. METHODS:Rat MSCs were isolated, cultured and identified. At 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after different strengths of HS pretreatment for 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h, apoptosis of MSCs was detected to determine the optimal conditions. Apoptosis and cell proliferation changes of MSCs were detected under the optimal conditions of HS. Apoptosis of HS preconditioned MSCs was detected after adding phosphamide mustard (PM) to mimic the microenvironment under chemotherapy. Rat granulosa cells (GCs) were isolated and cultured. PM was added and apoptosis of GCs was detected after coculture with the pretreated MSCs. The rat model of chemotherapy-induced POF was established and the pretreated MSCs were injected into bilateral ovaries. Ovarian structure and endocrine function were evaluated by ovary weight, follicle count, estrous cycle and sex hormone levels. Apoptosis of GCs was detected by TUNEL assay. RESULTS:The apoptosis rate of MSCs with 1 h of HS pretreatment decreased significantly, so 1 h was considered the optimal duration. Under this condition, the reduction in the apoptosis rate persisted until 120 h after the pretreatment and cell proliferation was accelerated. After HS pretreatment, MSCs displayed an increased tolerance to microenvironment under chemotherapy. After coculture with the HS-pretreated MSCs, PM-induced apoptosis of GCs decreased. Injection of the pretreated MSCs into the rat ovaries caused an increase in ovary weight and the number of follicles at different stages of estradiol levels, and a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone levels and apoptosis of GCs in the POF model. CONCLUSION:HS pretreatment enhanced the repair effect of MSCs on chemotherapy-induced POF. The reason for this may be the further vitality enhancement of MSCs, which led to a greater inhibition of apoptosis of GCs. 10.1186/s13287-018-0964-4
    Immunomodulatory effect of human amniotic epithelial cells on restoration of ovarian function in mice with autoimmune ovarian disease. Zhang Qiuwan,Huang Yating,Sun Junyan,Gu Tingting,Shao Xiaoyan,Lai Dongmei Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica Autoimmune ovarian disease (AOD) is considered to be a major cause of premature ovarian failure (POF). The immunomodulatory properties of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) have been studied in many disease models. We previously reported that hAECs restored ovarian function in chemotherapy-induced POF mice, but the immunomodulatory mechanism of hAECs is still unclear. To investigate the effect of hAECs on recipient mice, especially on regulatory Treg cells, hAECs and hAEC-conditioned medium (hAEC-CM) were intravenously injected into AOD mice immunized with zona pellucida protein 3 peptides (pZP3). Ovarian function was evaluated through estrous cycle, hormone secretion, follicle development, and cell apoptosis analysis. Immune cells including CD3, CD4, CD8 and Treg cells in the spleens were tested by flow cytometry. To elucidate the effect of hAEC-CM on macrophage function, inflammation model in vitro was established in RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). hAECs and hAEC-CM regulated estrous cycles, promoted follicle development, ameliorated cell apoptosis and fibrosis in ovaries of AOD mice. In addition, hAECs significantly reversed the decrease of pZP3-induced Treg cells in the spleens. In vitro, hAEC-CM significantly inhibited the inflammatory reaction induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells via up-regulating the expression of M2 macrophage genes. Further study demonstrated that hAEC-secreted transforming growth factor-beta and macrophage inhibitory factor played important roles in the macrophage polarization and migration under inflammatory stimulation. Taken together, hAECs restored ovarian function by up-regulating Treg cells in the spleens and reduced the inflammatory reaction via modulating the activated macrophage function in a paracrine manner in the ovaries of AOD mice. 10.1093/abbs/gmz065
    The therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in premature ovarian failure. He Yantao,Chen Dongmei,Yang Lingling,Hou Qiaoni,Ma Huiming,Xu Xian Stem cell research & therapy With the development of regenerative medicine, a variety of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are increasingly considered for the treatment of premature ovarian failure (POF). Reportedly, bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) improve the ovarian reserve, which mainly depends on homing and paracrine activities. Furthermore, paracrine factors secreted by these stem cells play an important role in ovarian recovery. Relevant studies indicate that BMSC transplantation has some positive effects on the treatment of POF in animals, but BMSCs are not widely applied in clinical therapy. Clinical trials are ongoing despite the fact that several patients experiencing BMSC transplantation recover their normal menstrual cycles and even give birth to babies. In this review, we discuss the possible therapeutic mechanisms of BMSCs for POF, migration, antiapoptosis, antifibrosis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, and oxidative stress, which provide the theoretical basis for further study and clinical therapy. 10.1186/s13287-018-1008-9
    Premature ovarian failure with 46,XX,t(1;4)(p34.1;q34): first case report and literature review. Vichinsartvichai P,Manolertthewan C,Promrungrueng P Climacteric : the journal of the International Menopause Society OBJECTIVES:To describe the first case of premature ovarian failure with a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 1 and 4 and to review all the related literature. METHODS:A 39-year-old multigravida woman with secondary amenorrhea consulted for evaluation. High-resolution chromosomal evaluation, sonographic images of the reproductive organs and assessment of endogenous hormone production were performed. RESULTS:We identified a de novo balanced translocation 46,XX, t(1;4)(p34.1;q34) in our premature ovarian failure patient without other abnormalities of reproductive organs. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the cases of premature ovarian failure are associated with the X chromosome. To the best of our knowledge, only 23 cases of autosomal abnormalities associated with premature ovarian failure have been reported and our case was the first with translocation between chromosomes 1 and 4. The cause of late-onset premature ovarian failure in our case might be associated with the caspase-3 gene, which is located on chromosome 4q34 and controls follicle apoptosis. 10.3109/13697137.2014.992013
    Current approaches for the treatment of premature ovarian failure with stem cell therapy. Sheikhansari Golshan,Aghebati-Maleki Leili,Nouri Mohammad,Jadidi-Niaragh Farhad,Yousefi Mehdi Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie One of the common disorders found in women is premature ovarian failure (POF). Recently some studies have explained premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). The causes of it are unknown although various types of study have been done. The most common causes such as genetic and autoimmune conditions can have a role in POF and can lead to infertility. Some characterization of POF are hypo-oestrogenism (estrogen deficiency), increased gonadotropin level and most importantly amenorrhea. The main purpose of this review is to describe the cause and treatment of POF, especially stem cell therapy proposed in previous studies. Stem cells have self-renewal and regeneration potential, hence they can be very effective in the treatment of ovarian failure and consequently infertility. There are several kinds of stem cells such as, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), stem cells from extra-embryonic tissues, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and ovarian stem cells that are used in POF stem cell therapy as observed in previous studies. This article reviews the latest studies on POF to summarize current understanding and future directions. 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.03.056
    Early-Onset Complete Ovarian Failure and Lack of Puberty in a Woman With Mutated Estrogen Receptor β (ESR2). Lang-Muritano Mariarosaria,Sproll Patrick,Wyss Sascha,Kolly Anne,Hürlimann Renate,Konrad Daniel,Biason-Lauber Anna The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism Context:Estrogen resistance due to mutations in the estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) has been described in men and women and is characterized by osteoporosis, delayed bone age and continuous growth in adulthood, and delayed puberty and multiple ovarian cysts in women. Although mutations in the estrogen receptor β gene ESR2 were found in 46, XY patients with differences of sex development, no genetic variants of ESR2 were linked to gonadal defects in women. Settings and Patient:Here we describe a 16-year-old female patient who came to our tertiary care hospital with complete lack of estrogen action, as demonstrated by absent breast development, primary amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, resembling patients with ESR1 mutation. However, her gonads were clearly abnormal (streak), a finding not observed in ESR1-deficient patients. Design:To gain insights into the molecular consequences of the ESR2 defect, whole exome sequencing and extensive functional transactivation studies in ovarian, bone, and breast cells were conducted, with or without the natural activator of estrogen receptors, 17β-estradiol. Results:We identified a loss-of-function heterozygous mutation of a highly conserved residue in ESR2 that disrupts estradiol-dependent signaling and has a dominant negative effect, most likely due to failure to interact with its coactivator, nuclear coactivator 1. Conclusions:This is a report of a loss-of-function mutation in the estrogen receptor β in a young woman with complete ovarian failure, suggesting that ESR2 is necessary for human ovarian determination and/or maintenance and that ESR1 is not sufficient to sustain ovarian function in humans. 10.1210/jc.2018-00769
    Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells restore ovarian function through improving the renewal of germline stem cells in a mouse model of premature ovarian failure. Lai Dongmei,Wang Fangyuan,Yao Xiaofen,Zhang Qiuwan,Wu Xiaoxing,Xiang Charlie Journal of translational medicine BACKGROUND:Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EnSCs) derived from menstrual blood have mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) characteristics and can differentiate into cell types that arise from all three germ layers. We hypothesized that EnSCs may offer promise for restoration of ovarian dysfunction associated with premature ovarian failure/insufficiency (POF/POI). METHODS:Mouse ovaries were injured with busulfan and cyclophosphamide (B/C) to create a damaged ovary mouse model. Transplanted EnSCs were injected into the tail vein of sterilized mice (Chemoablated with EnSCs group; n = 80), or culture medium was injected into the sterilized mice via the tail vein as chemoablated group (n = 80). Non-sterilized mice were untreated controls (n = 80). Overall ovarian function was measured using vaginal smears, live imaging, mating trials and immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS:EnSCs transplantation increased body weight and improved estrous cyclicity as well as restored fertility in sterilized mice. Migration and localization of GFP-labeled EnSCs as measured by live imaging and immunofluorescent methods indicated that GFP-labeled cells were undetectable 48 h after cell transplantation, but were later detected in and localized to the ovarian stroma. 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and mouse vasa homologue (MVH) protein double-positive cells were immunohistochemically detected in mouse ovaries, and EnSC transplantation reduced depletion of the germline stem cell (GSCs) pool induced by chemotherapy. CONCLUSION:EnSCs derived from menstrual blood, as autologous stem cells, may restore damaged ovarian function and offer a suitable clinical strategy for regenerative medicine. 10.1186/s12967-015-0516-y
    Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Prevents Chemotherapy-Induced Ovarian Failure via the NGF/TrkA Pathway in Rats. Zheng Qun,Fu Xiaoyan,Jiang Jinzhan,Zhang Ning,Zou Libo,Wang Wenqian,Ding Mingxing,Chen Haohao BioMed research international Chemotherapy leads to a loss of fertility and reproductive endocrine function, thereby increasing the risk of premature ovarian failure (POF). Studies have suggested that the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells could inhibit apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells and improve follicular development. In the present study, the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UCMSC) transplantation on ovarian function after ovarian damage caused by chemotherapy and the mechanism underlying these effects were investigated. POF model rats were obtained by the intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide, and cultured UCMSCs were transplanted by tail vein injection. Serum estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, gonadotropin releasing hormone, and anti-Mullerian hormone levels were detected by ELISA. Folliculogenesis was evaluated by histopathological examination. The expression levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), high affinity nerve growth factor receptor (TrkA), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and caspase-3 were evaluated by western blotting and RT-qPCR. The natural reproductive capacity was assessed by pregnant rate and numbers of embryos. The results indicated that UCMSC transplantation recovered disturbed hormone secretion and folliculogenesis in POF rats. NGF and TrkA levels increased, while FSHR and caspase-3 decreased. The pregnancy rate of POF rats was improved. Therefore, UCMSCs could reduce ovarian failure due to premature senescence caused by chemotherapy, and the NGF/TrkA signaling pathway was involved in the amelioration of POF. 10.1155/2019/6539294
    Resveratrol Plays a Protective Role against Premature Ovarian Failure and Prompts Female Germline Stem Cell Survival. Jiang Yu,Zhang Zhaoyuan,Cha Lijun,Li Lili,Zhu Dantian,Fang Zhi,He Zhiqiang,Huang Jian,Pan Zezheng International journal of molecular sciences This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol (RES) on premature ovarian failure (POF) and the proliferation of female germline stem cells (FGSCs) at the tissue and cell levels. POF mice were lavaged with RES, and POF ovaries were co-cultured with RES and/or GANT61 in vitro. FGSCs were pretreated with Busulfan and RES and/or GANT61 and co-cultured with M1 macrophages, which were pretreated with RES. The weights of mice and their ovaries, as well as their follicle number, were measured. Ovarian function, antioxidative stress, inflammation, and FGSCs survival were evaluated. RES significantly increased the weights of POF mice and their ovaries as well as the number of follicles, while it decreased the atresia rate of follicles. Higher levels of Mvh, Oct4, SOD2, GPx, and CAT were detected after treatment with RES in vivo and in vitro. RES treatment resulted in significantly lower TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations and an obviously higher IL-10 concentration in the ovaries. In FGSCs, higher Mvh, Oct4, and SOD2 concentrations and lower TNF-α, IL-6, and MDA concentrations were measured in the RES group. Blockage of the Hh signaling pathway reversed the protective effect of RES on FGSCs. In conclusion, RES effectively improved the ovarian function of the POF model and the productive capacity of FGSCs via relieving oxidative stress and inflammation and a mechanism involving the Hh signaling pathway, suggesting that RES is a potential agent against POF and can aid in the survival of FGSCs. 10.3390/ijms20143605
    Effects of hPMSCs on granulosa cell apoptosis and AMH expression and their role in the restoration of ovary function in premature ovarian failure mice. Zhang Hongqin,Luo Qianqian,Lu Xueyan,Yin Na,Zhou Dongli,Zhang Lianshuang,Zhao Wei,Wang Dong,Du Pengchao,Hou Yun,Zhang Yan,Yuan Wendan Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:This study was performed to determine the effects of human placenta mesenchymal stem cell (hPMSC) transplantation on granulosa cell apoptosis and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in autoimmune drug-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) mice. The aim of this research is to investigate the mechanisms of hPMSCs on ovarian reserve capacity. METHODS:The POF mice model was established by injection of zona pellucida 3 peptide (pZP3). hPMSC transplantation was conducted by intravenous injection into mice following pZP3 treatment. The follicle number was examined by histopathology. The serum levels of FSH, LH, E, AMH and anti-zona pellucida antibody (AzpAb) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AMH and FSHR expression in the ovary was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Granulosa cell apoptosis of the ovaries was examined by In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit. Granulosa cells were isolated and treated with SiAmh interference and hPMSC supernatant to observe the effects of AMH expression on granulosa cell apoptosis in vitro. RESULTS:The results showed that hPMSC transplantation can significantly recover the estrus cycle in the POF group. Morphological staining showed that the basal follicles and sinus follicles after hPMSC transplantation were higher in POF mice than in those without treatment, and the follicle number was significantly decreased with atresia. The serum levels of FSH, LH and AzpAb in the hPMSC transplantation group were reduced considerably, but the E and AMH levels were significantly increased. After hPMSC transplantation, the AMH and FSHR expression in ovarian tissue was significantly higher than in the POF group as determined by immunochemistry and western blot analysis. The FSHR expression was shown in granulosa cells only, and FSHR expression increases with AMH expressed in the ovary; granulosa cell apoptosis was decreased following hPMSC transplantation. The same results were observed from the in-vitro study. CONCLUSIONS:hPMSC transplantation can significantly improve the serum levels of high gonadotropin and low estrogen of POF mice, promote follicular development, inhibit excessive follicular atresia and granulosa cell apoptosis, and improve the ovarian reserve capacity. The mechanism may be achieved by increasing the expression of AMH and FSHR in ovaries. 10.1186/s13287-017-0745-5
    Adjuvant gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure in premenopausal women. Chen Hengxi,Xiao Li,Li Jinke,Cui Lin,Huang Wei The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:This is an update of the original review published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 11, and updated in 2015, Issue 4.Chemotherapy has significantly improved prognosis for women with malignant and some non-malignant conditions. This treatment, however, is associated with ovarian toxicity. The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, both agonists and antagonists, may have a protective effect on the ovaries. The primary mechanism of action of GnRH analogues is to suppress the gonadotropin levels to simulate pre-pubertal hormonal milieu and subsequently prevent primordial follicles from maturation and therefore decrease the number of follicles that are more vulnerable to chemotherapy. OBJECTIVES:To assess the efficacy and safety of GnRH analogues given before or in parallel to chemotherapy to prevent chemotherapy-related ovarian damage in premenopausal women with malignant or non-malignant conditions. SEARCH METHODS:The search was run for the original review in July 2011, and for the first update in July 2014. For this update we searched the following databases in November 2018: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and the Chinese Biomedicine Database (CBM). SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), in all languages, which examined the effect of GnRH analogues for chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure in premenopausal women, were eligible for inclusion in the review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We analysed binary data using risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and for continuous data, we used the standardized mean difference (SMD) to combine trials. We applied the random-effects model in our analyses. We used the GRADE approach to produce a 'Summary of findings' table for our main outcomes of interest. MAIN RESULTS:We included 12 RCTs involving 1369 women between the ages of 12 and 51.1 years. Participants were diagnosed with breast malignancy, ovarian malignancy, or Hodgkin's lymphoma, and most of them received alkylating, or platinum complexes, based chemotherapy. The included studies were funded by a university (n = 1), research centres (n = 4), and pharmaceutical companies (n = 1). Trials were at high or unclear risk of bias.Comparison 1: GnRH agonist plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy aloneThe incidence of menstruation recovery or maintenance was 178 of 239 (74.5%) in the GnRH agonist group and 110 of 221 (50.0%) in the control group during a follow-up period no longer than 12 months (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.24; 5 studies, 460 participants; I = 79%; low-certainty evidence), with an overall effect favouring treatment with GnRH agonist (P = 0.006). However, we observed no difference during a follow-up period longer than 12 months between these two groups (P = 0.24). In the GnRH agonist group, 326 of 447 participants had menstruation recovery or maintenance (72.9%) in comparison to the control group, in which 276 of 422 participants had menstruation recovery or maintenance (65.4%) during a follow-up period longer than 12 months (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22; 8 studies, 869 participants; I = 56%; low-certainty evidence).The incidence of premature ovarian failure was 43 of 401 (10.7%) in the GnRH agonist group and 96 of 379 (25.3%) in the control group (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.61; 4 studies, 780 participants; I = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence), with an overall effect favouring treatment with GnRH agonist (P < 0.00001).The incidence of pregnancy was 32 of 356 (9.0%) in the GnRH agonist group and 22 of 347 (6.3%) in the control group (RR 1.59, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.70; 7 studies, 703 participants; I = 0%; low-certainty evidence), with no difference between groups (P = 0.09). However, we are cautious about this conclusion because there were insufficient data about whether the participants intended to become pregnant.The incidence of ovulation was 29 of 47 (61.7%) in the GnRH agonist group and 12 of 48 (25.0%) in the control group (RR 2.47, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.26; 2 studies, 95 participants; I = 0%; low-certainty evidence) with an overall effect favouring treatment with GnRH (P = 0.001).The most common adverse effects of GnRH analogues included hot flushes, vaginal dryness, urogenital symptoms, and mood swings. The pooled analysis of safety data showed no difference in adverse effects between GnRH agonist group and control group.Comparison 2: GnRH agonist-antagonist cotreatment plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy aloneOnly one RCT discussed GnRH agonist-antagonist cotreatment. The limited evidence showed the incidence of menstruation recovery or maintenance was 20 of 25 (80%) in both cotreatment group and control group during a 12-month follow-up period (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.32; 50 participants; very low-certainty evidence), with no difference between groups (P = 1.00). In the cotreatment group, 13 of 25 participants had menstruation recovery or maintenance (52.0%) in comparison to the control group, in which 14 of 25 participants had menstruation recovery or maintenance (56.0%) during a follow-up period longer than 12 months (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.55; 50 participants; very low-certainty evidence), with no difference between groups (P = 0.78). The incidence of pregnancy was 1 of 25 (4.0%) in the cotreatment group and 0 of 25 (0%) in the control group (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 70.30; 50 participants; very low-certainty evidence), with no difference between groups (P = 0.49). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:GnRH agonist appears to be effective in protecting the ovaries during chemotherapy, in terms of maintenance and resumption of menstruation, treatment-related premature ovarian failure and ovulation. Evidence for protection of fertility was insufficient and needs further investigation. Evidence was also insufficient to assess the effect of GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist cotreatment on ovarian protection against chemotherapy. The included studies differed in some important aspects of design, and most of these studies had no age-determined subgroup analysis. Large and well-designed RCTs with longer follow-up duration should be conducted to clarify the effects of GnRH analogues in preventing chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure, especially on different age groups or different chemotherapy regimens. Furthermore, studies should address the effects on pregnancy rates and anti-tumour therapy. 10.1002/14651858.CD008018.pub3
    Autoimmune hypothyroidism and intermittent ovarian failure - Case Report. Bartmann Ana K,Silveira Leticia D F,Silva Liliane F I,Formolo Flavia S S,Amaral Juliana P do,Serra Heloisa M,Frolich Luciana C S JBRA assisted reproduction CASE PRESENTATION:a 35 year-old physical educator sought gynecological care for secondary amenorrhea and infertility. She denied the occurrence of similar problems in her family and referred to hypothyroidism as her only comorbidity, for which she was on levothyroxine 88µg daily. She was tested for beta-HCG, prolactin and TSH levels. She was negative for beta-HCG, and had prolactin and TSH levels of 19ng/ml and 2.04 mIU/ml, respectively. Her progesterone test was negative. The combined test (estradiol + norethisterone acetate) was positive, excluding the possibility of an anatomical cause. One month later, her blood tests were as follows: FSH 100mIU/ml, TSH 1.54mIU/ml, free T4 1.22ng/dl, and anti-TPO 261U/ml. Her FSH level was above 100 and she was diagnosed with premature ovarian failure. Reproductive treatment with donor eggs was proposed as an option. Karyotyping and a test for fragile X syndrome were ordered. A few months later the patient came to our clinic saying she was having menstrual cycles. Blood tests were as follows: FSH 9.2mIU/ml; TSH 2.21mIU/ml; and anti-TPO 14U/ml. Transvaginal ultrasound showed a normal uterus with a thin endometrium and atrophic ovaries. After two years of irregular menstrual cycles, she became amenorrheic again. She chose not to undergo assisted reproduction. This paper discusses the diagnosis of premature ovarian failure in light of current protocols and the association of this condition with diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and looks into the difficulty of performing differential diagnosis against Savage syndrome and of offering reproductive counseling especially in cases where the menstrual cycle returns. 10.5935/1518-0557.20190015
    Oral oyster polypeptides protect ovary against d-galactose-induced premature ovarian failure in C57BL/6 mice. Li Yunkun,Qiu Wei,Zhang Zhi,Han Xingfa,Bu Guixian,Meng Fengyan,Kong Fanli,Cao Xiaohan,Huang Anqi,Feng Zhijiang,Li Yun,Zeng Xianyin,Du Xiaogang Journal of the science of food and agriculture BACKGROUND:Oyster polypeptides have various biofunctions, such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidative stress, but whether it has the protective effects to primary ovarian failure (POF) remains poorly understand. To address this issue, daily gavage of oyster polypeptides was performed to investigate their protective effect, basing on d-galactose-induced POF model in C57BL/6 female mice. RESULTS:Oyster polypeptides restored the irregular estrous cycles and the abnormal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone (P) levels as well as the decreased mRNA expression level of Amh that were induced by d-galactose. The follicle development of POF mice was improved by increasing the primordial follicle ratio and decreasing the atretic follicle number after oral administration of oyster polypeptides. Moreover, in the oyster polypeptides treated mice, the total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity was significantly increased, while the malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased. The mRNA expression levels of stress-related genes (SOD2, SIRT1 and FOXO3a) were remarkably up-regulated after d-galactose induction, but the up-regulation was weakened or disappeared by the gavage of oyster polypeptides. In addition, oyster polypeptides treatment also reduced the apoptosis of the ovarian granulosa cells and down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (p53 and Bad but not Bcl-2). CONCLUSION:This study reveals that oyster polypeptides may protect ovary against d-galactose-induced POF by their anti-oxidative stress activity to rescue d-galactose-induced ovarian oxidative damage and therefore to prevent ovarian cells apoptosis, thereby tipping the abnormality trigged by POF to get close to the normal levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry. 10.1002/jsfa.9997
    Paracrine effects of human amniotic epithelial cells protect against chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage. Zhang Qiuwan,Bu Shixia,Sun Junyan,Xu Minhua,Yao Xiaofen,He Kunyan,Lai Dongmei Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are attractive candidates for regenerative medical therapy, with the potential to replace deficient cells and improve functional recovery after injury. Previous studies have demonstrated that transplantation of hAECs effectively alleviate chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage via inhibiting granulose cells apoptosis in animal models of premature ovarian failure/insufficiency (POF/POI). However, the underlying molecular mechanism accounting for hAECs-mediated ovarian function recovery is not fully understood. METHODS:To investigate whether hAECs-secreting cytokines act as molecular basis to attenuate chemotherapy-induced ovarian injury, hAECs or hAEC-conditioned medium (hAEC-CM) was injected into the unilateral ovary of POF/POI mouse. Follicle development was evaluated by H&E staining at 1, 2 months after hAECs or hAEC-CM treatment. In addition, we performed a cytokine array containing 507 human cytokines on hAECs-derived serum-free conditioned medium. Finally, we further investigated whether hAECs could affect chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in primary human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells and the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hUVECs) via a co-culture system in vitro. RESULTS:We observed the existence of healthy and mature follicles in ovaries treated with hAECs or hAEC-CM, whereas seriously fibrosis and many atretic follicles were found in the contralateral untreated ovaries of the same mouse. To distinguish cytokines involved in the process of hAECs-restored ovarian function, hAEC-CM was analyzed with a human cytokines array. Results revealed that 109 cytokines in hAEC-CM might participate in a variety of biological processes including apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell cycle and immune response. In vitro experiments, hAECs significantly inhibited chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and activated TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway within primary granulosa-lutein cells in paracrine manner. Furthermore, hAEC-CM was shown to promote angiogenesis in the injured ovaries and enhance the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hUVECs) in co-culture system. CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrated that paracrine might be a key pathway in the process of hAECs-mediating ovarian function recovery in animal models of premature ovarian failure/insufficiency (POF/POI). 10.1186/s13287-017-0721-0
    Protective properties of heme oxygenase-1 expressed in umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells help restore the ovarian function of premature ovarian failure mice through activating the JNK/Bcl-2 signal pathway-regulated autophagy and upregulating the circulating of CD8CD28 T cells. Yin Na,Wu Chenting,Qiu Jianping,Zhang Yueming,Bo Le,Xu Ying,Shi Mengdie,Zhu Songyue,Yang Guangzhao,Mao Caiping Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UCMSCs) transplantation has been widely studied in premature ovarian failure (POF). However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study aims to investigate the protective properties and mechanisms of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressed in UCMSCs in restoring the ovarian function of POF mice. METHODS:In in vitro and in vivo experiments, mice were treated with the presence or absence of the HO-1/shHO-1-transfected UCMSCs, and the administration of SP600125 or anisomycin, the inhibitor or activator of JNK. The viability and apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs) at different time points of co-cultivation were assessed in vitro. In in vivo experiments, mouse ovarian function was assessed by detecting the serum levels of hormone and observing the ovarian morphological changes. Multiple molecular indices of JNK/Bcl-2 signal pathway were performed. And the autophagy changes in GCs were assessed by detecting the associated cytokines and observing the intracellular autophagosome accumulation. Additionally, the spleen levels of CD8CD28 T cells and serum levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10) were tested to evaluate the immune mechanisms involved. RESULTS:UCMSCs transfected with shHO-1 or treated with SP600125 inhibited GCs' viability and promoted its apoptosis in a time-dependent manner in vitro. In in vivo experiments, mice in both groups showed little therapeutic efficiency which presented as the increased extent of ovarian fibrosis with decreased number of functional follicles, and disordered hormone production. Additionally, the JNK/Bcl-2-associated cytokines were obviously declined. The inhibited autophagy-related cytokines, the chromatin condensation and abound vacuolar autophagosome in GCs, and weakened fluorescence intensity by MDC were observed. The downregulated levels of CD8CD28 T cells and serum levels of IL-10 were also detected. The damages above can be alleviated with HO-1-MSCs treatment or anisomycin administration. CONCLUSIONS:HO-1 expressed in UCMSCs is critical in restoring the ovarian function in POF mice with UCMSC transplantation, which is mediated by the activation of JNK/Bcl-2 signal pathway-regulated autophagy and upregulating the circulating of CD8CD28 T cells. 10.1186/s13287-019-1537-x
    hPMSC transplantation restoring ovarian function in premature ovarian failure mice is associated with change of Th17/Tc17 and Th17/Treg cell ratios through the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. Yin Na,Wang Yanlin,Lu Xueyan,Liu Ranran,Zhang Lianshuang,Zhao Wei,Yuan Wendan,Luo Qianqian,Wu Hao,Luan Xiying,Zhang Hongqin Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hPMSC) transplantation has been demonstrated to be an effective way of recovering ovarian function in mice with autoimmune induced premature ovarian failure (POF). But the exact mechanism remains unclear. The goal of the present study is to investigate the role of immune factors (T-helper 17 (Th17), cytotoxic T (Tc17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells) in the recovery of ovarian function and whether the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway is involved in the regulation. METHODS:The inhibitor of PI3K/Akt was administered to observe its effect on ovarian function recovery and immune regulation. Serum levels of estradiol (E), follicle stimulation hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) and anti-Zona pellucida antibody (AZPAb) were measured by ELISA to evaluate ovarian function. The morphological changes of ovaries were observed by HE staining. Apoptosis of granular cells (GCs) was determined by detecting the expression of capase-3. Expression of p-Akt protein was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay in ovarian tissues. The MTT assay was performed to assess GC proliferation. GC apoptosis was performed using flow cytometry analysis. Percentages of Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells were detected by flow cytometry. Expression of interleukin (IL)-17 in serum was measured by ELISA. RESULTS:LY294002 administration decreased serum levels of E and AMH, while the levels of FSH, LH and AZPAb in serum were increased compared with mice in the hPMSC transplantation group. The ovarian morphology presented as atrophy and fibrosis, with functional follicles exhausted. The expression of p-Akt in ovarian tissue was significantly decreased. Also, LY294002 administration significantly decreased proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in GCs, and for immune factors the ratios of Th17/Tc17 and Th17/Treg cells were significantly increased, as well as the serum levels of IL-17. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that the PI3K/Akt signal pathway is involved in the recovery of ovarian function by changing the ratios of Th17/ Tc17 and Th17/Treg cells in POF mice following hPMSC transplantation. 10.1186/s13287-018-0772-x
    Premature ovarian failure. Neumannová Helena,Müllerová Monika Casopis lekaru ceskych Premature ovarian failure is a heterogeneous disease that brings about several health risks. We must consider that the use of contraception in adolescent girls can mask this disease for a long time. Assisted reproductive technology has brought hope to women with premature ovarian failure to have their own child. Substitution of hormonal deficiency is important for eliminating unpleasant feelings associated with premature ovarian failure as well as for reducing the risk of late effects. Keywords: premature ovarian failure, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, amenorrhea, gonadal dysgenesis, cryopreservation.
    Novel variants in the SOHLH2 gene are implicated in human premature ovarian failure. Qin Yingying,Jiao Xue,Dalgleish Raymond,Vujovic Svetlana,Li Jin,Simpson Joe Leigh,Al-Azzawi Farook,Chen Zi-Jiang Fertility and sterility OBJECTIVE:To determine whether variants in the SOHLH2 gene contribute to human premature ovarian failure (POF) in different ethnicities. DESIGN:Case-control genetic study. SETTING:University hospitals. PATIENT(S):Chinese (364 cases) and Serbian (197 cases) women with nonsyndromic POF and ethnically matched controls. INTERVENTION(S):None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Variation analysis of the SOHLH2 gene. RESULT(S):Eleven novel heterozygous variants were identified in cohorts of POF but were absent in matched controls. These included the nonsynonymous variants p.Glu79Lys (n = 2 cases), p.Glu105Gly, and p.Thr321Pro, which were found among four Chinese POF cases, and p.Leu120Phe (n = 3 cases) and p.Leu204Phe, which were found among four Serbian women. Protein alignments reveal that p.Glu79Lys and p.Glu105Gly involve amino acids highly conserved among mammals, both of which are predicted to be deleterious. The c.-210G>T found in the Chinese POF cohort lies in the core promoter region, which is enriched with transcription factor binding sites and CpG islands. In the Serbian cohort, the variant most likely to have a deleterious effect is c.530+6T>G, which is predicted to affect RNA splicing and result in nonsense mediated decay of transcripts. The other variants are less likely to be deleterious. Disturbing the expression, transactivation or homo-/ heterodimerization of the SOHLH2 protein could result in ovarian failure. Overall, four of the 11 novel variants seem plausible explanations for POF; the other seven variants are less likely but cannot be categorically excluded. CONCLUSION(S):Our identification of novel variants in the SOHLH2 gene, in women with POF of both Chinese and Serbian origin, strongly suggests an important role for SOHLH2 in human POF etiology. 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.01.001
    Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Using Human Umbilical Cord in a Rat Model of Autoimmune-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure. Wang Zhe,Wei Quanwei,Wang Hao,Han Linxiao,Dai Hongjian,Qian Xiaoxin,Yu Hongliang,Yin Manqun,Shi Fangxiong,Qi Nianmin Stem cells international Premature ovarian failure (POF) is one of the principal causes of female infertility, and although its causes are complex and diverse, autoimmune deficiency may be involved. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) can be used for tissue regeneration and repair. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the role of UCMSCs in immune factor-induced POF in rats. In this study, different concentrations of UCMSCs were injected into induced POF rats. Ovarian functions were examined by evaluating the estrus cycle, follicular morphology, hormonal secretion, and the proliferation and apoptosis of granulosa cells. Our results showed that the estrus cycle of rats returned to normal and follicular development was significantly improved after transplantation of UCMSCs. In addition, serum concentrations of 17-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) increased significantly with treatment. Transplantation of UCMSCs also reduced the apoptosis of granulosa cells and promoted the proliferation of granulosa cells. All of these improvements were dose dependent. Furthermore, the results of related gene expression showed that transplanted human UCMSCs upregulated the expression of Bcl-2, AMH, and FSHR in the ovary of POF rats and downregulated the expression of caspase-3. These results further validated the potential mechanisms of promoting the release of cell growth factors and enhancing tissue regeneration and provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of stem cells in the treatment of premature ovarian failure. 10.1155/2020/3249495
    Transplantation of ovarian granulosa‑like cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells for the treatment of murine premature ovarian failure. Liu Te,Li Qiong,Wang Suwei,Chen Chuan,Zheng Jin Molecular medicine reports Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a common cause of female infertility, for which there are currently no ideal treatments or medications. Furthermore, apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells (OGCs) is an important mechanism underlying the decline in ovarian reserve and function. In the present study, several cellular growth factors and hormones were used to induce the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into ovarian granulosa‑like cells (OGLCs) in vitro. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that OGLCs derived from iPSCs strongly expressed granulosa cell markers, including anti‑Müllerian hormone, inhibin α, inhibin β and follicle‑stimulating hormone receptor, but did not express stem cell markers, including octamer‑binding transcription factor 4, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2, Nanog and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 12 days post‑induction. In addition, a mouse model of POF was generated by cyclophosphamide treatment. Subsequently, iPSC‑derived OGLCs were transplanted into the POF mice (OGLCs‑iPSCs‑POF group) in vivo. Results indicated that, compared with the control group (POF mice treated with phosphate‑buffered saline), the growth state of OGLCs was markedly improved, and mature follicles could be detected in the ovarian tissue of the OGLCs‑iPSCs‑POF group. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that iPSC‑derived OGLCs transplanted into POF mice not only exhibited substantial growth in murine ovarian tissues, but also strongly expressed OGC markers. Furthermore, enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays indicated that the levels of the hormone estradiol in peripheral blood samples were significantly enhanced following transplantation of iPSC‑derived OGLCs into POF mice. Furthermore, ovarian tissue weight was significantly higher in the OGLCs‑iPSCs‑POF group compared with in the control group, and the number of atretic follicles in OGLCs‑iPSCs‑POF mice was significantly reduced, as compared with in the control mice. These results suggest that OGLCs derived from human iPSCs may not only effectively enhance OGC growth and repair damaged ovarian tissue, but may also maintain the ovarian tissue niche, promoting follicular development and maturation in a mouse model of POF. 10.3892/mmr.2016.5191
    Human umbilical cord blood-mesenchymal stem cells transplantation renovates the ovarian surface epithelium in a rat model of premature ovarian failure: Possible direct and indirect effects. Elfayomy Amr K,Almasry Shaima M,El-Tarhouny Shereen A,Eldomiaty Magda A Tissue & cell This study aimed to isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from human umbilical cord blood (HCB) and to explore their influence on the ovarian epithelium after paclitaxel-induced ovarian failure. Ninety-five rats were divided into 6 groups: control, paclitaxel, paclitaxel and saline, HCB-MSC-treated for 2 weeks, HCB-MSC-treated for 4 weeks, and HCB-MSC-treated for 6 weeks. HCB cells were studied for CD34, CD44, and Oct ¾ using flow cytometry. Serum levels of FSH and E2 were measured using ELISA, RT-PCR analysis for human gene; beta-actin (ACTB), immunohistochemical analysis for CK 8/18, TGF-ß, PCNA and CASP-3 were performed. We found that ACTB gene was expressed in all rats' ovaries received HCB-MSC. After 4 weeks of transplantation, there was significant reduction in FSH, elevation in E2 levels, stabilization of the surface epithelium morphostasis, an increase in the antral follicle count and increase in integrated densities (ID) of CK 8/18, TGF-ß, and PCNA expressions and decrease in ID of CASP-3 expression. We concluded that HCB-MSC can restore the ovarian function after paclitaxel injection through a direct triggering effect on the ovarian epithelium and/or indirect enrichment of ovarian niche through regulating tissue expression of CK 8/18, TGF-ß and PCNA. These molecules are crucial in regulating folliculogenesis and suppressing CASP-3-induced apoptosis. 10.1016/j.tice.2016.05.001
    Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure Rat Model. Song Dan,Zhong Yun,Qian Chunfeng,Zou Qinyan,Ou Jian,Shi Yichao,Gao Liang,Wang Gaigai,Liu Zhenxing,Li Haibo,Ding Hailei,Wu Huihua,Wang Fuxin,Wang Jing,Li Hong BioMed research international Premature ovarian failure (POF) is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. In our present study, we established cyclophosphamide- (CTX-) induced POF rat model and elucidated its effect on ovarian function. We detected the serum estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone, and anti-Müllerian hormone of mice models by ELISA and evaluated their folliculogenesis by histopathology examination. Our study revealed that CTX administration could severely disturb hormone secretion and influence folliculogenesis in rat. This study also detected ovarian cells apoptosis by deoxy-UTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and demonstrated marked ovarian cells apoptosis in rat models following CTX administration. In order to explore the potential of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) in POF treatment, the above indexes were used to evaluate ovarian function. We found that human UCMSCs transplantation recovered disturbed hormone secretion and folliculogenesis in POF rat, in addition to reduced ovarian cell apoptosis. We also tracked transplanted UCMSCs in ovaries by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results manifested that the transplanted human UCMSCs could reside in ovarian tissues and could survive for a comparatively long time without obvious proliferation. Our present study provides new insights into the great clinical potential of human UCMSCs in POF treatment. 10.1155/2016/2517514
    Human mesenchymal stem cell treatment of premature ovarian failure: new challenges and opportunities. Fu Yun-Xing,Ji Jing,Shan Fang,Li Jialing,Hu Rong Stem cell research & therapy Premature ovarian failure (POF) is one of the common disorders found in women leading to 1% female infertility. Clinical features of POF are hypoestrogenism or estrogen deficiency, increased gonadotropin level, and, most importantly, amenorrhea. With the development of regenerative medicine, human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) therapy brings new prospects for POF. This study aimed to describe the types of MSCs currently available for POF therapy, their biological characteristics, and their mechanism of action. It reviewed the latest findings on POF to provide the theoretical basis for further investigation and clinical therapy. 10.1186/s13287-021-02212-0
    The effects of human menstrual blood stem cells-derived granulosa cells on ovarian follicle formation in a rat model of premature ovarian failure. Manshadi Marjan D,Navid Shadan,Hoshino Yumi,Daneshi Erfan,Noory Parastoo,Abbasi Mehdi Microscopy research and technique Many studies have reported that human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (HuMenSCs) are capable of repairing damaged tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of HuMenSCs transplantation as a treatment modality in premature ovarian failure (POF) associated with chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage. HuMenSCs were isolated from menstrual blood samples of five women. After the in vitro culture of HuMenSCs, purity of the cells was assessed by cytometry using CD44, CD90, CD34, and CD45 FITC conjugate antibody. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: negative control, positive control, sham, and treatment groups. The rat models of POF used in our study were established by injecting busulfan intraperitoneally into the rats during the first estrus cycle. HuMenSCs were transplanted by injection via the tail vein into the POF-induced rats. Four weeks after POF induction, ovaries were collected and the levels of Amh, Fst, and Fshr expression in the granulosa cell (GC) layer, as well as plasma estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels were evaluated. Moreover, migration and localization of DiI-labeled HuMenSCs were detected, and the labeled cells were found to be localized in GCs layer of immature follicles. In addition to DiI-labelled HuMenSCs tracking, increased levels of expression of Amh and Fshr and Fst, and the high plasma levels of E2 and P4 confirmed that HuMenSC transplantation had a significant effect on follicle formation and ovulation in the treatment group compared with the negative control (POF) group. 10.1002/jemt.23120
    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells improve morphometric and histopathologic changes of cyclophosphamide-injured ovarian follicles in mouse model of premature ovarian failure. Jalalie Ladan,Rezaee Mohammad Ali,Rezaie Mohammad Jafar,Jalili Ali,Raoofi Amir,Rustamzade Auob Acta histochemica BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells have restorative effects on premature ovarian failure (POF). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord vein MSCs (hUCV-MSCs) on follicular quantitative parameters and histological changes of ovaries in the cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced POF in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS:C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups (10 mice in each group). In the control group, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected via tail vein following 15 days injection of PBS intraperitoneally (IP). In the CTX group, CTX was administered IP for 15 days and then PBS was injected via tail vein. In the CTX + hUCV-MSCs group, following CTX administration, single dose of the 1 × 10 of hUCV-MSCs were injected into tail vein. H&E, trichrome and PAS staining as well as TUNEL assay were performed on the ovaries tissue sections. The number of follicles, follicular quantitative parameters and apoptotic index were obtained. The serum levels of estradiol and FSH were measured in the mice. RESULTS:In the CTX + hUCV-MSCs group, degenerative changes were decreased and follicular quantitative parameters increased in the ovarian follicles compared to the CTX group. In this group number of follicles was increased, apoptotic index was decreased, estradiol and FSH levels were decreased and increased, respectively, all of them improved compared to the CTX group. The mean percentage areas of collagen fibers content were decreased compared to the CTX group. CONCLUSION:Results showed that, hUCV-MSCs administration increases follicular quantitative parameters and improve degenerative changes in the follicles following CTX injury. 10.1016/j.acthis.2020.151658
    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) promotes the recovery of ovarian function in a rat model of premature ovarian failure (POF). Zhang Xunyi,Zhang Lina,Li Ying,Yin Zhe,Feng Yun,Ji Yazhong Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology AIMS:Our study was to evaluate the benefits of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) for the prevention of premature ovarian failure (POF) in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS:80 female SD rats aged between 6 and 8 weeks were randomly divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D. Rats in group A is normal control group; group B, C and D received zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (pZP3) administration to induce POF model. Among these, group B is model control group; group C received PBS injection in ovaries and group D received hUCMSCs injection in ovaries, all injections were performed after modeling on the same day. Estrus cycle; serum hormone level of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and amount of ovarian follicles were detected 20 days after treatment. RESULTS:We successfully injected hUCMSCs in the ovary tissue of a POF rat. The estrus cycle and hormone expression of the rats in group D tends to be normal. Histological studies indicated that hUCMSCs transplantation increased the amount of ovarian follicles. CONCLUSIONS:This study shows that hUCMSCs may have a preventive effect on POF rats. 10.1080/09513590.2021.1878133
    Human Menstrual Blood Stem Cell-Derived Granulosa Cells Participate in Ovarian Follicle Formation in a Rat Model of Premature Ovarian Failure . Noory Parastoo,Navid Shadan,Zanganeh Bagher Minaee,Talebi Ali,Borhani-Haghighi Maryam,Gholami Keykavos,Manshadi Marjan Dehghan,Abbasi Mehdi Cellular reprogramming We recently reported the application of human menstrual blood stem cells' (HuMenSCs) transplantation as a treatment modality in a rat model of premature ovarian failure (POF). We continued to investigate further in this respect. Female rats were injected intraperitoneally with 36 mg/kg busulfan. HuMenSCs were obtained, grown, and analyzed for immunophenotypic features at passage three. The cells were labeled with CM-Dil and infused into the rats. There were four groups: normal, negative control, treatment, and Sham. One month after treatment, the ovaries were collected and weighed. Histological sections were prepared from the ovary and HuMenSCs were tracking. Subsequently, we examined the changes of expression of Bax and B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) genes by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. One month after HuMenSCs transplantation, these cells were located in the ovarian interstitium and granulosa cells (GCs). The number of TUNEL-positive cells significantly decreased in the treatment group. Also the expression level of Bax genes, unlike Bcl2 gene, significantly decreased compared with negative and sham groups. In our study, HuMenSCs were tracked in ovarian tissues within 2 months after transplantation, and they differentiated into GCs. Therefore, the use of these cells can be a practical and low-cost method for the treatment of POF patients. 10.1089/cell.2019.0020
    Human chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplantation restores ovarian function in a chemotherapy-induced mouse model of premature ovarian failure. Li Jun,Yu Qingtong,Huang Haisen,Deng Wenwen,Cao Xia,Adu-Frimpong Michael,Yu Jiangnan,Xu Ximing Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Previous studies have reported that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from many human tissues could ameliorate ovarian dysfunction. However, no study has revealed the therapeutic efficiency of MSCs derived from the chorionic plate (CP-MSCs) for premature ovarian failure (POF). METHODS:We investigated the restorative effects of CP-MSCs on cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced POF. The POF mouse models were established via intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg CTX into female mice for 15 consecutive days. After that, CP-MSCs were intravenously transplanted into the mice once a week for 4 weeks. The serum estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in the mouse models were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before and after treatment. Ovarian function was evaluated through counting the follicles, estrous cycles, and oocytes. RESULTS:CP-MSC transplantation restored the serum hormone level and ovarian function of the mice in the mouse model of POF induced by CTX. The levels of serum E2 and FSH in the POF model group was 232.33 ± 17.16 pg/mL and 4.48 ± 0.29 mIU/mL, respectively, after 6 weeks of treatment, which were similar to the values in the wild-type (WT) group. The superovulation demonstrated that ovarian function was significantly improved compared with nontreated POF model mice. The CP-MSC transplantation could restore CTX-induced ovarian dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS:Our results offer a potential application for human CP-MSCs in POF treatment. 10.1186/s13287-018-0819-z
    The effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on endometrial receptivity are associated with Th1/Th2 balance change and uNK cell expression of uterine in autoimmune premature ovarian failure mice. Lu Xueyan,Cui Jingjing,Cui Linlu,Luo Qianqian,Cao Qizhi,Yuan Wendan,Zhang Hongqin Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:To explore the mechanism of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hUMSC) transplantation to improve ovarian function and the endometrial receptivity in autoimmune premature ovarian failure (POF) mice. METHODS:The POF model was established in mice treated with zona pellucida 3 polypeptide fragment (zona pellucida 3, ZP3). The hUMSCs were transplanted into the POF mice through tail vein injection. Following the transplantation, the serum hormone levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen (E), progesterone (P), γ-interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) were evaluated by ELISA analysis. Morphological changes of ovarian and uterus tissues were examined by HE staining and immunohistochemistry. The expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines of T cells in spleen and CD56CD16 cells (uterine natural killer cells, uNK cells) in uterine was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) and immunohistochemistry. The expression of HOXA10 in uterine endometrium was examined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. The pinopodes of epithelial cells in uterine endometrium were examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS:Following hUMSC transplantation, the serum levels of E, P, and IL-4 were increased but FSH, IFN-γ, and IL-2 levels were decreased in POF mice. Also, the transplantation of hUMSCs caused an increase in total number of healthy follicles and decrease of atresia follicles. The expression of HOXA10 gene was significantly increased but the CD56CD16 uNK cells decreased in the endometrium of uterine. The ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines was also significantly decreased. CONCLUSION:The data suggest that the recovery of ovarian function and endometrial receptivity in POF mice was regulated by the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines and expression of uNK cells in the endometrium following hUMSC transplantation. 10.1186/s13287-019-1313-y
    Restoring Ovarian Function With Human Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Autoimmune-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure Mice Mediated by Treg Cells and Associated Cytokines. Yin Na,Zhao Wei,Luo Qianqian,Yuan Wendan,Luan Xiying,Zhang Hongqin Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in the regulation of autoimmunity and transplantation. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hPMSC) transplantation has a potential to restore ovarian dysfunction associated with premature ovarian failure (POF), while the exact function of the Treg cells in the transplantation still needs to be further investigated. In this study, hPMSCs were intravenously injected into POF mice following zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (pZP3) treatment. Ovarian function was measured by analyzing estrous cycle, folliculogenesis, and hormone secretion, also, with the detection of apoptotic granular cells (GCs) in ovarian tissues. To determine whether immune response is involved in the regulation of ovarian function change, the population of Treg cell populations and expression of associated cytokines, for example, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were measured. After hPMSCs transplantation, the injured ovarian function is significantly improved. Also, the pZP3-treatment-induced apoptotic GCs were significantly decreased as compared with the POF mice. The transplantation of hPMSCs significantly increased the population of Treg cells which was inhibited by pZP3 treatment. The decrease in TGF-β and increase in IFN-γ in serum caused by pZP3 treatment have been reversed following hPMSCs transplantation. These findings strongly suggest that the recovery of ovarian function in POF mice is mediated via the regulation of Treg cells and production of associated cytokines following hPMSCs transplantation. 10.1177/1933719117732156
    Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Ovarian Function in Chemotherapy-Induced Premature Ovarian Failure Mice Through Inhibiting Apoptosis and Inflammation via a Paracrine Mechanism. Deng Taoran,He Jing,Yao Qingyun,Wu Linjing,Xue Liru,Wu Mingfu,Wu Dongcheng,Li Changyong,Li Yufeng Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) application is a promising arising therapy for the treatment of premature ovarian failure (POF). However, little is known about the inflammation regulatory effects of human umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs) on chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage, regardless of in vivo or in vitro. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of UC-MSC transplantation and underlying mechanisms regarding both apoptosis and inflammation in POF mice. The chemotherapy-induced POF models were induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide. Ovarian function parameters, granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis, and inflammation were examined. Morphological staining showed that UC-MSC treatment increased the ovary size, and the numbers of primary and secondary follicles, but decreased the number of atretic follicles. Estradiol levels in the UC-MSC-treated group were increased while follicle-stimulating hormone levels were reduced compared to those in the POF group. UC-MSCs inhibited cyclophosphamide-induced GC apoptosis and inflammation. Meanwhile, phosphorylation of AKT and P38 was elevated after UC-MSC treatment. Tracking of UC-MSCs in vivo indicated that transplanted UC-MSCs were only located in the interstitium of ovaries rather than in follicles. Importantly, UC-MSC-derived extracellular vesicles protected GCs from alkylating agent-induced apoptosis and inflammation in vitro. Our results suggest that UC-MSC transplantation can reduce ovary injury and improve ovarian function in chemotherapy-induced POF mice through anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects via a paracrine mechanism. 10.1007/s43032-021-00499-1
    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Partially Reverse Infertility in Chemotherapy-Induced Ovarian Failure. Mohamed Sara A,Shalaby Shahinaz M,Abdelaziz Mohamed,Brakta Soumia,Hill William D,Ismail Nahed,Al-Hendy Ayman Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) INTRODUCTION:Chemotherapy is the most commonly used modality to treat human cancers; however, in many cases it causes irreversible ovarian failure. In this work, we plan to evaluate the restorative function of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure mouse model. METHODS:Acclimatized 4 to 6 week-old female mice (C57BL/6) were assigned randomly to a vehicle-treated control group (group 1), chemotherapy-treated group followed by vehicle alone (group 2), or chemotherapy-treated group followed by stem cell intraovarian injection (group 3). Outcomes were evaluated using immunohistochemistry (IHC), serum hormonal assays, and estrous cycle monitoring and breeding potential. RESULTS:Post BMSCs administration, group 3 promptly showed detectable vaginal smears with estrogenic changes. Increase in total body weight, ovarian weight, and weight of estrogen-responsive organs (uterus and liver) was observed at 2 weeks and continued to end of the experiment. Hematoxylin and Eosin histological evaluation of the ovaries demonstrated a higher mean follicle count in group 3 than in group 2. Group 3 had lower follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels ( P = .03) and higher anti-Müllerian hormone serum (AMH) levels ( P = .0005) than group 2. The IHC analysis demonstrated higher expression of AMH, FSH receptor, inhibin A, and inhibin B in growing follicles of group 3 versus group 2. Tracking studies demonstrated that human BMSCs evenly repopulated the growing follicles in treated ovaries. Importantly, breeding data showed significant increases in the pregnancies numbers, 2 pregnancies in group 1 and 12 in group 3 ( P = .02). CONCLUSIONS:Intraovarian administered BMSCs are able to restore ovarian hormone production and reactivate folliculogenesis in chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure mouse model. 10.1177/1933719117699705
    Ability of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells to repair chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure. Shen Jian,Cao Dai,Sun Jing-Li World journal of stem cells BACKGROUND:Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and premature ovarian failure (POF) have become one of the major problems threatening women of childbearing age. Studies have shown that stem cells transplanted from bone marrow, umbilical cord, peripheral blood and amniotic fluid can migrate and proliferate to the ovary, promote ovarian function repair, increase the number of follicles and granulosa cells at all levels of ovary, improve endocrine function, and can differentiate into oocytes in specific ovarian environment to restore fertility to some extent. AIM:To study the ability of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) to repair ovarian injury after chemotherapy. METHODS:A total of 110 female BALB/c mice (aged 7-8 wk old) with body masses of 16.0-20.0 g were selected. The mice were fed until 12 wk of age, and cyclophosphamide was administered by intraperitoneal injection for 14 consecutive days to induce premature ovarian failure in mice. Seventy-five mice with estrous cycle disorder were screened and randomly divided into 3 groups according to their body weight: model group, positive control group and hUCMSC group, and each group had 25 mice. Another 25 mice were used as negative controls. The mice in the hUCMSC group were injected with hUCMSCs in the tail vein, and the mice in the positive control group were given an oestradiol valerate solution and a medroxyprogesterone acetate solution in the tail vein. On the 1, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after intravenous administration, vaginal smears were made to monitor the estrous cycles of the mice. The ovaries were weighed, and pathological sections were made to observe the morphology of the follicles; blood samples were collected to monitor the concentration of sex hormones (oestradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone). RESULTS:The estrous cycles of the model group mice were disrupted throughout the experiment. Mice in the hUCMSC group and the positive control group resumed normal estrous cycles. The ovarian weight of the model group mice continued to decline. The ovarian weight of the hUCMSC group mice and the positive control group mice decreased first and then gradually increased, and the ovarian weight of the hUCMSC group mice was heavier than that of the positive control group mice. The difference was statistically significant ( < 0.05). Compared with the negative control group, the model group experienced a decrease in oestradiol and an increase in follicle-stimulating hormone, and the difference was statistically significant ( < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the hUCMSC and positive control groups experienced a slight increase in oestradiol and a decrease in follicle-stimulating hormone; the difference was statistically significant ( < 0.05). The pathological examination revealed that the mouse ovaries from the model group were atrophied, the volume was reduced, the cortical and medullary structures were disordered, the number of follicles at all stages was significantly reduced, the number of atretic follicles increased, the number of primordial follicles and corpus luteum significantly decreased, and the corpus luteum had an irregular shape. Compared with those of the model group, the lesions of the hUCMSC and positive control groups significantly improved. CONCLUSION:hUCMSCs can repair ovarian tissue damaged by chemotherapy to a certain extent, can improve the degree of apoptosis in ovarian tissue, and can improve the endocrine function of mouse ovaries. 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i4.277
    Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells improve the follicular microenvironment to recover ovarian function in premature ovarian failure mice. Liu Rongxia,Zhang Xiaoyu,Fan Zhenhai,Wang Yuying,Yao Guanping,Wan Xue,Liu Zulin,Yang Bing,Yu Limei Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Many adult women younger than 40 years old have premature ovarian failure (POF) and infertility. Previous studies confirmed that different tissue-derived stem cells could restore ovarian function and folliculogenesis in chemotherapy-induced POF mice. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanisms of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) transplantation for hydrogen peroxide-induced ovarian damage. METHODS:Bilateral ovaries of female mice were burned with 10% hydrogen peroxide to establish a POF model. After 24 h of treatment, hAMSCs and diethylstilbestrol were administered to POF mice by intraperitoneal injection and intragastric administration, respectively. After either 7 or 14 days, ovarian function was evaluated by the oestrus cycle, hormone levels, ovarian index, fertility rate, and ovarian morphology. The karyotype was identified in offspring by the G-banding technique. hAMSCs tracking, immunohistochemical staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to assess the molecular mechanisms of injury and repair. RESULTS:The oestrus cycle was recovered after hAMSCs transplantation at 7 and 14 days. Oestrogen levels increased, while follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased. The ovarian index, fertility rate, and population of follicles at different stages were significantly increased. The newborn mice had no obvious deformity and showed normal growth and development. The normal offspring mice were also fertile. The tracking of hAMSCs revealed that they colonized in the ovarian stroma. Immunohistochemical and PCR analyses indicated that changes in proteins and genes might affect mature follicle formation. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggested that hAMSCs transplantation can improve injured ovarian tissue structure and function in oxidatively damaged POF mice. Furthermore, the mechanisms of hAMSCs are related to promoting follicular development, granulosa cell proliferation, and secretion function by improving the local microenvironment of the ovary. 10.1186/s13287-019-1315-9
    Evaluation of safety, feasibility and efficacy of intra-ovarian transplantation of autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stromal cells in idiopathic premature ovarian failure patients: non-randomized clinical trial, phase I, first in human. Mashayekhi M,Mirzadeh E,Chekini Z,Ahmadi F,Eftekhari-Yazdi P,Vesali S,Madani T,Aghdami N Journal of ovarian research BACKGROUND:Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by the loss of ovarian activity before the age of 40 years. Stem cell therapy has the capability to create a regenerative microenvironment and is a proposed treatment for POF-related infertility due to the presence of renewal folliculogenesis and germ cells in the adult ovaries. In this study, we assessed the safety, feasibility, efficacy and dose adjustment of autologous adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and their ability to improve ovarian function in POF patients. METHODS:This study was a non-randomized clinical trial, phase I. Nine women with a definitive diagnosis of POF were divided into three groups (n = 3 per group) that received either 5 × 10, 10 × 10, or 15 × 10 autologous ADSCs suspension transplanted in the one ovary. Participants were followed-up at 24 h after the transplantation, and at 1 and 2 weeks, and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after the transplantation. The primary objective was to evaluate the safety of ADSCs transplantation. Secondary objectives included the effects of ADSCs transplantation on the resumption of menstruation, hormones level (Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone), ovarian function (Antral follicle count and ovary volume by ultrasonography evaluation) as well as dose escalation. RESULTS:Participants had not shown any early-onset possible side effects and secondary complications during follow-up. The menstruation resumption was observed in four patients which established for several months. In the 15 × 10 group, two POF patients had a return of menstruation second months after the intervention. Two other POF patients in 5 × 10 and 10 × 10 cell groups reported menstruation resumption at 1 month after the intervention. We observed decreased serum FSH levels of less than 25 IU/l in four patients. In two patients in 5 × 10 and 10 × 10 cell groups, serum FSH showed an inconsistent decline during a 1 year follow up after ADSCs transplantation. The ovarian volume, AMH, and AFC were variable during the follow-up and no significant differences between cell groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:We showed the intra-ovarian embedding of ADSCs is safe and feasible and is associated with an inconsistent decline in serum FSH. This should be further investigated with a large RCT. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02603744 , Registered 13 November 2015 - Retrospectively registered, http://www.Clinicaltrials.gov. 10.1186/s13048-020-00743-3
    Recovery of ovarian function by human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells in cisplatin-induced premature ovarian failure in mice. Yoon Sook Young,Yoon Jung Ah,Park Mira,Shin Eun-Young,Jung Sookyung,Lee Jeoung Eun,Eum Jin Hee,Song Haengseok,Lee Dong Ryul,Lee Woo Sik,Lyu Sang Woo Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Clinical use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) requires a uniform cell population, and their harvesting is invasive and produces a limited number of cells. Human embryonic stem cell-derived MSCs (hESC-MSCs) can differentiate into three germ layers and possess immunosuppressive effects in vitro. Anticancer treatment is a well-known risk factor for premature ovarian failure (POF). In this study, we investigated the effect of hESC-MSC on recovery of ovarian function in cisplatin-induced POF in mice. METHODS:Female mice received intraperitoneal cisplatin for 10 days. On day 12, CHA15-derived hESC-MSCs were transplanted into the mice by tail vein injection. An injection of PBS served as the negative control. Ovaries were removed 28 days after transplantation for assessment of ovarian histology, immunostaining, and fertility testing by superovulation and in vitro fertilization. hESC-MSC transplantation into mice with cisplatin-induced damage restored body weight and ovary size. RESULTS:Mean primary and primordial follicle counts in the hESC-MSC group were significantly improved compared to the PBS group (P < 0.05), and counts of zona pellucida remnants, an apoptotic sign in ovarian follicles, were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). TUNEL assays and cleaved PARP immunostaining indicated apoptosis, which led to loss of ovarian stromal cells in negative control mice, while Ki-67 was higher in the hESC-MSC group and in non-cisplatin-treated controls than in the PBS group. Ovulation was reduced in the PBS group but recovered significantly in the hESC-MSC group. Rates of blastocyst formation from ovulated eggs and live births per mouse also recovered significantly in the hESC-MSC group. CONCLUSIONS:hESC-MSC restored structure and function in the cisplatin-damaged ovary. Our study provides new insights into the great clinical potential of human hESC-MSC in treating POF. 10.1186/s13287-020-01769-6
    Human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells improved premature ovarian failure. Bahrehbar Khadijeh,Rezazadeh Valojerdi Mojtaba,Esfandiari Fereshteh,Fathi Rouhollah,Hassani Seyedeh-Nafiseh,Baharvand Hossein World journal of stem cells BACKGROUND:Premature ovarian failure (POF) affects many adult women less than 40 years of age and leads to infertility. According to previous reports, various tissue-specific stem cells can restore ovarian function and folliculogenesis in mice with chemotherapy-induced POF. Human embryonic stem cells (ES) provide an alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because of their similarities in phenotype and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory characteristics. Embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ES-MSCs) are attractive candidates for regenerative medicine because of their high proliferation and lack of barriers for harvesting tissue-specific MSCs. However, possible therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of transplanted ES-MSCs on cyclophosphamide and busulfan-induced mouse ovarian damage have not been evaluated. AIM:To evaluate ES-MSCs bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in restoring ovarian function in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure. METHODS:Female mice received intraperitoneal injections of different doses of cyclophosphamide and busulfan to induce POF. Either human ES-MSCs or BM-MSCs were transplanted into these mice. Ten days after the mice were injected with cyclophosphamide and busulfan and 4 wk after transplantation of the ES-MSCs and/or BM-MSCs, we evaluated body weight, estrous cyclicity, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol hormone concentrations and follicle count were used to evaluate the POF model and cell transplantation. Moreover, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated 2-deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick end labeling, real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry and mating was used to evaluate cell transplantation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor levels in ES-MSC condition medium in order to investigate the mechanisms that underlie their function. RESULTS:The human ES-MSCs significantly restored hormone secretion, survival rate and reproductive function in POF mice, which was similar to the results obtained with BM-MSCs. Gene expression analysis and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated 2-deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick end labeling assay results indicated that the ES-MSCs and/or BM-MSCs reduced apoptosis in the follicles. Notably, the transplanted mice generated new offspring. The results of different analyses showed increases in antiapoptotic and trophic proteins and genes. CONCLUSION:These results suggested that transplantation of human ES-MSCs were similar to BM-MSCs in that they could restore the structure of the injured ovarian tissue and its function in chemotherapy-induced damaged POF mice and rescue fertility. The possible mechanisms of human ES-MSC were related to promotion of follicular development, ovarian secretion, fertility a paracrine effect and ovarian cell survival. 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i8.857
    Intraovarian injection of autologous human mesenchymal stem cells increases estrogen production and reduces menopausal symptoms in women with premature ovarian failure: two case reports and a review of the literature. Igboeli Prosper,El Andaloussi Abdeljabar,Sheikh Ujalla,Takala Hajra,ElSharoud Amro,McHugh Ashley,Gavrilova-Jordan Larisa,Levy Steven,Al-Hendy Ayman Journal of medical case reports BACKGROUND:Premature ovarian failure is a relatively common condition that affects 1-3% of adult women. Premature ovarian failure occurs when there is loss of ovarian function in women younger than 40 years of age. The causes are mostly iatrogenic or idiopathic. Amenorrhea and infertility are the most important clinical manifestations. So far, no therapeutic intervention has been proved effective in restoring fertility in patients with premature ovarian failure. Attempts to stimulate ovarian function through hormone manipulation typically prove unsuccessful, and patients usually resort to egg donation to achieve pregnancy. In our preclinical work, intraovarian administration of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells was able to restore ovarian hormone production, reactivate folliculogenesis, and reverse infertility in a chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure mouse model. CASE PRESENTATION:We present two cases of Caucasian women with premature ovarian failure who resumed ovarian estrogen production and menses 7 months following autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell injections into the ovary. This pilot clinical study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT02696889 ). In this report, we present data from our first two cases that have completed study procedures so far. The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were harvested from the bone marrow of the iliac crest of the patients with premature ovarian failure and nucleated cells concentrated and enriched in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells intraoperatively, and then injected into the patient's right ovary via laparoscopy. Autologous bone marrow stem cell engraftment into the ovary resulted in several improvements in the treated patients with premature ovarian failure. In measurements by transvaginal ultrasound, there were increases of approximately 50% in volume of the treated ovaries in comparison with the contralateral control ovaries that persisted to the end of the study (1 year). Serum levels of estrogen increased by approximately 150% compared with the preoperative levels. Each of the two patients had an episode of menses, and also both of them reported marked improvement of their menopausal symptoms that also persisted to the end of the study (1 year). The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell implantation procedure was very well tolerated with no reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:Our study reveals promising improvement of premature ovarian failure-related clinical manifestations in two patients after intraovarian autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells engraftment. These early observations call for additional assessment and further development of intraovarian bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell injection for possible treatment of patients with premature ovarian failure. 10.1186/s13256-020-02426-5