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    Supplementation With the Sialic Acid Precursor N-Acetyl-D-Mannosamine Breaks the Link Between Obesity and Hypertension. Peng Jun,Vongpatanasin Wanpen,Sacharidou Anastasia,Kifer Domagoj,Yuhanna Ivan S,Banerjee Subhashis,Tanigaki Keiji,Polasek Ozren,Chu Haiyan,Sundgren Nathan C,Rohatgi Anand,Chambliss Ken L,Lauc Gordan,Mineo Chieko,Shaul Philip W Circulation BACKGROUND:Obesity-related hypertension is a common disorder, and attempts to combat the underlying obesity are often unsuccessful. We previously revealed that mice globally deficient in the inhibitory immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptor FcγRIIB are protected from obesity-induced hypertension. However, how FcγRIIB participates is unknown. Studies were designed to determine if alterations in IgG contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension. METHODS:Involvement of IgG was studied using IgG μ heavy chain-null mice deficient in mature B cells and by IgG transfer. Participation of FcγRIIB was interrogated in mice with global or endothelial cell-specific deletion of the receptor. Obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD), and blood pressure (BP) was measured by radiotelemetry or tail cuff. The relative sialylation of the Fc glycan on mouse IgG, which influences IgG activation of Fc receptors, was evaluated by lectin blotting. Effects of IgG on endothelial NO synthase were assessed in human aortic endothelial cells. IgG Fc glycan sialylation was interrogated in 3442 human participants by mass spectrometry, and the relationship between sialylation and BP was evaluated. Effects of normalizing IgG sialylation were determined in HFD-fed mice administered the sialic acid precursor N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). RESULTS:Mice deficient in B cells were protected from obesity-induced hypertension. Compared with IgG from control chow-fed mice, IgG from HFD-fed mice was hyposialylated, and it raised BP when transferred to recipients lacking IgG; the hypertensive response was absent if recipients were FcγRIIB-deficient. Neuraminidase-treated IgG lacking the Fc glycan terminal sialic acid also raised BP. In cultured endothelial cells, via FcγRIIB, IgG from HFD-fed mice and neuraminidase-treated IgG inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor activation of endothelial NO synthase by altering endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation. In humans, obesity was associated with lower IgG sialylation, and systolic BP was inversely related to IgG sialylation. Mice deficient in FcγRIIB in endothelium were protected from obesity-induced hypertension. Furthermore, in HFD-fed mice, ManNAc normalized IgG sialylation and prevented obesity-induced hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:Hyposialylated IgG and FcγRIIB in endothelium are critically involved in obesity-induced hypertension in mice, and supportive evidence was obtained in humans. Interventions targeting these mechanisms, such as ManNAc supplementation, may provide novel means to break the link between obesity and hypertension. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043490
    Relationship of Circulating Endothelial Cells With Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents. Soltero Erica G,Solovey Anna N,Hebbel Robert P,Palzer Elise F,Ryder Justin R,Shaibi Gabriel Q,Olson Micah,Fox Claudia K,Rudser Kyle D,Dengel Donald R,Evanoff Nicholas G,Kelly Aaron S Journal of the American Heart Association Background Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) reflect early changes in endothelial health; however, the degree to which CEC number and activation is related to adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in youth is not well described. Methods and Results Youth in this study (N=271; aged 8-20 years) were classified into normal weight (body mass index [BMI] percentage <85th; n=114), obesity (BMI percentage ≥95th to <120% of the 95th; n=63), and severe obesity (BMI percentage ≥120% of the 95th; n=94) catagories. CEC enumeration was determined using immunohistochemical examination of buffy coat smears and activated CEC (percentage of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression) was assessed using immunofluorescent staining. Cardiovascular risk factors included measures of body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, leptin, adiponectin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, carotid artery intima-media thickness, and pulse wave velocity. Linear regression models examined associations between CEC number and activation with BMI and cardiovascular risk factors. CEC number did not differ among BMI classes (>0.05). Youth with severe obesity had a higher degree of CEC activation compared with normal weight youth (8.3%; 95% CI, 1.1-15.6 [=0.024]). Higher CEC number was associated with greater body fat percentage (0.02 per percentage; 95% CI, 0.00-0.03 [=0.020]) and systolic blood pressure percentile (0.01 per percentage; 95% CI, 0.00-0.01 [=0.035]). Higher degree of CEC activation was associated with greater visceral adipose tissue (5.7% per kg; 95% CI, 0.4-10.9 [=0.034]) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.11% per mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.01-0.21 [=0.039]). Conclusions Methods of CEC quantification are associated with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors and may potentially reflect accelerated atherosclerosis as early as childhood. 10.1161/JAHA.120.018092
    Circulating activated endothelial cells in pediatric obesity. Kelly Aaron S,Hebbel Robert P,Solovey Anna N,Schwarzenberg Sarah Jane,Metzig Andrea M,Moran Antoinette,Sinaiko Alan R,Jacobs David R,Steinberger Julia The Journal of pediatrics OBJECTIVE:We characterized the state of the vascular endothelium in pediatric obesity by comparing circulating endothelial cell (CEC) number and activation phenotype in severely obese children to that of normal weight, overweight, and obese children. STUDY DESIGN:We used immunohistochemical examination of buffy-coat smears to enumerate CEC and immunofluorescence microscopy to quantify activated CEC in 107 children and adolescents. Normal weight (body mass index [BMI]<85th percentile; n=40), overweight (BMI 85th-<95th percentile; n=17), and obese (BMI 95th-<99th percentile; n=23) participants were recruited from a longitudinal study. Severely obese (BMI>or=99th percentile; n=27) participants were recruited from a pediatric obesity clinic. Group means (adiposity; systolic blood pressure [SBP] quartiles) were compared with general linear models, adjusted for sex, age, and race. With Pearson correlations, we characterized relations of CEC with cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS:Activated CEC increased across BMI groups (P<.002) and SBP quartiles (P<.05). CEC number and activated CEC were highest in the severely obese group. CEC number was significantly associated with SBP, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides level. Activated CEC were significantly associated with SBP and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. CONCLUSIONS:The vascular endothelium was activated in relation to excess adiposity, particularly in severely obese children, and to elevated SBP in children and adolescents. 10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.04.069
    Vascular Endothelial Cells and Innate Immunity. Shao Ying,Saredy Jason,Yang William Y,Sun Yu,Lu Yifan,Saaoud Fatma,Drummer Charles,Johnson Candice,Xu Keman,Jiang Xiaohua,Wang Hong,Yang Xiaofeng Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology In addition to the roles of endothelial cells (ECs) in physiological processes, ECs actively participate in both innate and adaptive immune responses. We previously reported that, in comparison to macrophages, a prototypic innate immune cell type, ECs have many innate immune functions that macrophages carry out, including cytokine secretion, phagocytic function, antigen presentation, pathogen-associated molecular patterns-, and danger-associated molecular patterns-sensing, proinflammatory, immune-enhancing, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppression, migration, heterogeneity, and plasticity. In this highlight, we introduce recent advances published in both and many other journals: (1) several significant characters classify ECs as novel immune cells not only in infections and allograft transplantation but also in metabolic diseases; (2) several new receptor systems including conditional danger-associated molecular pattern receptors, nonpattern receptors, and homeostasis associated molecular patterns receptors contribute to innate immune functions of ECs; (3) immunometabolism and innate immune memory determine the innate immune functions of ECs; (4) a great induction of the immune checkpoint receptors in ECs during inflammations suggests the immune tolerogenic functions of ECs; and (5) association of immune checkpoint inhibitors with cardiovascular adverse events and cardio-oncology indicates the potential contributions of ECs as innate immune cells. 10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.314330
    Loss of Endothelial FTO Antagonizes Obesity-Induced Metabolic and Vascular Dysfunction. Krüger Nenja,Biwer Lauren A,Good Miranda E,Ruddiman Claire A,Wolpe Abigail G,DeLalio Leon J,Murphy Sara,Macal Edgar H,Ragolia Louis,Serbulea Vlad,Best Angela K,Leitinger Norbert,Harris Thurl E,Sonkusare Swapnil K,Gödecke Axel,Isakson Brant E Circulation research RATIONALE:Increasing prevalence of obesity and its associated risk with cardiovascular diseases demands a better understanding of the contribution of different cell types within this complex disease for developing new treatment options. Previous studies could prove a fundamental role of FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated protein) within obesity; however, its functional role within different cell types is less understood. OBJECTIVES:We identify endothelial FTO as a previously unknown central regulator of both obesity-induced metabolic and vascular alterations. METHODS AND RESULTS:We generated endothelial -deficient mice and analyzed the impact of obesity on those mice. While the loss of endothelial FTO did not influence the development of obesity and dyslipidemia, it protected mice from high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance by increasing AKT (protein kinase B) phosphorylation in endothelial cells and skeletal muscle. Furthermore, loss of endothelial FTO prevented the development of obesity-induced hypertension by preserving myogenic tone in resistance arteries. In -deficient arteries, microarray analysis identified upregulation of with significant increases in prostaglandin D levels. Blockade of prostaglandin D synthesis inhibited the myogenic tone protection in resistance arteries of endothelial -deficient mice on high-fat diet; conversely, direct addition of prostaglandin D rescued myogenic tone in high-fat diet-fed control mice. Myogenic tone was increased in obese human arteries with FTO inhibitors or prostaglandin D application. CONCLUSIONS:These data identify endothelial FTO as a previously unknown regulator in the development of obesity-induced metabolic and vascular changes, which is independent of its known function in regulation of obesity. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.315531
    Urinary Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Are Elevated in Obese Children and Correlate with a Marker of Endothelial Dysfunction. Selvaraju Vaithinathan,Ayine Priscilla,Fadamiro Moni,Babu Jeganathan Ramesh,Brown Michael,Geetha Thangiah Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Obesity is a state of chronic low-level inflammation closely associated with oxidative stress. Childhood obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers individually. This study was aimed at determining the association between the biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in urine samples of healthy, overweight, and obese children. Eighty-eight elementary school children aged between 6 and 10 years participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were measured using WHO recommendations. The biomarkers of low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and -1-acid glycoprotein (AGP); oxidative stress markers such as 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were analyzed in urine samples. The area under the curve (AUC) by the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) was analyzed to identify the best urinary biomarker in childhood obesity. Linear regression and Pearson correlation were analyzed to determine the association between the parameters. The obese participants have significantly increased levels of CRP, AGP, IL-6, and 8-isoprostane compared to normal-weight participants. The overweight participants had significantly increased levels of ET-1 and 8-OHdG but not the obese group compared to the NW group. The AUC for urinary CRP (AUC: 0.847, 95% CI: 0.765-0.930; < 0.0001) and 8-isoprostane (AUC: 0.857, 95% CI: 0.783-0.932; < 0.0001) showed a greater area under ROC curves compared to other inflammatory and oxidative markers. The urinary CRP and 8-isoprostane significantly correlated with the obesity measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to- height ratio) and ET-1, inflammatory, and oxidative markers. The increased urinary inflammatory markers and 8-isoprostane can serve as a noninvasive benchmark for early detection of the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. 10.1155/2019/9604740
    Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity-Induced Inflammation: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Kwaifa Ibrahim Kalle,Bahari Hasnah,Yong Yoke Keong,Noor Sabariah Md Biomolecules Obesity is characterized by the excessive deposition of fat that may interfere with the normal metabolic process of the body. It is a chronic condition associated with various metabolic syndromes, whose prevalence is grossly increasing, and affects both children and adults. Accumulation of excessive macronutrients on the adipose tissues promotes the secretion and release of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1β, tumor necrotic factor-α (TNF-α), leptin, and stimulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which subsequently reduce the production of adiponectin thereby initiating a proinflammatory state. During obesity, adipose tissue synthesizes and releases a large number of hormones and cytokines that alter the metabolic processes, with a profound influence on endothelial dysfunction, a situation associated with the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Endothelial cells respond to inflammation and stimulation of MCP-1, which is described as the activation of adhesion molecules leading to proliferation and transmigration of leukocytes, which facilitates their increase in atherogenic and thromboembolic potentials. Endothelial dysfunction forms the cornerstone of this discussion, as it has been considered as the initiator in the progression of cardiovascular diseases in obesity. Overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines with subsequent reduction of anti-inflammatory markers in obesity, is considered to be the link between obesity-induced inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Inhibition of inflammatory mechanisms and management and control of obesity can assist in reducing the risks associated with cardiovascular complications. 10.3390/biom10020291
    Effects of preadipocytes derived from mice fed with high fat diet on the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells. Castiglione R C,Barbosa C M L,Prota L F M,Marques-Neto S R,Perri-Oliveira M,Helal-Neto E,Morandi V,Barja-Fidalgo C,Bouskela E Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Obesity promotes a persistent inflammatory process in the adipose tissue, activating the endothelium and leading to vascular dysfunction. Preadipocytes can interact with endothelial cells in a paracrine way stimulating angiogenesis. However, the potential of preadipocytes from adipose tissue of high fat diet (HFD) fed animal to stimulate angiogenesis has not been evaluated yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of such diet on the angiogenic potential of preadipocytes in a mice model. METHODS AND RESULTS:We have evaluated body weight gain, fasting glucose levels and insulin resistance, mRNA expression in preadipocytes and endothelial cells after co-culture with preadipocytes, in vivo vascular function and in vitro endothelial cell migration and tubulogenesis. High fat diet promoted an increase in body weight, glycemic index and insulin resistance in mice. Preadipocytes mRNA expression of factors involved in angiogenesis was higher in these animals. In endothelial tEnd cells mRNA expression of factors involved in vessel growth were higher after co-culture with preadipocytes derived from mice fed with HFD. Although no significant differences were observed in in vivo vasodilatation response between control and HFD groups, endothelial tEnd cells showed an increase in migration and tubulogenesis when cultivated with conditioned media from preadipocytes derived from mice fed with HFD. CONCLUSION:Hypoxic and growth factors produced by preadipocytes derived from mice fed with HFD have higher capacity than preadipocytes derived from mice fed with standard diet to stimulate the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells, contributing to vascular disorders in obesity. 10.1016/j.numecd.2018.05.005
    Endothelial Cells: New Players in Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. Graupera Mariona,Claret Marc Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM Metabolic disorders such as obesity are accompanied by endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and decreased vascular density. The current paradigm posits that metabolic alterations associated with obesity secondarily lead to EC dysfunction. However, in view of recent evidence reporting that EC dysfunction per se is able to cause metabolic dysregulation, this paradigm should be revisited and further elaborated. In this article we summarize current views and discuss evidence in favor of a causal role for ECs in systemic metabolic dysregulation. We also integrate and contextualize current research in a pathophysiological framework and discuss potential therapeutic strategies targeting angiogenesis to help to counteract obesity. 10.1016/j.tem.2018.09.003
    Disrupted endothelial cell heterogeneity and network organization impair vascular function in prediabetic obesity. Wilson Calum,Zhang Xun,Lee Matthew D,MacDonald Margaret,Heathcote Helen R,Alorfi Nasser M N,Buckley Charlotte,Dolan Sharron,McCarron John G Metabolism: clinical and experimental BACKGROUND:Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and stroke. Impaired endothelial function occurs in the earliest stages of obesity and underlies vascular alterations that give rise to cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms that link weight gain to endothelial dysfunction are ill-defined. Increasing evidence suggests that endothelial cells are not a population of uniform cells but are highly heterogeneous and are organized as a communicating multicellular network that controls vascular function. PURPOSE:To investigate the hypothesis that disrupted endothelial heterogeneity and network-level organization contribute to impaired vascular reactivity in obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS:To study obesity-related vascular function without complications associated with diabetes, a state of prediabetic obesity was induced in rats. Small artery diameter recordings confirmed nitric-oxide mediated vasodilator responses were dependent on increases in endothelial calcium levels and were impaired in obese animals. Single-photon imaging revealed a linear relationship between blood vessel relaxation and population-wide calcium responses. Obesity did not alter the slope of this relationship, but impaired calcium responses in the endothelial cell network. The network comprised structural and functional components. The structural architecture, a hexagonal lattice network of connected cells, was unchanged in obesity. The functional network contained sub-populations of clustered specialized agonist-sensing cells from which signals were communicated through the network. In obesity there were fewer but larger clusters of sensory cells and communication path lengths between clusters increased. Communication between neighboring cells was unaltered in obesity. Altered network organization resulted in impaired, population-level calcium signaling and deficient endothelial control of vascular tone. CONCLUSIONS:The distribution of cells in the endothelial network is critical in determining overall vascular response. Altered cell heterogeneity and arrangement in obesity decreases endothelial function and provides a novel framework for understanding compromised endothelial function in cardiovascular disease. 10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154340
    Long non-coding RNA HCP5 serves as a ceRNA sponging miR-17-5p and miR-27a/b to regulate the pathogenesis of childhood obesity via the MAPK signaling pathway. Chen Rui,Xin Guangda,Zhang Xiaofei Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM Background This study aimed to investigate the completing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network involved in childhood obesity. Methods The microarray dataset GSE9624 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (DELs) and messenger RNAs (DEMs) were isolated between the childhood obesity and non-obesity tissue samples. Then, Gene Ontology (GO) functional and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses of isolated DEMs were performed. DELs and DEMs targeted miRNAs were predicted to construct a ceRNA regulatory network. Finally, critical lncRNAs were validated in another dataset. Results A total of 1257 differentially expressed RNAs were screened, including 28 lncRNAs and 1229 mRNAs. In addition, these RNAs were mainly involved in defense response, cell cycle, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, apoptosis, etc. Three lncRNAs (human leukocyte antigen complex 5 [HCP5], long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 839 [LINC00839] and receptor activity modifying protein 2 [RAMP2-AS1]) and two related miRNAs (hsa-miR-17-5p and hsa-miR-27a/b-3p) were identified as key RNAs in childhood obesity. Specifically, lncRNA HCP5 interacted with miR-17-5p and miR-27a/b to regulate nemo-like kinase (NLK) and Ras-related protein 2 (RRAS2) via the MAPK signaling pathway. Finally, four genes (RRAS2, NLK, bcl2/adenovirus E1B protein-interacting protein 3 [BNIP3] and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 [PMAIP1]) targeted by miRNAs were predicted as critical genes and might be novel diagnostic biomarkers of childhood obesity. Conclusions lncRNA HCP5 could serve as a ceRNA sponging miR-17-5p and miR-27a/b to regulate the pathogenesis of childhood obesity via NLK and RRAS2 in the MAPK signaling pathway. 10.1515/jpem-2018-0432
    Endothelial Dysfunction in Obesity. Engin Atilla Advances in experimental medicine and biology Chronic inflammatory state in obesity causes dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors, which disrupt vascular homeostasis and contribute to endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and subsequent hypertension. While normal healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) ensures the dilation of blood vessels, obesity-associated PVAT leads to a change in profile of the released adipo-cytokines, resulting in a decreased vasorelaxing effect. Adipose tissue inflammation, nitric oxide (NO)-bioavailability, insulin resistance and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are main participating factors in endothelial dysfunction of obesity. In this chapter, disruption of inter-endothelial junctions between endothelial cells, significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation mediators, which are originated from inflamed endothelial cells, the balance between NO synthesis and ROS , insulin signaling and NO production, and decrease in L-arginine/endogenous asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) ratio are discussed in connection with endothelial dysfunction in obesity. 10.1007/978-3-319-48382-5_15