HIV-1 remodels the nuclear pore complex.
Monette Anne,Panté Nelly,Mouland Andrew J
The Journal of cell biology
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) commandeers host cell proteins and machineries for its replication. Our earlier work showed that HIV-1 induced the cytoplasmic retention of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and ribonucleic acid (RNA)-binding proteins. This retention is dependent on nuclear export of the viral genomic RNA and on changes in the localization and expression level of the nucleoporin (Nup) p62 (Nup62). To further characterize the extent of perturbation induced by HIV-1, we performed proteomics analyses of nuclear envelopes (NEs) isolated from infected T cells. Infection induced extensive changes in the composition of the NE and its associated proteins, including a remarkable decrease in the abundance of Nups. Immunogold electron microscopy revealed the translocation of Nups into the cytoplasm. Nup62 was identified as a component of purified virus, and small interfering RNA depletion studies revealed an important role for this Nup in virus gene expression and infectivity. This detailed analysis highlights the profound effects on NE composition induced by HIV-1 infection, providing further evidence of the magnitude of viral control over the cell biology of its host.
Contribution of host nucleoporin 62 in HIV-1 integrase chromatin association and viral DNA integration.
Ao Zhujun,Jayappa Kallesh Danappa,Wang Binchen,Zheng Yingfeng,Wang Xiaoxia,Peng Jinyu,Yao Xiaojian
The Journal of biological chemistry
HIV-1 integration is promoted by viral integrase (IN) and its cellular cofactors. The lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75), an IN interacting cellular cofactor, has been shown to play an important role in HIV-1 chromatin targeting and integration. However, whether other cellular cofactors are also involved in viral replication steps is still elusive. Here, we show that nucleoporin 62 (Nup62) is a chromatin-bound protein and can specifically interact with HIV-1 IN in both soluble nuclear extract and chromatin-bound fractions. The knockdown of Nup62 by shRNA reduced the association of IN with host chromatin and significantly impaired viral integration and replication in HIV-1-susceptible cells. Furthermore, the expression of the IN-binding region of Nup62 in CD4(+) T cells significantly inhibited HIV-1 infection. Taken together, these results indicate that the cellular Nup62 is specifically recruited by HIV-1 IN and contribute to an efficient viral DNA integration.
Nuclear pore heterogeneity influences HIV-1 infection and the antiviral activity of MX2.
Kane Melissa,Rebensburg Stephanie V,Takata Matthew A,Zang Trinity M,Yamashita Masahiro,Kvaratskhelia Mamuka,Bieniasz Paul D
HIV-1 accesses the nuclear DNA of interphase cells via a poorly defined process involving functional interactions between the capsid protein (CA) and nucleoporins (Nups). Here, we show that HIV-1 CA can bind multiple Nups, and that both natural and manipulated variation in Nup levels impacts HIV-1 infection in a manner that is strikingly dependent on cell-type, cell-cycle, and cyclophilin A (CypA). We also show that Nups mediate the function of the antiviral protein MX2, and that MX2 can variably inhibit non-viral NLS function. Remarkably, both enhancing and inhibiting effects of cyclophilin A and MX2 on various HIV-1 CA mutants could be induced or abolished by manipulating levels of the Nup93 subcomplex, the Nup62 subcomplex, NUP88, NUP214, RANBP2, or NUP153. Our findings suggest that several Nup-dependent 'pathways' are variably exploited by HIV-1 to target host DNA in a cell-type, cell-cycle, CypA and CA-sequence dependent manner, and are differentially inhibited by MX2.
Nuclear pore blockade reveals that HIV-1 completes reverse transcription and uncoating in the nucleus.
Dharan Adarsh,Bachmann Niklas,Talley Sarah,Zwikelmaier Virginia,Campbell Edward M
Retroviral infection involves the reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into DNA, which is subsequently integrated into the host cell genome. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other lentiviruses mediate the infection of non-dividing cells through the ability of the capsid protein to engage the cellular nuclear import pathways of the target cell and mediate their nuclear translocation through components of the nuclear pore complex. Although recent studies have observed the presence of the capsid protein in the nucleus during infection, reverse transcription and disassembly of the viral core have conventionally been considered to be cytoplasmic events. Here, we use an inducible nuclear pore complex blockade to monitor the kinetics of HIV-1 nuclear import and define the biochemical staging of these steps of infection. Surprisingly, we observe that nuclear import occurs with relatively rapid kinetics (<5 h) and precedes the completion of reverse transcription in target cells, demonstrating that reverse transcription is completed in the nucleus. We also observe that HIV-1 remains susceptible to the capsid-destabilizing compound PF74 following nuclear import, revealing that uncoating is completed in the nucleus. Additionally, we observe that certain capsid mutants are insensitive to a Nup62-mediated nuclear pore complex blockade in cells that potently block infection by wild-type capsid, demonstrating that HIV-1 can use distinct nuclear import pathways during infection. These studies collectively define the spatio-temporal staging of critical steps of HIV-1 infection and provide an experimental system to separate and thereby define the cytoplasmic and nuclear stages of infection by other viruses.