Promoter-specific changes in initiation, elongation, and homeostasis of histone H3 acetylation during CBP/p300 inhibition.
Hsu Emily,Zemke Nathan R,Berk Arnold J
Regulation of RNA polymerase II (Pol2) elongation in the promoter-proximal region is an important and ubiquitous control point for gene expression in metazoans. We report that transcription of the adenovirus 5 E4 region is regulated during the release of paused Pol2 into productive elongation by recruitment of the super-elongation complex, dependent on promoter H3K18/27 acetylation by CBP/p300. We also establish that this is a general transcriptional regulatory mechanism that applies to ~7% of expressed protein-coding genes in primary human airway epithelial cells. We observed that a homeostatic mechanism maintains promoter, but not enhancer, H3K18/27ac in response to extensive inhibition of CBP/p300 acetyl transferase activity by the highly specific small molecule inhibitor A-485. Further, our results suggest a function for BRD4 association at enhancers in regulating paused Pol2 release at nearby promoters. Taken together, our results uncover the processes regulating transcriptional elongation by promoter region histone H3 acetylation and homeostatic maintenance of promoter, but not enhancer, H3K18/27ac in response to inhibition of CBP/p300 acetyl transferase activity.
Therapeutic targeting of p300/CBP HAT domain for the treatment of NUT midline carcinoma.
Zhang Xin,Zegar Tim,Lucas Anais,Morrison-Smith Chevaun,Knox Tatiana,French Christopher A,Knapp Stefan,Müller Susanne,Siveke Jens T
Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC), is a rare and highly aggressive form of undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma. NMC is molecularly characterized by chromosomal rearrangement of the NUT gene to another gene, most commonly the bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) gene BRD4, forming the BRD4-NUT fusion oncogene. Therefore, inhibiting BRD4-NUT oncogenic function directly by BET inhibitors represents an attractive therapeutic approach but toxicity may limit the use of pan-BET inhibitors treating this cancer. We thus performed a drug screening approach using a library consisting of epigenetic compounds and 'Donated Chemical Probes' collated by the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) and identified the p300/CBP HAT inhibitor A-485, in addition to the well-known BET inhibitor JQ1, to be the most active candidate for NMC treatment. In contrast to JQ1, A-485 was selectively potent in NMC compared to other cell lines tested. Mechanistically, A-485 inhibited p300-mediated histone acetylation, leading to disruption of BRD4-NUT binding to hyperacetylated megadomains. Consistently, BRD4-NUT megadomain-associated genes MYC, CCAT1 and TP63 were downregulated by A-485. A-485 strongly induced squamous differentiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Combined inhibition of p300/CBP and BET showed synergistic effects. In summary, we identified the p300/CBP HAT domain as a putative therapeutic target in highly therapy-resistant NMC.
RNA Binding to CBP Stimulates Histone Acetylation and Transcription.
Bose Daniel A,Donahue Greg,Reinberg Danny,Shiekhattar Ramin,Bonasio Roberto,Berger Shelley L
CBP/p300 are transcription co-activators whose binding is a signature of enhancers, cis-regulatory elements that control patterns of gene expression in multicellular organisms. Active enhancers produce bi-directional enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and display CBP/p300-dependent histone acetylation. Here, we demonstrate that CBP binds directly to RNAs in vivo and in vitro. RNAs bound to CBP in vivo include a large number of eRNAs. Using steady-state histone acetyltransferase (HAT) assays, we show that an RNA binding region in the HAT domain of CBP-a regulatory motif unique to CBP/p300-allows RNA to stimulate CBP's HAT activity. At enhancers where CBP interacts with eRNAs, stimulation manifests in RNA-dependent changes in the histone acetylation mediated by CBP, such as H3K27ac, and by corresponding changes in gene expression. By interacting directly with CBP, eRNAs contribute to the unique chromatin structure at active enhancers, which, in turn, is required for regulation of target genes.