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    Influence of In Vitro Digestion on Composition, Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Food Polyphenols-A Non-Systematic Review. Wojtunik-Kulesza Karolina,Oniszczuk Anna,Oniszczuk Tomasz,Combrzyński Maciej,Nowakowska Dominika,Matwijczuk Arkadiusz Nutrients There is increased interest in following a healthy lifestyle and consuming a substantial portion of secondary plant metabolites, such as polyphenols, due to their benefits for the human body. Food products enriched with various forms of fruits and vegetables are sources of pro-health components. Nevertheless, in many cases, the level of their activities is changed in in vivo conditions. The changes are strictly connected with processes in the digestive system that transfigure the structure of the active compounds and simultaneously keep or modify their biological activities. Much attention has focused on their bioavailability, a prerequisite for further physiological functions. As human studies are time consuming, costly and restricted by ethical concerns, in vitro models for investigating the effects of digestion on these compounds have been developed to predict their release from the food matrix, as well as their bioaccessibility. Most typically, models simulate digestion in the oral cavity, the stomach, the small intestine and, occasionally, the large intestine. The presented review aims to discuss the impact of in vitro digestion on the composition, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of food polyphenols. Additionally, we consider the influence of pH on antioxidant changes in the aforementioned substances. 10.3390/nu12051401
    Stability and absorption of anthocyanins from blueberries subjected to a simulated digestion process. Liu Yixiang,Zhang Di,Wu Yongpei,Wang Dan,Wei Ying,Wu Jiulin,Ji Baoping International journal of food sciences and nutrition Numerous studies have shown that anthocyanins usually have better in vitro bioactivity than in vivo bioactivity. This may be due to physiochemical degradation during gastrointestinal digestion and their poor bioavailability in in vivo studies. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of anthocyanin structure on their stability under simulated gastrointestinal digestion and to assess their absorption in the intestines using Caco-2 human intestinal cell monolayers. The results show that gastric digestion does not significant affect blueberry anthocyanins in terms of composition and antioxidative activity. However, approximately 42% of the total anthocyanin and 29% of the antioxidative activity were lost during intestinal digestion. Structural analysis indicated that fewer free hydroxyl groups and more methoxy groups in the B-ring improve anthocyanin stability. The absorption trials demonstrated that more hydrophobic anthocyanins have better absorption efficiency than more hydrophilic anthocyanins. Furthermore, the glycoside structure also determines the absorption efficiency of anthocyanins. 10.3109/09637486.2013.869798
    Health promoting properties of blueberries: a review. Silva Sara,Costa Eduardo M,Veiga Mariana,Morais Rui M,Calhau Conceição,Pintado Manuela Critical reviews in food science and nutrition With the strengthening of the link between diet and health, several foodstuffs have emerged as possessing potential health benefits such as phenolic rich fruits and vegetables. Blueberries, along with other berries, given their flavonoid and antioxidant content have long since been considered as a particularly interesting health promoting fruit. Therefore, the present work aimed to compile the existing evidences regarding the various potential benefits of blueberry and blueberry based products consumption, giving particular relevance to works and epidemiological studies whenever available. Overall, the results demonstrate that, while the evidences that support a beneficial role of blueberry and blueberry extracts consumption, further human based studies are still needed. 10.1080/10408398.2018.1518895
    Effect of wall materials on some physicochemical properties and release characteristics of encapsulated black rice anthocyanin microcapsules. Norkaew Orranuch,Thitisut Pasin,Mahatheeranont Sugunya,Pawin Benjaporn,Sookwong Phumon,Yodpitak Sittidet,Lungkaphin Anusorn Food chemistry Anthocyanin-rich extracts derived from the bran of a select Thai black rice cultivar, Leum Pua, were encapsulated by spray drying. In this microencapsulation method, twelve wall materials comprising maltodextrin (M), gum arabic (G), whey protein isolate (W), and their combinations were employed. For comparison, an ionic gelation method was employed using alginate-whey protein isolate (AL-W) as a wall material. Thirteen microcapsules were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, and their encapsulation efficiencies were almost 100%, except for that of the W (83%). M (88%) and its combination with W exhibited the best anthocyanin retention, while pure W contained the highest amount of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. An in vitro digestion study using simulated gastrointestinal fluids revealed the highest released total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the intestinal fluids when the microcapsule was spray-dried with pure W. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.05.086
    In vitro release properties of encapsulated blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) extracts. Flores Floirendo P,Singh Rakesh K,Kerr William L,Phillips Dennis R,Kong Fanbin Food chemistry We aimed to determine the effect of encapsulation on the release properties of blueberry extracts during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. An ethanolic pomace extract was microencapsulated with whey protein isolate via spray drying. The in vitro release of monomeric anthocyanins, phenolics and ferric reducing antioxidant activity of the microcapsules (W) were evaluated for the microcapsules and two non-encapsulated systems: ethanolic pomace extract (P) and freeze-dried juice (F). Concentrations of anthocyanin and phenolics were normalised prior to digestion. Results showed that antioxidant activity was in the order of: F>W>P. Regardless of encapsulation, more phenolics were released from W and P than F. Anthocyanin concentration decreased after intestinal digestion for W, but remained constant for P and F. MALDI-MS showed similar spectra for P and F but not for W. The spray-dried product has comparable release characteristics to freeze-dried juice, and may be investigated for food applications. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.059
    Nanocomplexes derived from chitosan and whey protein isolate enhance the thermal stability and slow the release of anthocyanins in simulated digestion and prepared instant coffee. Wang Shuo,Ye Xinqi,Sun Yue,Liang Jin,Yue Pengxiang,Gao Xueling Food chemistry Anthocyanins (ACNs) are naturally derived colorants and antioxidants added to manufactured foods. ACNs were encapsulated in nanocomplexes with chitosan hydrochloride (CHC), carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and whey protein isolate (WPI). The ACN-loaded CHC/CMC-WPI nanocomplexes (ACN-CHC/CMC-WPI) showed a preferred particle size (332.20 nm) and zeta potential (+23.65 mV) and a high encapsulation efficiency (60.70%). ACN-CHC/CMC-WPI nanocomplexes exhibited a smooth spherical shape by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed interactions between the ACNs and the encapsulation materials (CHC/CMC-WPI). The nanocomplexes or the nanocomplexes incorporated into coffee beverage better protected ACNs at high temperature compared to the unencapsulated ACNs. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids, the ACNs in the ACN-CHC/CMC-WPI were more stable and more slower released over time. The nanocomplexes maintained high DPPH and hydroxyl free radical scavenging activities. This study indicated that CHC/CMC-WPI nanocomplexes can improve the thermal stability and slow the release of ACNs added to food products. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127707
    Effects of α-casein and β-casein on the stability, antioxidant activity and bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins with an in vitro simulated digestion. Lang Yuxi,Li Bin,Gong Ersheng,Shu Chi,Si Xu,Gao Ningxuan,Zhang Weijia,Cui Huijun,Meng Xianjun Food chemistry Blueberry anthocyanins are well-known for their diverse biological functions. However, the instability during digestion results in their weak bioavailability. The current study aimed to investigate the alteration in the stability, antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins with the addition of α-casein and β-casein in a simulated digestion system using pH differential method, HPLC-MS analysis, peroxyl scavenging capacity (PSC) assay, cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and penetration test. The results showed that both α-casein and β-casein could increase the stability of blueberry anthocyanins during intestinal digestion and protect their antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the addition of α-casein or β-casein would enhance the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins. In conclusion, our study highlights that the interaction between α-casein or β-casein with blueberry anthocyanins can protect the compounds against influences associated with the simulated digestion. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127526
    Total phenolics content and antioxidant capacities of microencapsulated blueberry anthocyanins during in vitro digestion. Flores Floirendo P,Singh Rakesh K,Kerr William L,Pegg Ronald B,Kong Fanbin Food chemistry The goal of this research was to investigate the change in phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of microencapsulated anthocyanins (ACNs) digested in vitro. Blueberry ACN microcapsules were prepared from two wall materials (whey protein isolate and gum arabic) and ACN powder, previously extracted with three solvent systems (acetonic, ethanolic, methanolic); this was then spray-dried. The physicochemical properties and release characteristics of the microcapsules were evaluated. Rehydrated gum arabic microcapsules retained more total ACNs but less ferric reducing power than did whey protein microcapsules. Ethanolic extracts retained most of the total ACNs while methanolic extracts possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. During in vitro digestion, gum arabic microcapsules had high release rates of phenolics with high antioxidant activity during the gastric phase. Whey protein microcapsules had comparably lower release rates but high antioxidant activity throughout digestion. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.12.063
    Blueberry pectin and increased anthocyanins stability under in vitro digestion. Koh Jeewon,Xu Zhimin,Wicker Louise Food chemistry Pectin was extracted from blueberry powder as water soluble fraction (WSF), rich in branched regions, and chelator soluble fraction (CSF), linear, with strong negative charge. Binding of pectins with three anthocyanin standards (malvidin-3-glucoside; M3G, cyanidin-3-glucoside; C3G, and delphinidin-3-glucoside; D3G) and blueberry extract (BBE) were used. Without blueberry pectin, M3G was the most stable followed by C3G, whereas D3G completely disappeared after gastrointestinal digestion. CSF prevented M3G and C3G degradation more than WSF, the in vitro stability was highest with CSF and C3G. Increased stability of anthocyanins after simulated gastrointestinal digestion suggests that anthocyanins can be transported to colon where gut microbiota actively produce anthocyanin metabolites. The amount of bound anthocyanins that interacted with blueberry pectin increased as the number of hydroxyl groups increased on anthocyanins. Hydrogen bonding in addition to electrostatic interaction contribute to stability of pectin-anthocyanins interaction at pH 4.0 and contribute to stability under gastrointestinal simulation. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125343
    Protective effects of bovine serum albumin on blueberry anthocyanins under illumination conditions and their mechanism analysis. Lang Yuxi,Li Enhui,Meng Xianjun,Tian Jinlong,Ran Xulong,Zhang Ye,Zang Zhihuan,Wang Weisheng,Li Bin Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) This study investigates the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on blueberry anthocyanins and their interaction. Findings showed that BSA could protect blueberry anthocyanins against degradation and retain their antioxidant activity at an ideal concentration of 0.15 mg/mL under three deteriorating treatments: illumination, vitamin C + illumination, and sucrose + illumination. The fluorescence and UV absorption spectra showed that malvidin-3-o-galactoside (M3G), the major monomer in blueberry anthocyanins, led to a static quenching of BSA and the binding site of M3G to BSA was approximately one. Further, the interaction was a spontaneous process with electrostatic interactions being the main force. CD spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra presented alterations in the secondary structure and microenvironment of Trp and Tyr residues of BSA, respectively, upon interaction with M3G. Finally, molecular docking analysis showed that M3G mainly bound the II and III domains of BSA by hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction. In conclusion, our study highlights the protective effects of BSA on the stability and anti-oxidant activity of blueberry anthocyanins and their interaction analysis. 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.05.021
    Effect of whey protein isolate on the stability and antioxidant capacity of blueberry anthocyanins: A mechanistic and in vitro simulation study. Zang Zhihuan,Chou Shurui,Tian Jinlong,Lang Yuxi,Shen Yixiao,Ran Xulong,Gao Ningxuan,Li Bin Food chemistry The processing stability and antioxidant capacity of blueberry anthocyanins (ANs) in the presence of whey protein isolate (WPI) were examined. WPI was found to enhance both the stability and antioxidant activity of ANs during processing and simulated in vitro digestion, especially at a concentration of 0.15 mg·mL. Fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy showed that ANs were primarily stabilized by hydrophobic forces between WPI and malvidin-3-O-galactoside (M3G), the major anthocyanin monomer. Circular dichroism and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the structure of WPI changed and the microenvironments of certain amino acid residues were modulated by non-covalent binding to M3G; furthermore, fewer α-helices and more β-sheets were formed. Molecular docking studies revealed that WPI, especially immunoglobulin (IgG), contributed the most to ANs stability via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces according to molecular docking scores (-141.30 kcal/mol). These results provided an important fundamental basis for improving the stabilities of ANs in milk systems. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127700