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    Icariin enhances the chemosensitivity of cisplatin‑resistant ovarian cancer cells by suppressing autophagy via activation of the AKT/mTOR/ATG5 pathway. Jiang Shaoyan,Chang Hong,Deng Shaojie,Fan Danyi International journal of oncology Icariin is a flavonoid derived from Epimedium sagittatum, and has a wide range of biological and pharmacological effects; however, little is known regarding its effect on drug‑resistant ovarian cancer and the signal transduction pathways underlying the regulation of apoptosis and autophagy. The present study aimed to investigate the re‑sensitization effects of icariin exerted on an ovarian cancer cell line. Autophagy was analyzed in a SKVCR cell line that had been treated with icariin. We investigated the sensitivity of SKVCR cells to cisplatin, as well as the effects of an autophagy agonist (rapamycin) on autophagy, apoptosis, and the protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway. Finally, the mechanism underlying the effects of autophagy‑related (ATG) protein ATG5 overexpression on autophagy, apoptosis and AKT signaling in SKVCR cells were determined. The results revealed that treatment with icariin inhibited cell viability and autophagy, but promoted G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as determined by Cell Counting Kit‑8, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Icariin reduced the resistance of SKVCR cells to cisplatin in vitro by inducing G1/S cell cycle transition, apoptosis and inhibiting autophagy. Furthermore, enhanced autophagy induced by rapamycin treatment or overexpression of ATG5 partially reversed the effect of icariin on cisplatin resistance and autophagy in SKVCR cells. At the molecular level, rapamycin treatment or overexpression of ATG5 reversed the effects of icariin on the expression of autophagy‑associated proteins, including microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3β, Beclin‑1, ATG5 and p62, and the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Collectively, our results suggested that icariin enhances the chemosensitivity of SKVCR cells by suppressing autophagy via activation of the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. 10.3892/ijo.2019.4785
    Hydrous icaritin nanorods with excellent stability improves the and activity against breast cancer. Wang Yian,Huang Tiantian,Li Haowen,Fu Jingxin,Ao Hui,Lu Likang,Han Meihua,Guo Yifei,Yue Feng,Wang Xiangtao Drug delivery Due to their various biological activities that are beneficial to human health and antitumor effect, flavonoid compounds have attracted much attention in recent years. Hydrous icaritin (HICT) was such a flavonoid that can inhibit the growth of breast cancer and cancer stem cells. In order to overcome the insolubility problem, HICT was fabricated into nanorods (NRs) through anti-solvent precipitation in this paper using D-α tocopherol acid polyethylene glycol succinate and sodium oleate as a co-stabilizer meanwhile using the mixture of ethanol and acetone (1:2, v/v) as the organic solvent. The obtained HICT NRs showed an average particle size 222.0 nm with a small polydispersity index value of 0.124 and a high zeta potential of - 49.5 mV. HICT NRs could maintain similar particle size in various physiological medium and could be directly lyophilized without the addition of any cytoprotectants and then reconstituted into a colloidal system of similar size. The resultant HICT NRs had a high drug loading content of 55.6% and released HICT in a steady and constant pattern. MTT assay indicated NRs enhanced HICT's antitumor activity to ninefold against MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. studies demonstrated oral administration free HICT had almost no tumor inhibitory effect while HICT NRs showed a tumor inhibition rate of 47.8%. When intravenously injected, HICT NRs displayed similar therapeutic efficacy to paclitaxel injections (70.4% vs. 74.5%, TIR). This may be partly due to the high accumulation of the injected HICT NRs in tumor ranking only second to that in the liver but much higher than in other organs. These results demonstrated that HICT NRs could be a promising antitumor agent for the treatment of breast cancer in clinic. 10.1080/10717544.2020.1716877