A systematic review and meta-analyses on C-reactive protein in relation to periodontitis.
Paraskevas Spiros,Huizinga John D,Loos Bruno G
Journal of clinical periodontology
AIM:Elevated plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) is regarded as a risk predictor for cardiovascular diseases. This systematic review explored the robustness of observations that CRP is elevated in periodontitis. Similarly, the effect of periodontal therapy on CRP levels was investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Selection of publications was based on: (1) cross-sectional (case-control) studies; (2) longitudinal (treatment) studies; (3) high-sensitivity CRP measurement; (4) median and/or mean (+/-SD) values presented; and (5) subjects with no systemic disorders. RESULTS:Screening of the initially 448 identified studies and reference checking resulted in 18 suitable papers. The majority of the studies showed that CRP levels are higher in patients than in controls. Often, studies showed that patients had CRP levels >2.1 mg/l. A meta-analysis of 10 cross-sectional studies showed that the weighted mean difference (WMD) of CRP between patients and controls was 1.56 mg/l (p<0.00001). Evidence from available treatment studies (n=6) showed lower levels of CRP after periodontal therapy. Eligible treatment studies in a meta-analysis demonstrated a WMD of reductions of CRP after therapy of 0.50 mg/L (95% CI 0.08-0.93) (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS:There is strong evidence from cross-sectional studies that plasma CRP in periodontitis is elevated compared with controls. There is modest evidence on the effect of periodontal therapy in lowering the levels of CRP.
Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Along With Myo-Inositol on High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Insulin Resistance in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Deepti ,Tewari Shikha,Narula Satish Chander,Singhal Savita Rani,Sharma Rajinder Kumar
Journal of periodontology
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy and medical treatment on the level of a serologic marker of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment [HOMA]) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and chronic periodontitis (CP). METHODS:Women with PCOS and CP (n = 60) were randomly divided into two groups. The test group was treated with scaling and root planing (SRP) and myo-inositol (MI). The control group was treated with MI and given oral hygiene instructions. Anthropometric, metabolic, and periodontal parameters were assessed at baseline and re-evaluated at 3 and 6 months. All parameters of both groups at 6 months were compared with 25 systemically and periodontally healthy females (group A). RESULTS:Periodontal parameters were significantly improved in the test group compared with the control group at 3- and 6-month follow-up (P <0.001). A statistically significant reduction was observed in hsCRP and HOMA in both groups at 3- and 6-month follow-up (P <0.05). However, significantly more improvement in hsCRP (P <0.05) and a statistically comparable reduction in HOMA (P >0.05) was observed in the test group compared with the control group at 3 and 6 months. Both the test and control group showed significant consistent improvement in metabolic parameters at 3- and 6-month follow-up, which was further comparable to group A. CONCLUSION:SRP together with medical treatment results in a greater reduction of systemic inflammatory burden compared with medical treatment alone in management of women with PCOS and CP.
Impact of periodontal therapy on systemic markers of inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized clinical trial.
Montero Eduardo,López Mercedes,Vidal Honorato,Martínez María,Virto Leire,Marrero Jorge,Herrera David,Zapatero Antonio,Sanz Mariano
Diabetes, obesity & metabolism
AIM:To determine the impact of periodontal treatment on systemic markers of inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this parallel-arm, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial, 63 patients with MetS and severe periodontitis were randomly assigned to receive either intensive periodontal treatment (IPT; scaling and root planing plus azithromycin 500 mg every day for 3 days) or minimal periodontal treatment (MPT; supragingival professional mechanical plaque removal plus a placebo). The primary outcome was the impact of the tested interventions on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) serum levels at 6 months. As secondary outcomes, differences in the levels of cytokines, markers of prothrombotic states, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as blood pressure, were measured at 3 and 6 months after therapy. RESULTS:The intention-to-treat population consisted of 63 subjects randomly assigned to either the MPT (n = 31) or the IPT (n = 32) group. At baseline, mean hs-CRP was 3.9 mg/L (standard deviation [SD] = 2.9) and 3.9 mg/L (SD = 3.4), respectively, and no significant differences in cardiometabolic risk profiles were detected between the groups. Adjusting for baseline hs-CRP, sex, age, smoking status and body mass index, hs-CRP at 6 months was 1.2 mg/L (95% CI 0.4; 2.0; P = .004) lower in the IPT group than in the MPT group. In the secondary outcomes, significant reductions in IL-1β, TNF-α, HbA1c and blood pressure were observed in the IPT group at 3 months compared with the MPT group. CONCLUSION:Effective periodontal treatment significantly reduced hs-CRP after 6 months in patients with MetS and severe periodontitis. Periodontal therapy might be useful to reduce cardiovascular risk in these patients.
Periodontal disease and C-reactive protein-associated cardiovascular risk.
D'Aiuto Francesco,Ready Derren,Tonetti Maurizio S
Journal of periodontal research
BACKGROUND:Periodontitis has been associated with a moderate systemic inflammatory response. Successful periodontal therapy could decrease serum inflammatory parameters. The aim of this report was to explore the outcomes of periodontal therapy in terms of changes in C-reactive protein (CRP)-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk as defined in a recent American Heart Association (AHA) consensus conference. METHODS:Ninety-four systemically healthy subjects suffering from severe generalized periodontitis received standard non-surgical periodontal therapy. Periodontal parameters and serum inflammatory responses [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CRP] were monitored 2 and 6 months after therapy. RESULTS:At baseline, subjects with more severe and widespread periodontitis had a higher chance of having high CRP-associated CVD risk (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.2-27.4). Age and body mass index were also significant in the analysis. After therapy, a significant decrease in number of subjects associated with a medium and high CRP-associated risk was observed (p < 0.001 chi(2)), with 40 of 94 subjects displaying a decrease in their class of risk. Patients who had a better oral response to periodontal therapy were also more likely to have decreased their inflammatory risk category (OR 4.8, 95% CI 1.4-15.8) after correcting for age, gender, ethnicity and cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS:This study indicated that periodontitis may add to the inflammatory burden of the individual and may result in increased levels of cardiovascular risk based on serum CRP concentrations. These observations will need to be confirmed in a definitive trial. Given the high prevalence of periodontitis in the population, these data would caution physicians to be aware of the possible oral source of an increased inflammatory burden.
C-reactive protein promotes inflammation through TLR4/NF-κB/TGF-β pathway in HL-1 cells.
Sun Weiping,Wu Yongquan,Gao Mingyang,Tian Ying,Qi Peng,Shen Yujing,Huang Lihong,Shi Liang,Wang Yanjiang,Liu Xingpeng
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common type of heart arrhythmia. Currently, the pathogenesis of AF is not fully understood yet. A growing body of evidence highlighted the strong association between inflammation and the pathogenesis of AF. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammation marker with increased expression in AF. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if CRP promotes inflammation, which may sequentially mediate the onset of AF and the concurrent atrial fibrosis, through TLR4/NF-κB/TGF-β pathway. HL-1 cells were treated with either 25 or 50 μg/ml recombinant human CRP. TGF-β1 and NF-κB inhibitors were given either solely or together to the 50 μg/ml CRP-treated cells. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, the expression of apoptotic factors and TLR4, IL-6, TGF-β1, Smad2, and the phosphorylation of Smad2 were determined. Data showed that CRP induced dose-dependent inhibition on cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis, which was induced through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Such effects were reversed by inhibiting TGF-β1 and/or NF-κB. Inhibition of TGF-β1 and/or NF-κB also reduced the expression of TLR4 and IL-6. Inhibition of NF-κB alone weakened the expression of TGF-β1 and phosphorylation of Smad2. Our study demonstrated that CRP is not only a marker, but also an important mediator in the induction of inflammation and likely the pathogenesis of AF. We for the first time reported CRP-induced activation and cross-talk between TLR4 and NF-κB/TGF-β1 signaling pathway in a cardiomyocyte model. Reducing CRP and targeting TLR4/NF-κB/TGF-β1 pathway may provide new insights in the therapeutic interventions to inflammation-induced AF.
Regulation of C-reactive protein conformation in inflammation.
Yao ZhenYu,Zhang Yanmin,Wu HaiBin
Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a non-specific diagnostic marker of inflammation and an evolutionarily conserved protein with roles in innate immune signaling. Natural CRP is composed of five identical globular subunits that form a pentamer, but the role of pentameric CRP (pCRP) during inflammatory pathogenesis remains controversial. Emerging evidence suggests that pCRP can be dissociated into monomeric CRP (mCRP) that has major roles in host defenses and inflammation. Here, we discuss our current knowledge of the dissociation mechanisms of pCRP and summarize the stepwise conformational transition model to mCRP to elucidate how CRP dissociation contributes to proinflammatory activity. These discussions will evoke new understanding of this ancient protein.
C-reactive protein in relation to early atherosclerosis and periodontitis.
Yakob Maha,Meurman Jukka H,Jogestrand Tomas,Nowak Jacek,Söder Per-Östen,Söder Birgitta
Clinical oral investigations
Periodontitis may affect atherosclerosis via the chronic inflammation. We investigated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in relation to early vascular atherosclerotic changes in non-symptomatic subjects with and without long-term periodontitis. Carotid ultrasonography with calculation of common carotid artery intima-media area (cIMA) was performed, and hsCRP and atherosclerosis risk factors were analysed in randomly chosen 93 patients with periodontitis and 41 controls. The relationship between hsCRP, cIMA and atherosclerosis risk factors was evaluated with multiple logistic regression analysis. Women displayed lower hsCRP (p < 0.05) and higher serum HDL (p < 0.001) than men. In all patients with periodontitis, cIMA values were higher than in controls. Periodontitis appeared to be a major predictor for increased cIMA (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-12.26). Neither of these factors was significantly associated with hsCRP which thus appeared not sensitive enough to be a marker for periodontitis or atherosclerosis. Hence, irrespective of low hsCRP levels, periodontitis appeared to increase the risk for atherosclerosis.
Periodontitis-associated up-regulation of systemic inflammatory mediator level may increase the risk of coronary heart disease.
Nakajima T,Honda T,Domon H,Okui T,Kajita K,Ito H,Takahashi N,Maekawa T,Tabeta K,Yamazaki K
Journal of periodontal research
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Although an elevation in the concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as a result of periodontal infection may account for an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD), the effect of periodontal infection on the level of hs-CRP in an otherwise healthy Japanese population has not yet been reported. The aim of the present study was to confirm, on a larger scale, our previous pilot study findings that both chronic periodontitis and subsequent periodontal treatment alter the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). MATERIAL AND METHODS:The concentrations of serum hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured in 78 periodontitis patients at baseline and at re-assessment, and in 40 periodontally healthy subjects at the time of examination. RESULTS:The concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 in the sera of periodontitis patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects. By contrast, the concentration of TNF-alpha was significantly lower in periodontitis patients than in control subjects. Whereas periodontal treatment decreased the levels of serum hs-CRP and IL-6, no such effect was observed for TNF-alpha. When the patients were subdivided into four groups according to their initial concentration of hs-CRP, only the CRP and IL-6 concentrations of the highest quartile group showed a significant reduction following periodontal treatment. No significant difference in the initial clinical parameters was observed in any quartile. CONCLUSION:Although periodontal infection does affect the concentration of hs-CRP and IL-6 in serum, a subgroup of patients exist who are highly susceptible to an increased risk of CHD associated with periodontitis, suggesting that there may be subjects who have an elevated risk of CHD independent of susceptibility to periodontal tissue destruction per se.
Is there an Association Between Periodontitis and Atherosclerosis in Adults? A Systematic Review.
Almeida Anna P C P S C,Fagundes Nathalia C F,Maia Lucianne C,Lima Rafael R
Current vascular pharmacology
BACKGROUND:Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease of the cardiovascular system. It has been suggested that periodontitis, an infectious disease of oral cavity caused by gramnegative anaerobic bacteria, could be linked to atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this systematic review was to assess the evidence between the association of periodontitis and atherosclerosis in adults. METHODS:A systematic literature search was conducted in 7 databases up to January 2017, according to the Preferential Reports for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies in humans with atherosclerosis were considered eligible when considering a group exposed to periodontitis and a control group (absence of periodontitis), in which the primary outcome was the association between the 2 diseases (atherosclerosis and periodontitis). The synthesis of the qualitative studies included was evaluated using previously validated checklist for assessing the risk of bias. RESULTS:Among the 2138 studies found, 4 observational studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. All articles were considered adequate, presenting consistent and valid information. The results of the selected studies show the expected effects, being considered as low risk of bias. CONCLUSION:The available evidence indicates an association between the 2 diseases, with elevated levels of inflammatory markers, mainly C-reactive protein and interleukin 6.
Assessment of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipid levels in healthy adults and patients with coronary artery disease, with and without periodontitis--a cross-sectional study.
Kumar K R V,Ranganath V,Naik R,Banu S,Nichani A S
Journal of periodontal research
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Various epidemiological studies have implied that local infection may increase the levels of systemic inflammatory mediators and lipid mediators, thereby promoting atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) and lipid levels in healthy adults and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), with and without periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A total of 100 subjects were included in the study and categorized into four groups of 25 subjects each, as follows: subjects with chronic periodontitis with angiographically proven CAD; nonperiodontitis subjects with angiographically proven CAD; otherwise healthy subjects with only chronic periodontitis; and systemically and orally healthy individuals. The periodontal parameters measured included plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and marginal alveolar bone loss (which was recorded radiographically). Serum samples were collected for estimation of HsCRP, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TGs). RESULTS:The serum HsCRP levels in subjects with either CAD or chronic periodontitis were elevated two-fold compared with those of healthy individuals, whereas in subjects with both diseases (CAD plus chronic periodontitis) the levels were elevated three-fold. The serum LDL level was higher, and the serum HDL level was lower, in all the test groups compared with the healthy group. No significant difference among the groups was detected in the TG levels. CONCLUSION:A persistent infection, such as chronic periodontitis, may influence changes in the systemic levels of HsCRP, LDL and HDL, which potentially have an impact on inflammation-associated atherosclerotic processes, such as CAD.
[Effect of scaling and root planing on serum C-reactive protein levels in patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis: a systematic review and Meta-analysis].
Chang Ya-Qin,Fang Fang-Fang,Qin Sha-Sha,Dong Ying-Chun,Chen Bin
Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. METHODS:We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases from the inception to July 8th, 2019. Two reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and evaluated the bias risk of included studies. Then, a meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS:A total of 13 randomized controlled clinical trials and 12 prospective clinical trials were included. Meta-analysis showed that serum CRP levels decreased at 2 and 3 months after SRP (P<0.05), and no significant difference in serum CRP levels was found at 6 months (P=0.49). CONCLUSIONS:SRP can reduce serum CRP levels in systematically healthy patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis at 2 and 3 months after SRP.
C-reactive protein as a systemic marker of inflammation in periodontitis.
Pejcic A,Kesic L J,Milasin J
European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology
Periodontitis has been identified as a potential risk factor for systemic pathologies such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aims of this investigation were to assess the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammatory factor, as well as to discover whether there is a relation to the severity of periodontitis and to the periodontopathogens. Periodontal examinations and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level measurements were performed in 50 patients with periodontitis. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding on probing index and periodontal disease status. The patients with moderate periodontitis had low attachment loss and pocket depth <4 mm. The patients with severe periodontitis had high attachment loss and pocket depth >5 mm. The control group comprised 25 volunteers with healthy gingiva, gingival sulcus <2 mm and no attachment loss. The presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival plaque samples was analysed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The periodontal parameters and CRP levels were significantly higher in the patients with periodontitis. Patients who had severe periodontitis, with high levels of mean clinical attachment loss, and subjects with moderate periodontitis had higher mean CRP levels. The percentage of subjects with elevated levels of CRP >5 mg/l was greater in the higher clinical attachment loss group compared to the group with lower attachment loss. The presence of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were also associated with elevated CRP levels and poor periodontal status. Periodontitis and the presence of P. gingivalis are associated with an enhanced inflammatory response expressed by higher CRP levels. The association of periodontitis with CRP levels appears to be a contributing factor for CVD and might be a possible intermediate pathway in this association.
Correlation of human S100A12 (EN-RAGE) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as gingival crevicular fluid and serum markers of inflammation in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes.
Pradeep A R,Martande Santosh S,Singh Sonender Pal,Suke Deepak Kumar,Raju Arjun P,Naik Savitha B
Inflammation research : official journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et al.]
OBJECTIVE:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels and correlation of human S100A12 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 44 subjects were divided into three groups: group 1 had 10 periodontally healthy subjects, group 2 consisted of 17 CP subjects and group 3 had 17 type 2 DM subjects with CP. GCF and serum levels of human S100A12 and hs-CRP were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoturbidimetric analysis, respectively. The clinical outcomes evaluated were gingival index, probing depth and clinical attachment level and the correlations of the two inflammatory mediators with clinical parameters were evaluated. RESULTS:Both human S100A12 and hs-CRP levels increased from group 1 to group 2 to group 3. The GCF and serum values of both these inflammatory mediators correlated positively with each other and with the periodontal parameters evaluated (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Human S100A12 and hs-CRP can be considered as possible GCF and serum markers of inflammatory activity in CP and DM.
A Lead ANRIL Polymorphism Is Associated with Elevated CRP Levels in Periodontitis: A Pilot Case-Control Study.
Teeuw Wijnand J,Laine Marja L,Bizzarro Sergio,Loos Bruno G
Elevated high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker for systemic inflammation and a risk marker for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and has also been associated with periodontitis. Inter-individual variation for hsCRP in periodontitis has been shown. ANRIL is the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for both periodontitis and ACVD, and it is speculated that genetic variation in ANRIL may modulate inflammatory processes. Therefore, we explored the possible association between hsCRP plasma levels and a leading ANRIL single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in periodontitis patients and controls. 171 healthy subjects with North European descent (115 periodontitis and 56 controls) were included in this case-control study. hsCRP levels were determined and subjects were genotyped for the leading ANRIL SNP rs1333048. In a multivariate analysis, periodontitis, female gender, increasing BMI and homozygosity for the major allele (AA-genotype) of rs1333048 were significantly associated with elevated hsCRP plasma levels (p = 0.012, p = 0.004, p = 0.007 and p = 0.003, respectively). Periodontitis patients with rs1333048 AA-genotype showed higher levels of hsCRP than those carrying the minor C allele (median: 4.5 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, padjusted = 0.007). This study is the first to show that, in addition to gender and BMI, also a leading SNP in ANRIL is explanatory for inter-individual variation in hsCRP levels in periodontitis patients of North European descent.
PPARγ gene polymorphism, C-reactive protein level, BMI and periodontitis in post-menopausal Japanese women.
Wang Yangming,Sugita Noriko,Yoshihara Akihiro,Iwasaki Masanori,Miyazaki Hideo,Nakamura Kazutoshi,Yoshie Hiromasa
BACKGROUND:Several studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the association between the PPARγPro12Ala polymorphism and obesity. Obese individuals had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels compared with those of normal weight, and PPARγ activation could significantly reduce serum high-sensitive CRP level. We have previously suggested that the Pro12Ala polymorphism represents a susceptibility factor for periodontitis, which is a known risk factor for increased CRP level. OBJECTIVES:The aim was to investigate associations between PPARγ gene polymorphism, serum CRP level, BMI and/or periodontitis among post-menopausal Japanese women. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The final sample in this study comprised 359 post-menopausal Japanese women. Periodontal parameters, including PD, CAL and BOP, were measured per tooth. PPARγPro12Ala genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP. Hs-CRP value was measured by a latex nephelometry assay. RESULTS:No significant differences in age, BMI or periodontal parameters were found between the genotypes. The percentages of sites with PD ≥ 4 mm were significantly higher among the hsCRP ≥ 1 mg/l group than the hsCRP < 1 mg/l group (p = 0.003). Positive correlations were found between serum hsCRP levels and the percentages of sites with PD ≥ 4 mm (p = 0.043) in PPARγ Ala allele carriers, and BMI (p = 0.033) in non-carriers. After adjustment for model covariates, BMI was significantly associated with serum hsCRP level. CONCLUSION:The PPARγPro12Ala polymorphism was not independently associated with periodontitis, serum CRP level or BMI in post-menopausal Japanese women. However, serum hsCRP level correlated with periodontitis in Ala allele carriers, and with BMI in non-carriers.
Impact of root canal treatment on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in systemically healthy adults with apical periodontitis - a preliminary prospective, longitudinal interventional study.
Poornima L,Ravishankar P,Abbott P V,Subbiya A,PradeepKumar A R
International endodontic journal
AIM:To assess the influence of root canal treatment on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in systemically healthy human adults. METHODOLOGY:Fifteen individuals aged 20-40 years diagnosed with apical periodontitis [Periapical Index (PAI) score ≥3] who were otherwise healthy took part in this prospective interventional study. Patients with moderate to severe periodontitis, systemic diseases and traditional cardiac risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and smoking) were excluded. Root canal treatment was completed in two visits with an inter-appointment calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament. After 6 months, healing of apical periodontitis was evaluated clinically and radiographically, and serum hsCRP levels were recorded. A paired sample T-test was used to compare the mean hsCRP values between the pre- and post-treatment groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare hsCRP values between patients with PAI scores of 3 and 4, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare pre- and postoperative PAI scores. RESULTS:The mean preoperative baseline serum hsCRP level was 2.88 ± 1.06 mg L which can be associated with a moderate risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Based on the preoperative hsCRP levels, eight of the 15 patients were categorized as high risk (hsCRP > 3 mg L ) and the other seven as medium risk (hsCRP 1-3 mg L ) for CVD. The mean preoperative hsCRP value of patients with a PAI score of 3 was 2.88 ± 1.19 mg L , and the mean preoperative hsCRP of patients with a PAI score of 4 was 2.87 ± 0.15 mg L , which was not significantly different (P = 0.942). Six months after root canal treatment, the mean PAI score had significantly reduced from 3.2 ± 0.42 to 1.4 ± 0.69 (P = 0.003). The PAI score had reduced to ≤2 in 87% of the patients, and the mean serum hsCRP levels had significantly reduced to 1.34 ± 0.52 mg L (P < 0.001). Ten of the 15 patients had a reduction in their CVD risk status. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that root canal treatment can reduce serum hsCRP levels in systemically healthy individuals with apical periodontitis.