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    A Molecular Revolution in the Treatment of Hemophilia. Butterfield John S S,Hege Kerry M,Herzog Roland W,Kaczmarek Radoslaw Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy For decades, the monogenetic bleeding disorders hemophilia A and B (coagulation factor VIII and IX deficiency) have been treated with systemic protein replacement therapy. Now, diverse molecular medicines, ranging from antibody to gene to RNA therapy, are transforming treatment. Traditional replacement therapy requires twice to thrice weekly intravenous infusions of factor. While extended half-life products may reduce the frequency of injections, patients continue to face a lifelong burden of the therapy, suboptimal protection from bleeding and joint damage, and potential development of neutralizing anti-drug antibodies (inhibitors) that require less efficacious bypassing agents and further reduce quality of life. Novel non-replacement and gene therapies aim to address these remaining issues. A recently approved factor VIII-mimetic antibody accomplishes hemostatic correction in patients both with and without inhibitors. Antibodies against tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and antithrombin-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) target natural anticoagulant pathways to rebalance hemostasis. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy provides lasting clotting factor replacement and can also be used to induce immune tolerance. Multiple gene-editing techniques are under clinical or preclinical investigation. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of these approaches, explain how they differ from standard therapies, and predict how the hemophilia treatment landscape will be reshaped. 10.1016/j.ymthe.2019.11.006
    Current Clinical Applications of In Vivo Gene Therapy with AAVs. Mendell Jerry R,Al-Zaidy Samiah A,Rodino-Klapac Louise R,Goodspeed Kimberly,Gray Steven J,Kay Christine N,Boye Sanford L,Boye Shannon E,George Lindsey A,Salabarria Stephanie,Corti Manuela,Byrne Barry J,Tremblay Jacques P Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy Hereditary diseases are caused by mutations in genes, and more than 7,000 rare diseases affect over 30 million Americans. For more than 30 years, hundreds of researchers have maintained that genetic modifications would provide effective treatments for many inherited human diseases, offering durable and possibly curative clinical benefit with a single treatment. This review is limited to gene therapy using adeno-associated virus (AAV) because the gene delivered by this vector does not integrate into the patient genome and has a low immunogenicity. There are now five treatments approved for commercialization and currently available, i.e., Luxturna, Zolgensma, the two chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapies (Yescarta and Kymriah), and Strimvelis (the gammaretrovirus approved for adenosine deaminase-severe combined immunodeficiency [ADA-SCID] in Europe). Dozens of other treatments are under clinical trials. The review article presents a broad overview of the field of therapy by in vivo gene transfer. We review gene therapy for neuromuscular disorders (spinal muscular atrophy [SMA]; Duchenne muscular dystrophy [DMD]; X-linked myotubular myopathy [XLMTM]; and diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Canavan disease, aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase [AADC] deficiency, and giant axonal neuropathy), ocular disorders (Leber congenital amaurosis, age-related macular degeneration [AMD], choroideremia, achromatopsia, retinitis pigmentosa, and X-linked retinoschisis), the bleeding disorder hemophilia, and lysosomal storage disorders. 10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.12.007
    Hemophilia A Inhibitor Subjects Show Unique PBMC Gene Expression Profiles That Include Up-Regulated Innate Immune Modulators. Karim Ahmad Faisal,Soltis Anthony R,Sukumar Gauthaman,Königs Christoph,Ewing Nadia P,Dalgard Clifton L,Wilkerson Matthew D,Pratt Kathleen P Frontiers in immunology Formation of pathological anti-FVIII antibodies, or "inhibitors," is the most serious complication of therapeutic FVIII infusions, affecting up to 1/3 of severe Hemophilia A (HA) patients. Inhibitor formation is a classical T-cell dependent adaptive immune response. As such, it requires help from the innate immune system. However, the roles of innate immune cells and mechanisms of inhibitor development vs. immune tolerance, achieved with or without Immune Tolerance Induction (ITI) therapy, are not well-understood. To address these questions, temporal transcriptomics profiling of FVIII-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was carried out for HA subjects with and without a current or historic inhibitor using RNA-Seq. PBMCs were isolated from 40 subjects in the following groups: HA with an inhibitor that resolved either following ITI or spontaneously; HA with a current inhibitor; HA with no inhibitor history and non-HA controls. PBMCs were stimulated with 5 nM FVIII and RNA was isolated 4, 16, 24, and 48 h following stimulation. Time-series differential expression analysis was performed and distinct transcriptional signatures were identified for each group, providing clues as to cellular mechanisms leading to or accompanying their disparate anti-FVIII antibody responses. Subjects with a current inhibitor showed differential expression of 56 genes and a clustering analysis identified three major temporal profiles. Interestingly, gene ontology enrichments featured innate immune modulators, including , and and are associated with enhanced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα, while IL32, which has several isoforms, has been associated with both inflammatory and regulatory immune processes. RNA-Seq results were validated by RT-qPCR, ELISAs, multiplex cytokine analysis, and flow cytometry. The inflammatory status of HA patients suffering from an ongoing inhibitor includes up-regulated innate immune modulators, which may act as ongoing danger signals that influence the responses to, and eventual outcomes of, ITI therapy. 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01219
    Chronic pain in patients with hemophilia: is it preventable? Visweshwar Nathan,Zhang Yumeng,Joseph Hazina,Jaglal Michael,Ayala Irmel Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis : Current management of chronic pain in patients with hemophilia (PWH) focuses on pain relief with analgesics and symptom control. The clinical practice of managing chronic pain in PWH varies considerably across hemophilia treatment centers. Here, we aim to study the appropriate intervention of hemophilic arthropathy for prevention and treatment of chronic pain in PWH. Medline, Embase, Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials, and the European Hemophilia Therapy Standardization Board, The World Federation of Hemophilia, Nordic Hemophilia Guidelines, American Society of the International Pain Physicians and the Medical and Scientific Advisory Council guidelines were studied through November 2019 for chronic pain in PWH for a narrative review. We found no standardized approach for the prevention and management of chronic pain in PWH. Evidence suggests that prophylactic factor concentrate therapy, programmed exercise and educational intervention may help PWH manage their chronic pain. 10.1097/MBC.0000000000000939
    Treatment of rare factor deficiencies other than hemophilia. Menegatti Marzia,Peyvandi Flora Blood The deficiency of fibrinogen, prothrombin, factor V (FV), FVII, FVIII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXIII, called rare coagulation disorders (RCDs), may result in coagulopathies leading to spontaneous or posttrauma and postsurgery hemorrhages. RCDs are characterized by a wide variety of symptoms, from mild to severe, which can vary significantly from 1 disease to another and from 1 patient to another. The most typical symptoms of all RCDs are mucosal bleedings and bleeding at the time of invasive procedures, whereas other life-threatening symptoms such as central nervous system bleeding and hemarthroses are mostly present only in some deficiencies (afibrinogenemia, FX, and FXIII). At variance with hemophilia A and B and von Willebrand disease, RCDs are much less prevalent, ranging from 1 case in 500 000 to 1 in 2 million in the general population. Their clinical heterogeneity associated with the low number of patients has led to a delay in the development of appropriate therapies. Indeed, a similar heterogeneity can also be found in the treatment products available, ranging from the specific recombinant proteins to treat FVII- and FXIII-deficient patients to the complete absence of specific products to treat patients with FII or FV deficiencies, for whom prothrombin complex concentrates or fresh frozen plasma are, to date, the only option. The recent development of novel hemostatic approaches for hemophilia, such as the use of nonsubstitutive therapy as RNA interference, anti-tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and the gene therapy aimed at improving the patient's quality of life may also have an important role in the treatment of patients with RCDs in the future. 10.1182/blood-2018-06-820738
    Prophylactic bypassing agent use before and during immune tolerance induction in patients with haemophilia A and inhibitors to FVIII. Carpenter S L,Khair K,Gringeri A,Valentino L A Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia The development of high-titre inhibitory antibodies (inhibitors) against factor VIII (FVIII) remains a challenge in the management of patients with haemophilia A (HA). Patients with high-titre inhibitors are more likely to experience uncontrolled bleeding, physical disability from chronic arthropathy and premature death compared with those without this complication. Immune tolerance induction (ITI), utilizing repeated infusions of FVIII, is an effective therapeutic approach to eliminating inhibitory antibodies. This strategy can eradicate FVIII inhibitors, so that FVIII-specific tolerance is induced. However, patients undergoing ITI are still vulnerable to the development of serious and/or repeated bleeding events. The efficacy of bypassing agents in preventing bleeding episodes has been widely proven in patients with HA and inhibitors to FVIII. Evidence suggests that reducing bleeding during ITI can also shorten the time to tolerance. There are concerns with the use of bypassing agents, including the cost of treatment, short half-life, management of non-responders and the risk of thrombosis. Despite these concerns, and the still limited evidence from prospective studies and consensus reports, the use of prophylaxis with bypassing agents during ITI has been gaining support. This review presents a rationale and current data supporting the use of prophylactic bypassing agents as effective and safe therapies to reduce the incidence of joint bleeding due to inhibitors and improve quality of life in patients with HA undergoing ITI. 10.1111/hae.13534
    Review of immune tolerance induction in hemophilia A. Schep S J,Schutgens R E G,Fischer K,Boes M L Blood reviews At first sight the bleeding disorder hemophilia A seems to have little in common with immune disorders, but immunology research intersects with other disciplines including hematology. Nowadays, the most important complication in the treatment of hemophilia A is the development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) against exogenous administered factor VIII (FVIII), which occurs in approximately 30% of all patients with severe hemophilia A. This antibody response renders FVIII replacement therapy ineffective, thereby increasing the risk for uncontrollable bleeding and morbidity, decreasing quality of life and increasing healthcare costs. The only proven effective therapy to eradicate these inhibitors is immune-based. Using a protocol called "immune tolerance induction" (ITI), the repeated and frequent administration of FVIII under non-inflammatory conditions downregulates the established antibody response and induces immune tolerance. There has been progress in research clarifying the mechanisms that mediate tolerance induction using ITI, both from patient studies and from research in cell culture and animal-based models. Peripheral tolerance induction to FVIII involves the apoptosis of antigen-specific B-memory cells, anergy induction in antigen-specific effector T-cells (Teff), induction of regulatory T-cells (Treg) and the formation of anti-idiotypic antibodies. In this review hemophilia A will be used as an example to discuss current concepts of tolerance induction as they are applied in patient care. Where possible, we will extrapolate tolerance findings in hemophilia A to related pathways known to affect auto-immune disorders or allergy. 10.1016/j.blre.2018.02.003
    Platelet-Targeted FVIII Gene Therapy Restores Hemostasis and Induces Immune Tolerance for Hemophilia A. Cai Yuanhua,Shi Qizhen Frontiers in immunology Platelets are small anucleated blood components primarily described as playing a fundamental role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Over the last decades, increasing evidence has demonstrated the role of platelets in modulating inflammatory reactions and immune responses. Platelets harbor several specialized organelles: granules, endosomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria that can synthesize proteins with pre-stored mRNAs when needed. While the functions of platelets in the immune response are well-recognized, little is known about the potential role of platelets in immune tolerance. Recent studies demonstrate that platelet-specific FVIII gene therapy can restore hemostasis and induce immune tolerance in hemophilia A mice, even mice with preexisting anti-FVIII immunity. Here, we review the potential mechanisms by which platelet-targeted FVIII gene therapy restores hemostasis in the presence of anti-FVIII inhibitory antibodies and induces immune tolerance in hemophilia A. 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00964