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    Decitabine inhibits the proliferation of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia molt4 cells and promotes apoptosis partly by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Zhang Gang,Gao Xiaohui,Zhao Xiaoyan,Wu Haibing,Yan Minchao,Li Yuan,Zeng Hui,Ji Zhaoning,Guo Xiaojun Oncology letters T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a highly aggressive hematological cancer; however, there is a lack of effective chemotherapeutic or targeted drugs for the treatment of T-ALL. Decitabine is a DNA demethylation agent but it has not been used for T-ALL treatment. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the inhibitory effect of decitabine on T-ALL molt4 cells and determine its regulatory role in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Molt4 cells were stimulated with decitabine , after which cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle analyses were performed to assess cell viability. Subcellular morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Expression levels of phosphate and tension homology (PTEN), genes involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the corresponding downstream genes were analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting. The results showed that decitabine induced apoptosis, inhibited proliferation and arrested molt4 cells in the G phase. Following decitabine intervention, an increase in the number of lipid droplets, autophagosomes and mitochondrial damage was observed. At concentrations of 1 and 10 µM, decitabine downregulated the expression of PI3K, AKT, mTOR, P70S6 and eukaryotic initiating factor 4E-binding protein 1, which in turn upregulated PTEN expression; however, 50 µM decitabine downregulated PTEN levels. Overall, these results demonstrated that decitabine reduced the viability of molt4 cells partly by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway via PTEN, especially at low decitabine concentrations. 10.3892/ol.2021.12601
    HMGCS1 drives drug-resistance in acute myeloid leukemia through endoplasmic reticulum-UPR-mitochondria axis. Zhou Cheng,Li Jue,Du Juan,Jiang Xinya,Xu Xuejun,Liu Yi,He Qun,Liang Hui,Fang Peng,Zhan Huien,Zeng Hui Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 (HMGCS1) is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway of cholesterol synthesis. Dysregulation of HMGCS1 expression is a common occurrence in many solid tumors. It was also found to be overexpressed in newly diagnosed (ND) and relapsed/refractory (RR) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Previous study proved that HMGCS1 could induce drug-resistance in AML cells. However, the underlying mechanism how HMGCS1 contributed to chemoresistance remains elusive. Here, we confirmed that HMGCS1 inhibitor Hymeglusin enhanced cytarabine/Adriamycin (Ara-c/ADR) chemo-sensitivity in AML cells lines. Moreover, Ara-c-resistant HL-60 cells (HL-60/Ara-c) and ADR-resistant HL-60 cells (HL-60/ADR) were more sensitive to HMGCS1 inhibition than HL-60 cells. In addition, we demonstrated that the transcription factor GATA1 was the upstream regulator of HMGCS1 and could directly bind to the HMGCS1 promoter. After treatment of Tunicamycin (Tm), the number of mitochondria was increased and the damage of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was reduced in bone marrow cells from AML-RR patients, compared to cells from AML-CR group. HMGCS1 protected mitochondria and ER under ER stress and up-regulated unfold protein response (UPR) downstream molecules in AML cells. In summary, we proved that HMGCS1 could upregulate UPR downstream components, protect mitochondria and ER from damage in AML cells under stress, therefore conferring drug resistance. Therefore, HMGCS1 could serve as a novel target for treatment of patients with intolerant chemotherapy and AML-RR patients. 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111378