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    Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders as predictors for bipolar disorder in patients with remitted mood disorders. Takaesu Yoshikazu,Inoue Yuichi,Ono Kotaro,Murakoshi Akiko,Futenma Kunihiro,Komada Yoko,Inoue Takeshi Journal of affective disorders BACKGROUND:Circadian rhythm dysfunction is thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD). We focused on circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWD) as possible predictors for bipolar disorder in patients with remitted mood disorders. METHOD:One hundred four BD (41 type I and 63 type II) outpatients and 73 age- and sex-matched major depressive disorder (MDD) outpatients participated in this study. The subjects were asked to answer questionnaires including demographic variables, clinical course of the disorder, and family history of psychiatric disorders. Severity of mood status was evaluated by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale. CRSWD was diagnosed by clinical interview and sleep logs based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, third edition. RESULTS:The rate of CRSWD in BD subjects was significantly higher than that in MDD subjects (33.7% vs 9.6%; P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that comorbid CRSWD (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.24 - 9.07; P = 0.018), two or more previous mood episodes within the past year (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 1.10 - 11.63; P = 0.035), and antidepressant-related switch to mania/hypomania (OR = 10.01, 95% CI = 1.20 - 83.52; P = 0.033) were significantly associated with BD in patients with remitted mood disorders. CONCLUSION:CRSWD, as well as other factors, could be diagnostic predictors for BD in patients with remitted mood disorders. Combinations of these factors might be useful for predicting a BD diagnosis among the mood disorders in a clinical setting. 10.1016/j.jad.2017.05.041
    The key role of insomnia and sleep loss in the dysregulation of multiple systems involved in mood disorders: A proposed model. Palagini Laura,Bastien Celyne H,Marazziti Donatella,Ellis Jason G,Riemann Dieter Journal of sleep research Mood disorders are amongst the most prevalent and severe disorders worldwide, with a tendency to be recurrent and disabling. Although multiple mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved in their pathogenesis, just a few integrative theoretical frameworks have been proposed and have yet to integrate comprehensively all available findings. As such, a comprehensive framework would be quite useful from a clinical and therapeutic point of view in order to identify elements to evaluate and target in the clinical practice. Because conditions of sleep loss, which include reduced sleep duration and insomnia, are constant alterations in mood disorders, the aim of this paper was to review the literature on their potential role in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and to propose a novel theoretical model. According to this hypothesis, sleep should be considered the main regulator of several systems and processes whose dysregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of mood disorders. The model may help explain why sleep disturbances are so strikingly linked to mood disorders, and underscores the need to evaluate, assess and target sleep disturbances in clinical practice, as a priority, in order to prevent and treat mood disorders. 10.1111/jsr.12841
    Sleep in Offspring of Parents With Mood Disorders. Wescott Delainey L,Morash-Conway Jessica,Zwicker Alyson,Cumby Jill,Uher Rudolf,Rusak Benjamin Frontiers in psychiatry Sleep problems in childhood are an early predictor of mood disorders among individuals at high familial risk. However, the majority of the research has focused on sleep disturbances in already diagnosed individuals and has largely neglected investigating potential differences between weeknight and weekend sleep in high-risk offspring. This study examined sleep parameters in offspring of parents with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder during both weeknights and weekends. We used actigraphy, sleep diaries, and questionnaires to measure several sleep characteristics in 73 offspring aged 4-19 years: 23 offspring of a parent with major depressive disorder, 22 offspring of a parent with bipolar disorder, and 28 control offspring. Offspring of parents with major depressive disorder slept, on average, 26 min more than control offspring on weeknights (95% confidence interval, 3 to 49 min, = 0.027). Offspring of parents with bipolar disorder slept, on average, 27 min more on weekends than on weeknights compared to controls, resulting in a significant family history × weekend interaction (95% confidence interval, 7 to 47 min, = 0.008). Sleep patterns in children and adolescents were related to the psychiatric diagnosis of their parent(s). Future follow-up of these results may clarify the relations between early sleep differences and the risk of developing mood disorders in individuals at high familial risk. 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00225
    Sleep and Mood Disorders Among Youth. Asarnow Lauren D,Mirchandaney Riya Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America This article reviews the literature on mood disorders and sleep disorders among children and adolescents. Research suggests that sleep plays an important role in the development, progression, and maintenance of mood disorder symptoms among children and adolescents. Sleep problems as early as maternal perinatal insomnia may predict and predate depression among youth. Children and adolescents who develop comorbid mood disorders and sleep problems represent a particularly high-risk group with more severe mood episode symptoms, higher rates of self-harm and suicidality, and less responsivity to treatment. Treatment research supports the idea that sleep problems can be improved through behavioral interventions. 10.1016/j.chc.2020.09.003