Biomarkers for predicting efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Yi Ming,Jiao Dechao,Xu Hanxiao,Liu Qian,Zhao Weiheng,Han Xinwei,Wu Kongming Molecular cancer Programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) is a negative modulatory signaling pathway for activation of T cell. It is acknowledged that PD-1/PD-L1 axis plays a crucial role in the progression of tumor by altering status of immune surveillance. As one of the most promising immune therapy strategies, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor is a breakthrough for the therapy of some refractory tumors. However, response rate of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in overall patients is unsatisfactory, which limits the application in clinical practice. Therefore, biomarkers which could effectively predict the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are crucial for patient selection. Biomarkers reflecting tumor immune microenvironment and tumor cell intrinsic features, such as PD-L1 expression, density of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL), tumor mutational burden, and mismatch-repair (MMR) deficiency, have been noticed to associate with treatment effect of anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 therapy. Furthermore, gut microbiota, circulating biomarkers, and patient previous history have been found as valuable predictors as well. Therefore establishing a comprehensive assessment framework involving multiple biomarkers would be meaningful to interrogate tumor immune landscape and select sensitive patients. 10.1186/s12943-018-0864-3
    The biomarkers of hyperprogressive disease in PD-1/PD-L1 blockage therapy. Wang Xueping,Wang Fang,Zhong Mengjun,Yarden Yosef,Fu Liwu Molecular cancer Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies (Abs) and anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) Abs, are effective for patients with various cancers. However, low response rates to ICI monotherapies and even hyperprogressive disease (HPD) have limited the clinical application of ICIs. HPD is a novel pattern of progression, with an unexpected and fast progression in tumor volume and rate, poor survival of patients and early fatality. Considering the limitations of ICI due to HPD incidence, valid biomarkers are urgently needed to predict the occurrence of HPD and the efficacy of ICI. Here, we reviewed and summarized the known biomarkers of HPD, including tumor cell biomarkers, tumor microenvironment biomarkers, laboratory biomarkers and clinical indicators, which provide a potential effective approach for selecting patients sensitive to ICI cancer treatments. 10.1186/s12943-020-01200-x
    Drug-biomarker co-development in oncology - 20 years and counting. Twomey Julianne D,Brahme Nina N,Zhang Baolin Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy Predictive biomarkers for oncology are necessary to accurately identify patients who will benefit from anticancer treatment. Recently approved oncology drugs target discrete molecular aberrations or pathways in tumor cells and consequently are active on a subset of patient population, yet clinical studies have shown that not all biomarker-positive patients respond. The advancement of predictive biomarkers needs to detect novel and evolving drug resistance mechanisms, not only to guide the selection of patient subsets for specific treatments, but to identify new therapeutic targets. Going beyond the "one marker, one drug" model to incorporate genomics, transcriptomics, and receptor status assessments during biomarker-drug co-development can aid in the successful application of molecular marker-based cancer therapy. This review provides the latest update of biomarker-based cancer therapeutics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. We provide case studies of therapeutics selectively targeting HER2, EGFR, or PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathways. We also discuss the challenges and promising future directions in the co-development of targeted cancer therapeutics and paired predictive biomarkers. 10.1016/j.drup.2017.02.002
    Exosomal PD-L1 contributes to immunosuppression and is associated with anti-PD-1 response. Chen Gang,Huang Alexander C,Zhang Wei,Zhang Gao,Wu Min,Xu Wei,Yu Zili,Yang Jiegang,Wang Beike,Sun Honghong,Xia Houfu,Man Qiwen,Zhong Wenqun,Antelo Leonardo F,Wu Bin,Xiong Xuepeng,Liu Xiaoming,Guan Lei,Li Ting,Liu Shujing,Yang Ruifeng,Lu Youtao,Dong Liyun,McGettigan Suzanne,Somasundaram Rajasekharan,Radhakrishnan Ravi,Mills Gordon,Lu Yiling,Kim Junhyong,Chen Youhai H,Dong Haidong,Zhao Yifang,Karakousis Giorgos C,Mitchell Tara C,Schuchter Lynn M,Herlyn Meenhard,Wherry E John,Xu Xiaowei,Guo Wei Nature Tumour cells evade immune surveillance by upregulating the surface expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which interacts with programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor on T cells to elicit the immune checkpoint response. Anti-PD-1 antibodies have shown remarkable promise in treating tumours, including metastatic melanoma. However, the patient response rate is low. A better understanding of PD-L1-mediated immune evasion is needed to predict patient response and improve treatment efficacy. Here we report that metastatic melanomas release extracellular vesicles, mostly in the form of exosomes, that carry PD-L1 on their surface. Stimulation with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increases the amount of PD-L1 on these vesicles, which suppresses the function of CD8 T cells and facilitates tumour growth. In patients with metastatic melanoma, the level of circulating exosomal PD-L1 positively correlates with that of IFN-γ, and varies during the course of anti-PD-1 therapy. The magnitudes of the increase in circulating exosomal PD-L1 during early stages of treatment, as an indicator of the adaptive response of the tumour cells to T cell reinvigoration, stratifies clinical responders from non-responders. Our study unveils a mechanism by which tumour cells systemically suppress the immune system, and provides a rationale for the application of exosomal PD-L1 as a predictor for anti-PD-1 therapy. 10.1038/s41586-018-0392-8
    A rheostat for immune responses: the unique properties of PD-1 and their advantages for clinical application. Okazaki Taku,Chikuma Shunsuke,Iwai Yoshiko,Fagarasan Sidonia,Honjo Tasuku Nature immunology PD-1, a negative coreceptor expressed on antigen-stimulated T cells and B cells, seems to serve as a 'rheostat' of the immune response. The molecular mechanisms of the functions of PD-1, in conjunction with the mild, chronic and strain-specific autoimmune phenotypes of PD-1-deficient mice, in contrast to the devastating fatal autoimmune disease of mice deficient in the immunomodulatory receptor CTLA-4, suggest that immunoregulation by PD-1 is rather antigen specific and is mainly cell intrinsic. Such unique properties make PD-1 a powerful target for immunological therapy, with highly effective clinical applications for cancer treatment. 10.1038/ni.2762
    Revisiting the PD-1 pathway. Patsoukis Nikolaos,Wang Qi,Strauss Laura,Boussiotis Vassiliki A Science advances Programmed Death-1 (PD-1; CD279) is an inhibitory receptor induced in activated T cells. PD-1 engagement by its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, maintains peripheral tolerance but also compromises anti-tumor immunity. Blocking antibodies against PD-1 or its ligands have revolutionized cancer immunotherapy. However, only a fraction of patients develop durable antitumor responses. Clinical outcomes have reached a plateau without substantial advances by combinatorial approaches. Thus, great interest has recently emerged to investigate, in depth, the mechanisms by which the PD-1 pathway transmits inhibitory signals with the goal to identify molecular targets for improvement of the therapeutic success. These efforts have revealed unpredictable dimensions of the pathway and uncovered novel mechanisms involved in PD-1 and PD-L1 regulation and function. Here, we provide an overview of the recent advances on the mechanistic aspects of the PD-1 pathway and discuss the implications of these new discoveries and the gaps that remain to be filled. 10.1126/sciadv.abd2712