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    Probiotics for the Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Overweight and Obese Women: Findings From the SPRING Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Callaway Leonie K,McIntyre H David,Barrett Helen L,Foxcroft Katie,Tremellen Anne,Lingwood Barbara E,Tobin Jacinta M,Wilkinson Shelley,Kothari Alka,Morrison Mark,O'Rourke Peter,Pelecanos Anita,Dekker Nitert Marloes Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:Given the role of gut microbiota in regulating metabolism, probiotics administered during pregnancy might prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This question has not previously been studied in high-risk overweight and obese pregnant women. We aimed to determine whether probiotics ( and subspecies ) administered from the second trimester in overweight and obese women prevent GDM as assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 28 weeks' gestation. Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal complications, maternal blood pressure and BMI, and infant body composition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This was a double-blind randomized controlled trial of probiotic versus placebo in overweight and obese pregnant women in Brisbane, Australia. RESULTS:The study was completed in 411 women. GDM occurred in 12.3% (25 of 204) in the placebo arm and 18.4% (38 of 207) in the probiotics arm ( = 0.10). At OGTT, mean fasting glucose was higher in women randomized to probiotics (79.3 mg/dL) compared with placebo (77.5 mg/dL) ( = 0.049). One- and two-hour glucose measures were similar. Preeclampsia occurred in 9.2% of women randomized to probiotics compared with 4.9% in the placebo arm ( = 0.09). Excessive weight gain occurred in 32.5% of women in the probiotics arm (55 of 169) compared with 46% in the placebo arm (81 of 176) ( = 0.01). Rates of small for gestational age (<10th percentile) were 2.4% in the probiotics arm (5 of 205) and 6.5% in the placebo arm (13 of 199) ( = 0.042). There were no differences in other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:The probiotics used in this study did not prevent GDM in overweight and obese pregnant women. 10.2337/dc18-2248
    Changes in Gut Microbiota-Related Metabolites and Long-term Successful Weight Loss in Response to Weight-Loss Diets: The POUNDS Lost Trial. Heianza Yoriko,Sun Dianjianyi,Smith Steven R,Bray George A,Sacks Frank M,Qi Lu Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine -oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake. We examined associations of 6-month changes in blood metabolites (TMAO, choline, and l-carnitine) with improvements in body weight (BW), waist circumference (WC), body fat composition, fat distribution, and resting energy expenditure (REE). RESULTS:Individuals with a greater reduction of choline ( < 0.0001) and l-carnitine ( < 0.01) rather than TMAO showed significant losses of BW and WC at 6 months. The reduction of choline was significantly predictive of decreases in body fat composition, fat distribution, and REE. Results of sensitivity analysis showed that the baseline diabetes risk status, such as the presence of hyperglycemia (31% of the total participants) and fasting glucose levels, did not modify the associations. Early changes in choline and l-carnitine were significantly predictive of weight loss over 2 years ( < 0.05 for all). Individuals with increases in choline or l-carnitine were 2.35-times (95% CI 1.38, 4.00) or 1.77-times (1.06, 2.95) more likely to fail to lose weight (-5% or more loss) at 2 years. CONCLUSIONS:Overweight and obese individuals who showed decreases in circulating choline or l-carnitine levels achieved greater improvements of adiposity and energy metabolism by eating a low-calorie weight-loss diet, suggesting that such metabolites are predictive of individuals' response to the treatment. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our findings, particularly in a population with prediabetes that is more representative of the U.S. population with obesity. 10.2337/dc17-2108