Sedentary behavior and cardiovascular disease in older women: The Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (OPACH) Study.
Bellettiere John,LaMonte Michael J,Evenson Kelly R,Rillamas-Sun Eileen,Kerr Jacqueline,Lee I-Min,Di Chongzhi,Rosenberg Dori E,Stefanick Marcia,Buchner David M,Hovell Melbourne F,LaCroix Andrea Z
Background:Evidence that higher sedentary time is associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is based mainly on self-reported measures. Few studies have examined whether patterns of sedentary time are associated with higher risk for CVD. Methods:Women from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (OPACH) Study (n=5638, aged 63-97, mean age=79±7) with no history of myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke wore accelerometers for 4-to-7 days and were followed for up to 4.9 years for CVD events. Average daily sedentary time and mean sedentary bout duration were the exposures of interest. Cox regression models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CVD using models adjusted for covariates and subsequently adjusted for potential mediators (body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and CVD-risk biomarkers [fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure]). Restricted cubic spline regression characterized dose-response relationships. Results:There were 545 CVD events during 19,350 person-years. Adjusting for covariates, women in the highest (≥ ~11 hr/day) vs. the lowest (≤ ~9 hr/day) quartile of sedentary time had higher risk for CVD (HR=1.62; CI=1.21-2.17; p-trend <0.001). Further adjustment for potential mediators attenuated but did not eliminate significance of these associations (p-trend<.05, each). Longer vs. shorter mean bout duration was associated with higher risks for CVD (HR=1.54; CI=1.27-2.02; p-trend=0.003) after adjustment for covariates. Additional adjustment for CVD-risk biomarkers attenuated associations resulting in a quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR=1.36; CI=1.01-1.83; p-trend=0.10). Dose-response associations of sedentary time and bout duration with CVD were linear (P-nonlinear >0.05, each). Women jointly classified as having high sedentary time and long bout durations had significantly higher risk for CVD (HR=1.34; CI=1.08-1.65) than women with both low sedentary time and short bout duration. All analyses were repeated for incident coronary heart disease (MI or CVD death) and associations were similar with notably stronger hazard ratios. Conclusions:Both high sedentary time and long mean bout durations were associated in a dose-response manner with increased CVD risk in older women, suggesting that efforts to reduce CVD burden may benefit from addressing either or both component(s) of sedentary behavior.
Association of Habitual Daily Physical Activity With Glucose Tolerance and β-Cell Function in Adults With Impaired Glucose Tolerance or Recently Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes From the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) Study.
Temple Karla A,Tjaden Ashley H,Atkinson Karen M,Barengolts Elena,Hannon Tamara S,Mather Kieren J,Utzschneider Kristina M,Edelstein Sharon L,Ehrmann David A,Mokhlesi Babak,
OBJECTIVE:We examined the relationship between habitual daily physical activity and measures of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell responses in adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or drug-naive, recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Participants included 230 adults (mean ± SD age 54.5 ± 8.5 years, BMI 35 ± 5.5 kg/m; 42.6% women) who underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperglycemic clamp. Wrist accelerometers worn for 7 consecutive days measured total physical activity counts (TAC) (daily mean 233,460 [∼50th percentile for age]). We evaluated whether TAC was associated with fasting plasma glucose, OGTT 2-h plasma glucose or glucose incremental area under the curve (G-iAUC), hyperglycemic clamp measures of insulin sensitivity (steady-state glucose infusion rate/insulin [M/I]) and β-cell responses (acute C-peptide response to glucose, steady-state C-peptide, and maximal β-cell response), and OGTT C-peptide index (ΔC-peptide/Δglucose). RESULTS:After adjustments for confounders, there was no association of TAC with fasting plasma glucose, 2-h glucose, or G-iAUC. Higher TAC was associated with higher insulin sensitivity (M/I). After adjusting for M/I, higher TAC was not associated with measures of β-cell response. CONCLUSIONS:In adults with IGT or drug-naive, recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, higher levels of habitual physical activity are associated with higher insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to understand why higher levels of physical activity are not associated with better β-cell response.
Effect of Current Dietary Recommendations on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors.
Jenkins David J A,Boucher Beatrice A,Ashbury Fredrick D,Sloan Margaret,Brown Patrick,El-Sohemy Ahmed,Hanley Anthony J,Willett Walter,Paquette Melanie,de Souza Russell J,Ireland Christopher,Kwan Natalie,Jenkins Amy,Pichika Sathish C,Kreiger Nancy
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
BACKGROUND:Dietary recommendations emphasize increased consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grain cereals for prevention of chronic disease. OBJECTIVES:This study assessed the effect of dietary advice and/or food provision on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors. METHODS:Healthy overweight men (n = 209) and women (n = 710), mean age 44.7 years, body mass index [BMI] 32.4 kg/m, were randomized between November 2005 and August 2009 to receive Health Canada's food guide (control, n = 486) or 1 of 3 interventions: dietary advice consistent with both Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and dietary portfolio principles (n = 145); weekly food provision reflecting this advice (n = 148); or food delivery plus advice (n = 140). Interventions lasted 6 months with 12-month follow-up. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires and fasting blood, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were obtained at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. RESULTS:Participant retention at 6 and 18 months was 91% and 81%, respectively, after food provision compared to 67% and 57% when no food was provided (p < 0.0001). Test and control treatments showed small reductions in body weight (-0.8 to -1.2 kg), waist circumference (-1.1 to -1.9 cm), and mean arterial pressure (0.0 to -1.1 mm Hg) at 6 months and Framingham coronary heart disease risk score at 18 months (-0.19 to -0.42%), which were significant overall. Outcomes did not differ among test and control groups. CONCLUSIONS:Provision of foods increased retention but only modestly increased intake of recommended foods. Current dietary recommendations showed small overall benefits in coronary heart disease risk factors. Additional dietary strategies to maximize these benefits are required. (Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains: A Community-based Intervention; NCT00516620).
Effect of a Behavioral Intervention Strategy for Adoption and Maintenance of a Physically Active Lifestyle: The Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study 2 (IDES_2): A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Balducci Stefano,D'Errico Valeria,Haxhi Jonida,Sacchetti Massimo,Orlando Giorgio,Cardelli Patrizia,Vitale Martina,Bollanti Lucilla,Conti Francesco,Zanuso Silvano,Nicolucci Antonio,Pugliese Giuseppe,
OBJECTIVE:Adherence to physical activity (PA) recommendations is hampered by the lack of effective strategies to promote behavior change. The Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study 2 (IDES_2) is a randomized controlled trial evaluating a novel behavioral intervention strategy for increasing PA and decreasing sedentary time (SED-time) in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The study randomized 300 physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes 1:1 to receive theoretical and practical counseling once yearly for 3 years (intervention group [INT]) or standard care (control group [CON]). Here, we report the 4-month effects on objectively (accelerometer) measured daily light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), and SED-time, and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS:LPA and MVPA both increased, and SED-time decreased in both groups, although changes were significantly more marked in INT participants (approximately twofold for LPA and SED-time and approximately sixfold for MVPA). A significant reduction in HbA was observed only in INT subjects. An increase in LPA >0.92 h · day and in MVPA >7.33 min · day and a decrease in SED-time >1.05 h · day were associated with an average decrease in HbA of ∼1% and also with significant improvements in fasting glucose, body weight, waist circumference, and hs-CRP. Changes in PA and SED-time were independent predictors of improvements in HbA. CONCLUSIONS:This behavioral intervention is effective in the short term for increasing LPA and MVPA and reducing SED-time. Significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk profiles were observed in subjects experiencing the most pronounced changes in PA and SED-time, even if below the recommended level.