Community groups or mobile phone messaging to prevent and control type 2 diabetes and intermediate hyperglycaemia in Bangladesh (DMagic): a cluster-randomised controlled trial.
Fottrell Edward,Ahmed Naveed,Morrison Joanna,Kuddus Abdul,Shaha Sanjit Kumer,King Carina,Jennings Hannah,Akter Kohenour,Nahar Tasmin,Haghparast-Bidgoli Hassan,Khan A K Azad,Costello Anthony,Azad Kishwar
The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology
BACKGROUND:Strategies are needed to prevent and control type 2 diabetes and intermediate hyperglycaemia, which together affect roughly a third of adults in Bangladesh. We aimed to assess the effects of mHealth and community mobilisation on the prevalence of intermediate hyperglycaemia and diabetes among the general adult population in rural Bangladesh, and to assess the effect of these interventions on the incidence of type 2 diabetes among people with intermediate hyperglycaemia within the study population. METHODS:DMagic was a three-arm, cluster-randomised trial of participatory community mobilisation, mHealth mobile phone messaging, and usual care (control) in 96 villages (population roughly 125 000) in Bangladesh. Community mobilisation involved 18 monthly group meetings, led by lay facilitators, applying a participatory learning and action (PLA) cycle focused on diabetes prevention and control. mHealth involved twice-weekly voice messages over 14 months promoting behaviour change to reduce diabetes risk. The primary outcomes were the combined prevalence of type 2 diabetes and intermediate hyperglycaemia in the overall population at the end of the intervention implementation period, and 2-year cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes in a cohort with intermediate hyperglycaemia at baseline. Primary outcomes were assessed through fasting blood glucose concentrations and 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests among a cross-section of adults aged 30 years and older and a cohort of individuals identified with intermediate hyperglycaemia. Prevalence findings are based on a cross-sectional survey at the end of the study; incidence findings are based on 2-year follow-up survey of a cohort of individuals identified with intermediate hyperglycaemia through a cross-sectional survey at baseline. We also assessed the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN41083256, and is completed. FINDINGS:The study took place between June 27, 2015, and June 28, 2018, with the PLA intervention running in 32 villages from June, 2016, to December, 2017, and the mHealth intervention running in 32 villages from Oct 21, 2016, to Dec 24, 2017. End-of study prevalence was assessed in 11 454 individuals and incidence in 2100 individuals. There was a large reduction in the combined prevalence of type 2 diabetes and intermediate hyperglycaemia in the PLA group compared with the control group at the end of the study (adjusted [for stratification, clustering, and wealth] odds ratio [aOR] 0·36 [0·27-0·48]), with an absolute reduction of 20·7% (95% CI 14·6-26·7). Among 2470 adults with intermediate hyperglycaemia at baseline, 2100 (85%) were followed-up at 2 years. The 2-year cumulative incidence of diabetes in this cohort was significantly lower in the PLA group compared with control (aOR 0·39, 0·24-0·65), representing an absolute incidence reduction of 8·7% (3·5-14·0). There was no evidence of effect of mHealth on combined prevalence of intermediate hyperglycaemia and diabetes (aOR 0·93, 0·74-1·16) or the incidence of diabetes (1·02, 0·73-1·43). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for PLA were INT$316 per case of intermediate hyperglycaemia or type 2 diabetes prevented and $6518 per case of type 2 diabetes prevented among individuals with intermediate hyperglycaemia. INTERPRETATION:Our data provide strong evidence to support the use of community mobilisation based on PLA to prevent type 2 diabetes in this rural Bangladeshi population. Despite raising knowledge and awareness of diabetes, the mHealth intervention did not change disease outcomes in our population. Replication studies in other populations should be a priority. FUNDING:UK Medical Research Council.
Dulce Digital: An mHealth SMS-Based Intervention Improves Glycemic Control in Hispanics With Type 2 Diabetes.
Fortmann Addie L,Gallo Linda C,Garcia Maria Isabel,Taleb Mariam,Euyoque Johanna A,Clark Taylor,Skidmore Jessica,Ruiz Monica,Dharkar-Surber Sapna,Schultz James,Philis-Tsimikas Athena
OBJECTIVE:Type 2 diabetes is growing in epidemic proportions and disproportionately affects lower-income, diverse communities. Text messaging may provide one of the most rapid methods to overcome the "digital divide" to improve care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A randomized, nonblinded, parallel-groups clinical trial design allocated = 126 low-income, Hispanic participants with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes to receive the Dulce Digital intervention or usual care (UC). Dulce Digital participants received up to three motivational, educational, and/or call-to-action text messages per day over 6 months. The primary outcome was HbA; lipids, blood pressure, and BMI were secondary outcomes. Satisfaction and acceptability were evaluated via focus groups and self-report survey items. RESULTS:The majority of patients were middle-aged (mean age 48.43 years, SD 9.80), female (75%), born in Mexico (91%), and uninsured (75%) and reported less than a ninth-grade education level (73%) and mean baseline HbA 9.5% (80 mmol/mol), SD 1.3, and fasting plasma glucose 187.17 mg/dL, SD 64.75. A statistically significant time-by-group interaction effect indicated that the Dulce Digital group achieved a significantly greater reduction in HbA over time compared with UC ( = 0.03). No statistically significant effects were observed for secondary clinical indicators. The number of blood glucose values texted in by participants was a statistically significant predictor of month 6 HbA ( < 0.05). Satisfaction and acceptability ratings for the Dulce Digital intervention were high. CONCLUSIONS:Use of a simple, low-cost text messaging program was found to be highly acceptable in this sample of high-risk, Hispanic individuals with type 2 diabetes and resulted in greater improvement in glycemic control compared with UC.