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    Autophagy alleviates mitochondrial DAMP-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome. Peng Wei,Peng Fei,Lou Yuanlei,Li Yong,Zhao Ning,Shao Qiang,Chen Jiaquan,Qian Kejian,Zeng Zhenguo,Zhan Yian,Jiang Rong,Liu Fen Life sciences AIM:Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar macrophage overactivation and uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation. Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (MTDs), one type of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from ruptured mitochondrial, can induce inflammation which participates in the pathogenesis of ALI. Despite the critical role of autophagy in inflammatory response, little is known about its function in MTDs-induced ALI. Herein we have studied how autophagy attenuates MTDs-induced ALI in vitro and in vivo. MAIN METHODS:Exogenous MTDs were injected into mice through tail vein injection or directly treated with cultured alveolar macrophage cell lines to construct MTDs-induced ALI models. Rapamycin and 3-MA were used to regulate autophagy in vivo and in vitro. The expressions of Caspase-1, IL-1β, and their precursor were measured. Inhibition the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome to discover the candidate targets and potential molecular pathways involved in autophagy mitigating the MTDs-induced ALI. KEY FINDINGS:After treatment with MTDs the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated proteins were gradually increased in vitro and in vivo. Most importantly, with autophagy enhanced by rapamycin, all the secretion of inflammation cytokine, the level of lung injury, and the expression level of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated proteins were greatly decreased in MTDs-induced mouse model. MTDs-induced inflammation and lung injury were alleviated by autophagy enhancement. Autophagy can function as an effective way to alleviate inflammation in MTDs-induced ALI by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome and may represent a therapeutic target in modulating MTDs-induced inflammatory response. 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118833
    The Impact of Mitochondrial Deficiencies in Neuromuscular Diseases. Cantó-Santos Judith,Grau-Junyent Josep M,Garrabou Glòria Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland) Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) are a heterogeneous group of acquired or inherited rare disorders caused by injury or dysfunction of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord (lower motor neurons), peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junctions, or skeletal muscles leading to muscle weakness and waste. Unfortunately, most of them entail serious or even fatal consequences. The prevalence rates among NMDs range between 1 and 10 per 100,000 population, but their rarity and diversity pose difficulties for healthcare and research. Some molecular hallmarks are being explored to elucidate the mechanisms triggering disease, to set the path for further advances. In fact, in the present review we outline the metabolic alterations of NMDs, mainly focusing on the role of mitochondria. The aim of the review is to discuss the mechanisms underlying energy production, oxidative stress generation, cell signaling, autophagy, and inflammation triggered or conditioned by the mitochondria. Briefly, increased levels of inflammation have been linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, which is key in mitochondrial genomic instability and mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) dysfunction. ROS burst, impaired autophagy, and increased inflammation are observed in many NMDs. Increasing knowledge of the etiology of NMDs will help to develop better diagnosis and treatments, eventually reducing the health and economic burden of NMDs for patients and healthcare systems. 10.3390/antiox9100964
    Salidroside Ameliorates Mitochondria-Dependent Neuronal Apoptosis after Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Partially through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Promoting Mitophagy. Gu Changjiang,Li Linwei,Huang Yifan,Qian Dingfei,Liu Wei,Zhang Chengliang,Luo Yongjun,Zhou Zheng,Kong Fanqi,Zhao Xuan,Liu Hao,Gao Peng,Chen Jian,Yin Guoyong Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the second most common injury of the spinal cord and has the risk of neurological dysfunction and paralysis, which can seriously affect patient quality of life. Salidroside (Sal) is an active ingredient extracted from Herba Cistanche with a variety of biological attributes such as antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and neuroprotective activities. Moreover, Sal has shown a protective effect in ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver, heart, and brain, but its effect in ischemia-reperfusion injury of the spinal cord has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that Sal pretreatment can significantly improve functional recovery in mice after spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and significantly inhibit the apoptosis of neurons both and . Neurons have a high metabolic rate, and consequently, mitochondria, as the main energy-supplying suborganelles, become the main injury site of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mitochondrial pathway-dependent neuronal apoptosis is increasingly confirmed by researchers; therefore, Sal's effect on mitochondria naturally attracted our attention. By means of a range of experiments both o and , we found that Sal can reduce reactive oxygen species production through antioxidant stress to reduce mitochondrial permeability and mitochondrial damage, and it can also enhance the PINK1-Parkin signaling pathway and promote mitophagy to eliminate damaged mitochondria. In conclusion, our results show that Sal is beneficial to the protection of spinal cord neurons after ischemia-reperfusion injury, mainly by reducing apoptosis associated with the mitochondrial-dependent pathway, among which Sal's antioxidant and autophagy-promoting properties play an important role. 10.1155/2020/3549704
    Rapamycin Enhances Mitophagy and Attenuates Apoptosis After Spinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Li Qiang,Gao Shane,Kang Zhanrong,Zhang Meiyan,Zhao Xin,Zhai Yu,Huang Jianming,Yang Guo-Yuan,Sun Wanju,Wang Jian Frontiers in neuroscience The spinal cord is extremely vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and the mitochondrion is the most crucial interventional target. Rapamycin can promote autophagy and exert neuroprotective effects in several diseases of the central nervous system. However, the impact of rapamycin via modulating mitophagy and apoptosis after spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury remains unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of rapamycin in modulating mitophagy and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis using the spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (SCIRI) mouse model. We found that rapamycin significantly ( < 0.05) enhanced mitophagy by increasing the translocation of p62 and Parkin to the damaged mitochondria in the mouse spinal cord injury model. At the same time, rapamycin significantly ( < 0.05) decreased mitochondrial apoptosis related protein (Apaf-1, Caspase-3, Caspase-9) expression by inhibiting Bax translocation to the mitochondria and the release of the cytochrome c from the mitochondria. After 24 h following SCIRI, rapamycin treatment reduced the TUNEL cells in the spinal cord ischemic tissue and improved the locomotor function in these mice. Our results therefore demonstrate that rapamycin can improve the locomotor function by promoting mitophagy and attenuating SCIRI -induced apoptosis, indicating its potential therapeutic application in a spinal cord injury. 10.3389/fnins.2018.00865
    PINK1: The guard of mitochondria. Wang Nan,Zhu Peining,Huang Renxuan,Wang Chong,Sun Liankun,Lan Beiwu,He Yichun,Zhao Hongyang,Gao Yufei Life sciences PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) performs many important functions in cells and has been highlighted for its role in early-onset Parkinson's disease. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have revealed the involvement of PINK1 in regulation of a variety of cell physiological and pathophysiological processes, of which regulation of mitochondrial function remains the most prominent. As the "energy factory" of cells, mitochondria provide energy support for various cellular activities. Changes in mitochondrial function often have a fundamental and global impact on cellular activities. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many diseases, especially those related to aging. Thus, a comprehensive study of PINK1 will help us better understand the various cell physiological and pathophysiological processes in which PINK1 is involved, including a variety of mitochondria-related diseases such as Parkinson's disease. This article will review the structural characteristics and expression regulation of PINK1, as well as its unique role in mitochondrial quality control (MQC) systems. 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118247
    PINK1-parkin pathway of mitophagy protects against contrast-induced acute kidney injury via decreasing mitochondrial ROS and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Lin Qisheng,Li Shu,Jiang Na,Shao Xinghua,Zhang Minfang,Jin Haijiao,Zhang Zhen,Shen Jianxiao,Zhou Yijun,Zhou Wenyan,Gu Leyi,Lu Renhua,Ni Zhaohui Redox biology Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) occurs in more than 30% of patients after intravenous iodinated contrast media and causes serious complications, including renal failure and mortality. Recent research has demonstrated that routine antioxidant and alkaline therapy failed to show benefits in CI-AKI patients with high risk for renal complications. Mitophagy is a mechanism of selective autophagy, which controls mitochondrial quality and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) through degradation of damaged mitochondria. The role of mitophagy and its regulation of apoptosis in CI-AKI are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that mitophagy was induced in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) during CI-AKI, both in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile, contrast media-induced mitophagy was abolished when silencing PINK1 or PARK2 (Parkin), indicating a dominant role of the PINK1-Parkin pathway in mitophagy. Moreover, mitochondrial damage, mitochondrial ROS, RTEC apoptosis, and renal injury under contrast exposure were more severe in PINK1- or PARK2-deficient cells and mice than in wild-type groups. Functionally, PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy prevented RTEC apoptosis and tissue damage in CI-AKI through reducing mitochondrial ROS and subsequent NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These results demonstrated that PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy played a protective role in CI-AKI by reducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation. 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101254