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    Identification and characterization of new members of the SXT/R391 family of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) in Proteus mirabilis. Bie Luyao,Wu Hao,Wang Xin-Hua,Wang Mingyu,Xu Hai International journal of antimicrobial agents Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible chromosomal mobile elements that play significant roles in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. Identification of the structures and functions of ICEs, particularly those in pathogens, improves understanding of the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. This study identified new members of the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT)/R391 family of ICEs that could confer multi-drug resistance in the opportunistic pathogen Proteus mirabilis, characterized their genetic structures, and explored their evolutionary connection with other members of this family of ICEs. Three new members of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs were detected in six of 77 P. mirabilis strains isolated in China: ICEPmiChn2 (one strain), ICEPmiChn3 (one strain) and ICEPmiChn4 (three strains). All three new ICEs harbour antimicrobial resistance genes from diverse origins, suggesting their capability in acquiring foreign genes and serving as important carriers for antimicrobial resistance genes. Structural analysis showed that ICEPmiChn3 is a particularly interesting and unique ICE that has lost core genes involved in conjugation, and could not transfer to other cells via conjugation. This finding confirmed the key roles of these missing genes in conjugation. Further phylogenetic analysis suggested that ICEs in geographically close strains are also connected evolutionarily, and ICEPmiChn3 lost its conjugation cassette from a former mobile ICE. The identification and characterization of the three new members of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs in this work leads to suggestions of core ICE genes essential for conjugation, and extends understanding on the structures of ICEs, evolutionary relationships between ICEs, and the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of P. mirabilis. 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2017.01.045
    Identification and Characterization of New Resistance-Conferring SGI1s ( Genomic Island 1) in . Bie Luyao,Fang Meng,Li Zhiqiang,Wang Mingyu,Xu Hai Frontiers in microbiology genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a resistance-conferring chromosomal genomic island that contains an antibiotic resistance gene cluster. The international spread of SGI1-containing strains drew attention to the role of genomic islands in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in and other Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, five SGI1 variants conferring multidrug and heavy metal resistance were identified and characterized in strains: SGI1-CAU, SGI1-ABB, SGI1-JN16, SGI1-JN40, and SGI1-JN48. The genetic structures of SGI1-CAU and SGI1-ABB were identical to previously reported SGI1s, while structural analysis showed that SGI1-JN16, SGI1-JN40, and SGI1-JN48 are new SGI1 variants. SGI1-JN16 is derived from SGI1-Z with the MDR region containing a new gene cassette array Δ. SGI1-JN40 has an unprecedented structure that contains two right direct repeat sequences separated by a transcriptional regulator-rich DNA fragment, and is predicted to form two different extrachromosomal mobilizable DNA circles for dissemination. SGI1-JN48 lacks a common ORF S044, and its right junction region exhibits a unique genetic organization due to the reverse integration of a chromosomal gene cluster and the insertion of part of a plasmid, making it the largest known SGI1 to date (189.1 kb). Further mobility functional analysis suggested that these SGIs can be excised from the chromosome for transfer between bacteria, which promotes the horizontal transfer of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes. The identification and characterization of the new SGI1 variants in this work suggested the diversity of SGI1 structures and their significant roles in the evolution of bacteria. 10.3389/fmicb.2018.03172
    High Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, Class 1 Integrons, and Genotypes of Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli in Beef Carcasses. Chen Chih-Ming,Ke Se-Chin,Li Chia-Ru,Wu Ying-Chen,Chen Ter-Hsin,Lai Chih-Ho,Wu Xin-Xia,Wu Lii-Tzu Microbial drug resistance (Larchmont, N.Y.) Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli can contaminate food meat during processing and cause human infection. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the antimicrobial resistance were conducted for 45 multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates from 208 samples of beef carcasses. The mechanisms of resistance were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods, and the clonal relationship among isolates was evaluated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Different variants of bla, tet, flo, dfrA, and aadA genes were detected in most of the strains resistant to β-lactam, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, and aminoglycosides, respectively. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli was found in 42.2% of the 45 E. coli isolates and the most commonly detected ESBL genotypes were CTX-M group 1 and 9. Class 1 integrons with nine different arrangements of gene cassettes were present in 28 of 45 E. coli isolates. Twenty-nine PFGE groups and 24 MLST types were identified in their clonal structure. This study revealed that E. coli isolates from beef contained high diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes, integrons, and genotypes. These results highlighted the role of beef meat as a potential source for multidrug-resistant E. coli strains and the need for controlling beef safety. 10.1089/mdr.2016.0223
    Characteristics of Integrons and Associated Gene Cassettes in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Free-Ranging Food Animals in China. Rehman Mujeeb Ur,Zhang Hui,Huang Shucheng,Iqbal Muhammad Kashif,Mehmood Khalid,Luo Houqiang,Li Jiakui Journal of food science We investigated the occurrence of integrons in antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from free-ranging food animals, including yaks, piglets, and chickens, in China, and characterized the gene cassettes harbored within the integrons. We examined 432 E. coli strains that exhibited resistance to at least one class of antibiotics. Integrase genes and associated gene cassettes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, restriction fragment-length polymorphism, DNA sequencing, conjugation experiments, and plasmid analysis. Twenty-nine (6.7%) integrons were amplified from the 432 antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) isolates evaluated. Specifically, class 1 and 2 integrons were detected in 26 (6%) and 3 (0.7%) strains, respectively. Meanwhile, 6 different gene cassettes, dfrA1, dfr12, aadA1, aadA2, sat1, and orfF, were detected within 6 variable regions (VRs), of which the dfrA1 + aadA1 array was the most common, identified in 12 of 26 class 1 integrons (46.1%). Meanwhile, only one class 2 integron contained a cassette, and the remaining two contained undetermined VRs. Finally, a conjugation assay confirmed the transfer of 4 different types of class 1 integrons into recipient strains, with plasmid sizes ranging from 20 to 30 kb. This is the first report examining the baseline AMR characteristics of E. coli within an extensive farming system of livestock animals in China. Given that integrons were detected in >6% of resistant E. coli strains, precautionary measures are required to prevent the spread of mobile genetic resistance determinants in food animals and monitor their emergence. 10.1111/1750-3841.13795
    Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in Escherichia coli isolated from yaks (Poephagus grunniens) in Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, China. Yang Xin,Zou Wencheng,Zeng Jinxin,Xie Shengze,An Tianwu,Luo Xiaolin,Chen Danyu,Feng Lan,Cheng Guangyang,Cai Run,Huang Qianru,Wang Hongning Microbial pathogenesis BACKGROUND:Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most relevant opportunistic pathogenic bacteria as it may cause severe morbidity and mortality in yaks (poephagus grunniens). In recent years, several kinds of antibiotics have been widely used in Tibetan areas to treat the bacterial diseases, resulting in serious repercussions on the bacterial antibiotic resistance in yaks. This investigation was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E. coli isolated from yaks in Aba Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (Aba TAP), China. METHODS:A total of 278 non-duplicated fresh samples were collected from the yaks in Aba TAP for the isolation and identification of E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is performed by using the disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (CLSI, 2013). Various antibiotic resistance genes and integron gene cassettes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. RESULTS:Overall, a total of 228 E. coli bacteria were isolated from the fresh faeces of yaks in four different geographical regions. 58% of those isolates showed multi-drug resistance capabilities (MDR) in our study. These isolated bacteria showed a high resistance rate to streptomycin (84%), cefotaxime (79%), amikacin (61%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (54%). The most common antimicrobial resistance genes in the isolates were bla, sul1, aph (3')-IIa, aac (3)-IIa, aac (6')-Ib, tetB, with respective detection rates of 65%, 46%, 35%, 13%, 11%, and 10%. Furthermore, 66% and 6% of the strains carried Class 1 and 2 integrons, respectively. However, the class 3 integron was not detected. Gene cassette arrays in the class 1 integron included aadA1, aadA7, aadA5, aadA17, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA12-aadA2 and dfrA17-aadA5. The most prevalent gene cassette was aadA1 (20%). For the class 2 integron, dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 (6%) and dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 (0.4%) were also detected as part of this research. CONCLUSION:High multi-drug resistance rates have been discovered, as well as a prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes and integron gene cassettes in the E. coli isolated from the faeces of yak. This might create a potential problem for treatment of the yaks' bacterial infections as well as food hygiene for humans. It is therefore urgently necessary to begin continuous surveillance and analysis of antibiotic resistance and integron cassettes in other bacteria from yaks. 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.09.008