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    Bone mesenchymal stem cells are recruited via CXCL8-CXCR2 and promote EMT through TGF-β signal pathways in oral squamous carcinoma. Meng Lin,Zhao Yueqi,Bu Wenhuan,Li Xing,Liu Xinchen,Zhou Dabo,Chen Yumeng,Zheng Shize,Lin Quan,Liu Qilin,Sun Hongchen Cell proliferation OBJECTIVES:Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) play critical roles in tumour microenvironment. However, molecular mechanisms of how BMSCs to be recruited and effect subsequent tumour progression are poorly understood in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:The distribution of CXCL8 was detected by immunohistochemical staining in OSCC tissues. The chemotaxis of conditioned media from different epithelial cells to BMSCs was examined by trans-well assay. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and ELISA were used to detect the expression of related cytokines and chemokine receptors. The migration of BMSCs was observed in BALB/c nude mice. The roles of BMSCs in proliferation, migration and invasion of OSCC were detected by CCK-8, flow cytometry and trans-well assay. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers were analysed by qPCR and Western blot in vitro, and growth was evaluated in BALB/c nude mice using subcutaneously implanted OSCC in nude mouse model in vivo. RESULTS:Using OSCC, we show CXCL8, secreted by OSCC, binds to exclusively CXCR2 in BMSCs to facilitate migration of BMSCs to OSCC. TGF-β secreted by BMSCs subsequently induces EMT of OSCC to promote their proliferation, migration and infiltration. We also showed that the Ras/Raf/Erk axis plays a critical role in tumour progression. CONCLUSIONS:Our results provide the molecular basis for BMSC recruitment into tumours, and how this process leads to tumour progression and leads us to develop a novel OSCC treatment target. 10.1111/cpr.12859
    Mesenchymal stem cells promote mammosphere formation and decrease E-cadherin in normal and malignant breast cells. Klopp Ann H,Lacerda Lara,Gupta Anshul,Debeb Bisrat G,Solley Travis,Li Li,Spaeth Erika,Xu Wei,Zhang Xiaomei,Lewis Michael T,Reuben James M,Krishnamurthy Savitri,Ferrari Mauro,Gaspar Rogério,Buchholz Thomas A,Cristofanilli Massimo,Marini Frank,Andreeff Michael,Woodward Wendy A PloS one INTRODUCTION:Normal and malignant breast tissue contains a rare population of multi-potent cells with the capacity to self-renew, referred to as stem cells, or tumor initiating cells (TIC). These cells can be enriched by growth as "mammospheres" in three-dimensional cultures. OBJECTIVE:We tested the hypothesis that human bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which are known to support tumor growth and metastasis, increase mammosphere formation. RESULTS:We found that MSC increased human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) mammosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner. A similar increase in sphere formation was seen in human inflammatory (SUM149) and non-inflammatory breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) but not in primary inflammatory breast cancer cells (MDA-IBC-3). We determined that increased mammosphere formation can be mediated by secreted factors as MSC conditioned media from MSC spheroids significantly increased HMEC, MCF-7 and SUM149 mammosphere formation by 6.4 to 21-fold. Mammospheres grown in MSC conditioned media had lower levels of the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and increased expression of N-cadherin in SUM149 and HMEC cells, characteristic of a pro-invasive mesenchymal phenotype. Co-injection with MSC in vivo resulted in a reduced latency time to develop detectable MCF-7 and MDA-IBC-3 tumors and increased the growth of MDA-IBC-3 tumors. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression was decreased in MDA-IBC-3 xenografts with co-injection of MSC. CONCLUSIONS:MSC increase the efficiency of primary mammosphere formation in normal and malignant breast cells and decrease E-cadherin expression, a biologic event associated with breast cancer progression and resistance to therapy. 10.1371/journal.pone.0012180
    SRC3 expressed in BMSCs promotes growth and migration of multiple myeloma cells by regulating the expression of Cx43. Jin Jie,Wang Tao,Wang Yu,Chen Shidi,Li Zheng,Li Xiang,Zhang Jiazhen,Wang Jin International journal of oncology Interactions between bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and multiple myeloma cells significantly contribute to the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate these interactions. Connexin-43 (Cx-43) has been implicated in the interplay between BMSCs and MM cells. In this study, we hypothesized that the steroid receptor co-activator-3 (SRC3) expressed in BMSCs regulates the expression of Cx-43 to promote the proliferation and migration of myeloma cells. To address this, we co-cultured a human multiple myeloma cell line, RPMI-8226 transfected with either control BMSCs or sh-SRC3-BMSCs. We found that knocking down SRC3 expression in BMSCs inhibited the proliferation and migration of RPMI-8226 cells. In addition, we found that co-culturing RPMI 8266 cells with BMSCs increased Cx43 expression, while knocking down SRC3 expression in BMSCs decreased Cx43 expression. Moreover, our work revealed that SRC3 in BMSCs regulates Cx43 expression via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To validate this result in vivo, we knocked down SRC3 expression in BMSCs in nude mice and found that tumor growth and cell apoptosis were significantly decreased. In addition, mice treated with either RPMI 8266 cells overexpressing Cx43 or with a P38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190) exhibited increased intratumoral leukocyte populations and promoted cell apoptosis in tumor tissue. Our findings demonstrate how SRC3 and Cx43 regulation between BMSCs and myeloma cells mediate cell growth and disease progression, with potential implications for prognosis and therapeutic interventions. 10.3892/ijo.2017.4171
    Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow favor tumor cell growth in vivo. Zhu Wei,Xu Wenrong,Jiang Runqiu,Qian Hui,Chen Miao,Hu Jiabo,Cao Weike,Han Chongxu,Chen Yongchang Experimental and molecular pathology Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in clinical application because of their potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, the therapeutic application of MSCs still remain limited unless the favorable effect of MSCs for tumor growth in vivo and the long-term safety of the clinical applications of MSCs are better understood. In this study, MSCs derived from fetal bone marrow (FMSCs) and adult MSCs (AMSCs) alone or FMSCs and AMSCs with tumor cell line (F6 or SW480) together were transplanted subcutaneously into BALB/c-nu/nu mice to observe the outgrowth of tumor, and the characteristics of tumor cells were investigated by pathological and immunohistochemical methods, flow cytometry and real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that both FMSCs and AMSCs could favor tumor growth in vivo. The pathologic examination revealed that tumor tissues had rich vessel distribution, extensive necrosis and invasion surrounding normal tissues, such as muscular tissue and subcutaneous tissue. In the immunohistochemical examination, tumor cells mixed with MSCs transplanted subcutaneously exhibited elevated capability of proliferation, rich angiogenesis in tumor tissues and highly metastatic ability. To understand whether MSCs affected the general properties of the tumor cells in vivo, the expression of some surface antigens and Bmi-1 gene of tumor tissue cells was detected in this study. The results indicated that these parameters were not affected after the interaction of MSCs with tumor cells in vivo. These findings suggested that MSCs could favor tumor growth in vivo. It is necessary to carry out a study for assurance of the long-term safety before MSCs were used as a therapy tools in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. 10.1016/j.yexmp.2005.07.004
    Effects of human mesenchymal stem cells on ER-positive human breast carcinoma cells mediated through ER-SDF-1/CXCR4 crosstalk. Rhodes Lyndsay V,Antoon James W,Muir Shannon E,Elliott Steven,Beckman Barbara S,Burow Matthew E Molecular cancer BACKGROUND:Adult human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) have been shown to home to sites of carcinoma and affect biological processes, including tumour growth and metastasis. Previous findings have been conflicting and a clear understanding of the effects of hMSCs on cancer remains to be established. Therefore, we set out to investigate the impact of hMSCs on the oestrogen receptor positive, hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. RESULTS:In this study, we show the effects of hMSCs on cancer cells are mediated through a secreted factor(s) which are enhanced by cancer cell-hMSC contact/communication. In addition to enhanced proliferation when in co-culture with hMSCs, MCF-7 cells were found to have increased migration potential in vitro. Inhibition of ER signalling by the pure anti-oestrogen ICI 182,780 decreased the effect of hMSCs on MCF-7 cell proliferation and migration supporting a role for ER signalling in the hMSC/MCF-7 cell interaction. Additionally, hMSCs have been shown to secrete a wide variety of growth factors and chemokines including stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). This coupled with the knowledge that SDF-1 is an ER-mediated gene linked with hormone-independence and metastasis led to the investigation of the SDF-1/CXCR4 signalling axis in hMSC-MCF-7 cell interaction. Experiments revealed an increase in SDF-1 gene expression both in vivo and in vitro when MCF-7 cells were cultured with hMSCs. SDF-1 treatment of MCF-7 cells alone increased proliferation to just below that seen with hMSC co-culture. Additionally, blocking SDF-1 signalling using a CXCR4-specific inhibitor decreased hMSC induced proliferation and migration of MCF-7. However, the combined treatment of ICI and AMD3100 reduced MCF-7 cell proliferation and migration below control levels, indicating targeting both the ER and CXCR4 pathways is effective in decreasing the hMSCs induction of MCF-7 cell proliferation and migration. CONCLUSIONS:The sum of these data reveals the relationship between tumour microenvironment and tumour growth and progression. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this tumour stroma cell interaction may provide novel targets for the development of treatment strategies for oestrogen receptor positive, hormone-independent, and endocrine-resistant breast carcinoma. 10.1186/1476-4598-9-295
    Soluble MMP-14 produced by bone marrow-derived stromal cells sheds epithelial endoglin modulating the migratory properties of human breast cancer cells. Tobar Nicolás,Avalos M Celeste,Méndez Nicolás,Smith Patricio C,Bernabeu Carmelo,Quintanilla Miguel,Martínez Jorge Carcinogenesis It has been proposed that epithelial cells can acquire invasive properties through exposure to paracrine signals originated from mesenchymal cells within the tumor microenvironment. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been revealed as an active factor that mediates the epithelial-stroma cross-talk that facilitates cell invasion and metastasis. TGF-β signaling is modulated by the coreceptor Endoglin (Eng), which shows a tumor suppressor activity in epithelial cells and regulates the ALK1-Smad1,5,8 as well as the ALK5-Smad2,3 signaling pathways. In the current work, we present evidence showing that cell surface Eng abundance in epithelial MCF-7 breast cancer cells is inversely related with cell motility. Shedding of Eng in MCF-7 cell surface by soluble matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) derived from the HS-5 bone-marrow-derived cell line induces a motile epithelial phenotype. On the other hand, restoration of full-length Eng expression blocks the stromal stimulus on migration. Processing of surface Eng by stromal factors was demonstrated by biotin-neutravidin labeling of cell surface proteins and this processing generated a shift in TGF-β signaling through the activation of Smad2,3 pathway. Stromal MMP-14 abundance was stimulated by TGF-β secreted by MCF-7 cells acting in a paracrine manner. In turn, the stromal proteolytic activity of soluble MMP-14, by inducing Eng shedding, promoted malignant progression. From these data, and due to the capacity of TGF-β to regulate malignancy in epithelial cancer, we propose that stromal-dependent epithelial Eng shedding constitutes a putative mechanism that exerts an environmental control of cell malignancy. 10.1093/carcin/bgu061
    TNFα-exposed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote locomotion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through transcriptional activation of CXCR3 ligand chemokines. Shin Soon Young,Nam Jeong-Seok,Lim Yoongho,Lee Young Han The Journal of biological chemistry Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are often recruited to solid tumors, integrate into the tumor stroma, and contribute to tumor development. TNFα is a major inflammatory cytokine present in the tumor microenvironment and has a profound influence on the progression of tumor development. This study was aimed to investigate the role of BM-MSCs in tumor promotion in response to TNFα. Quantitative real-time PCR arrays show that diverse cytokines/chemokines were induced in TNFα-treated BM-MSCs; in particular, CXCR3 ligand chemokines, including CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, were potently induced. A serial and site-directed mutation analysis in the CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 promoters revealed that NF-κB binding elements were responsible for TNFα-induced promoter activation of CXCR3 ligand chemokines. TNFα stimulated NF-κB activity, and ectopic expression of NF-κB enhanced TNFα-induced promoter activities of the CXCR3 ligand chemokines. Gel shift and supershift assays showed that NF-κB was associated with CXCR3 ligand chemokine promoters in response to TNFα treatment. All three CXCR3 ligand chemokines enhanced the migration and invasive motility of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells expressing CXCR3. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with CXCL10 activated small GTPase of Rho family proteins, such as RhoA and Cdc42. CXCL9-, CXCL10-, or CXCL11-induced invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 cells was completely abrogated in the presence of a neutralizing anti-CXCR3 antibody in the culture medium. Moreover, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 stimulated the expression of MMP-9, but not MMP-2, in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results suggest that BM-MSCs promote the locomotion of breast cancer cells through CXCR3 ligand-mediated actin rearrangement by TNFα in the tumor microenvironment. 10.1074/jbc.M110.128124
    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) target osteosarcoma and promote its growth and pulmonary metastasis. Xu Wen-ting,Bian Zhen-yu,Fan Qi-ming,Li Gang,Tang Ting-ting Cancer letters In an effort to study the interaction between MSCs and osteosarcoma, we established an animal model of primary osteosarcoma in nude mice using Saos-2 cells. hMSCs, labeled with adv-GFP, were injected through the caudal vein. We observed that exogenous hMSCs targeted the osteosarcoma site and promoted its growth and pulmonary metastasis in vivo. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we employed transwell, neutralization antibody and MTT assays in vitro. hMSCs migrated toward the conditioned medium from Saos-2 cells, and SDF-1 was involved in this migration. Likewise, Saos-2 cells migrated toward the conditioned medium from hMSCs and CCL5 played an important role in this migration. Furthermore, proliferation of Saos-2 cells was enhanced by the conditioned medium from hMSCs and CCL5 was at least partly responsible for this enhancement. 10.1016/j.canlet.2009.02.022
    Hypoxia-induced secretion of TGF-β1 in mesenchymal stem cell promotes breast cancer cell progression. Hung Shun-Pei,Yang Muh-Hwa,Tseng Kuo-Fung,Lee Oscar K Cell transplantation In solid tumors, a decreased oxygen and nutrient supply creates a hypoxic microenvironment in the central region. This hypoxic condition induces molecular responses of normal and cancer cells in the local area, including angiogenesis, metabolic changes, and metastasis. In addition, other cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to be recruited into the hypoxic area of solid tumors. In our previous study, we found that hypoxic condition induces the secretion of growth factors and cytokines in MSCs, and here we demonstrate that elevated secretion of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) by MSCs under hypoxia promotes the growth, motility, and invasive ability of breast cancer cells. It was found that TGF-β1 promoter activity was regulated by hypoxia, and the major hypoxia-regulated element was located between bp -1030 to -666 in front of the TGF-β1 promoter region. In ChIP assay, the results revealed that HIF-1 was bound to the hypoxia response element (HRE) of TGF-β1 promoter. Collectively, the results indicate that hypoxia microenvironment can enhance cancer cell growth through the paracrine effects of the MSCs by driving their TGF-β1 gene expression and secretion. Therefore, extra caution has to be exercised when considering hypoxia pretreatment of MSCs before cell transplantation into patients for therapeutic purposes, particularly in patients susceptible to tumor growth. 10.3727/096368912X657954
    Mesenchymal stem cell-derived interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor promote breast cancer cell migration. De Luca Antonella,Lamura Luana,Gallo Marianna,Maffia Veronica,Normanno Nicola Journal of cellular biochemistry Several different cytokines and growth factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been hypothesized to play a role in breast cancer progression. By using a small panel of breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, and SK-Br-3 cells), we analyzed the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) in the cross-talk between MSCs and breast cancer cells. We performed migration assays in which breast cancer cells were allowed to migrate in response to conditioned medium from MSCs (MSCs-CM), in absence or in presence of the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab or an anti-IL-6 antibody, alone or in combination. We found that anti-VEGF and anti-IL-6 antibodies inhibited the migration of breast cancer cells and that the combination had an higher inhibitory effect. We next evaluated the effects of recombinant VEGF and IL-6 proteins on breast cancer cell growth and migration. IL-6 and VEGF had not significant effects on the proliferation of breast carcinoma cells. In contrast, both VEGF and IL-6 significantly increased the ability to migrate of MCF-7, T47D and SK-Br-3 cells, with the combination showing a greater effect as compared with treatment with a single protein. The combination of VEGF and IL-6 produced in breast cancer cells a more significant and more persistent activation of MAPK, AKT, and p38MAPK intracellular signaling pathways. These results suggest that MSC-secreted IL-6 and VEGF may act as paracrine factors to sustain breast cancer cell migration. 10.1002/jcb.24212
    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote colorectal cancer progression through paracrine neuregulin 1/HER3 signalling. De Boeck Astrid,Pauwels Patrick,Hensen Karen,Rummens Jean-Luc,Westbroek Wendy,Hendrix An,Maynard Dawn,Denys Hannelore,Lambein Kathleen,Braems Geert,Gespach Christian,Bracke Marc,De Wever Olivier Gut OBJECTIVE:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) migrate to primary tumours and drive tumour progression. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms associated with these heterotypic cellular interactions and analyse their relevance in colorectal cancer (CRC). DESIGN:Paracrine interactions of BM-MSC with CRC cells were studied using collagen invasion assays, cell counts, flow cytometric cell-cycle analysis and tumour xenograft models. The role of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family pathways were investigated using tyrosine kinase assays, mass spectrometry, pharmacological inhibition, antibody-mediated neutralisation and RNA interference. Transmembrane neuregulin 1 (tNRG1), HER2 and HER3 expression was analysed in primary CRC (n=54), adjacent normal colorectal tissues (n=4), liver metastases (n=3) and adjacent normal liver tissues (n=3) by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:BM-MSC stimulate invasion, survival and tumorigenesis of CRC through the release of soluble NRG1, activating the HER2/HER3-dependent PI3K/AKT signalling cascade in CRC cells. Similarly, tumour-associated mesenchymal cells (T-MC) in CRC demonstrate high tNRG1 expression, which is significantly associated with advanced Union for International Cancer Control stage (p=0.005) and invasion depth (p=0.04) and decreased 5-year progression-free survival (p=0.01). HER2 and HER3 show membrane localisation in cancer cells of CRC tissue. CONCLUSION:Paracrine NRG1/HER3 signals initiated by BM-MSC and T-MC promote CRC cell progression, and high tNRG1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in CRC. 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301393
    MSC-regulated microRNAs converge on the transcription factor FOXP2 and promote breast cancer metastasis. Cuiffo Benjamin G,Campagne Antoine,Bell George W,Lembo Antonio,Orso Francesca,Lien Evan C,Bhasin Manoj K,Raimo Monica,Hanson Summer E,Marusyk Andriy,El-Ashry Dorraya,Hematti Peiman,Polyak Kornelia,Mechta-Grigoriou Fatima,Mariani Odette,Volinia Stefano,Vincent-Salomon Anne,Taverna Daniela,Karnoub Antoine E Cell stem cell Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are progenitor cells shown to participate in breast tumor stroma formation and to promote metastasis. Despite expanding knowledge of their contributions to breast malignancy, the underlying molecular responses of breast cancer cells (BCCs) to MSC influences remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that MSCs cause aberrant expression of microRNAs, which, led by microRNA-199a, provide BCCs with enhanced cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. We demonstrate that such MSC-deregulated microRNAs constitute a network that converges on and represses the expression of FOXP2, a forkhead transcription factor tightly associated with speech and language development. FOXP2 knockdown in BCCs was sufficient in promoting CSC propagation, tumor initiation, and metastasis. Importantly, elevated microRNA-199a and depressed FOXP2 expression levels are prominent features of malignant clinical breast cancer and are associated significantly with poor survival. Our results identify molecular determinants of cancer progression of potential utility in the prognosis and therapy of breast cancer. 10.1016/j.stem.2014.10.001