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    NOX4 modulates macrophage phenotype and mitochondrial biogenesis in asbestosis. He Chao,Larson-Casey Jennifer L,Davis Dana,Hanumanthu Vidya Sagar,Longhini Ana Leda F,Thannickal Victor J,Gu Linlin,Carter A Brent JCI insight Macrophage activation is implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis by generation of profibrotic molecules. Although NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is known to contribute to pulmonary fibrosis, its effects on macrophage activation and mitochondrial redox signaling are unclear. Here, we show that NOX4 is crucial for lung macrophage profibrotic polarization and fibrotic repair after asbestos exposure. NOX4 was elevated in lung macrophages from subjects with asbestosis, and mice harboring a deletion of NOX4 in lung macrophages were protected from asbestos-induced fibrosis. NOX4 promoted lung macrophage profibrotic polarization and increased production of profibrotic molecules that induce collagen deposition. Mechanistically, NOX4 further augmented mitochondrial ROS production and induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Targeting redox signaling and mitochondrial biogenesis prevented the profibrotic polarization of lung macrophages by reducing the production of profibrotic molecules. These observations provide evidence that macrophage NOX4 is a potentially novel therapeutic target to halt the development of asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis. 10.1172/jci.insight.126551
    Inhibition of NADPH oxidase by apocynin prevents learning and memory deficits in a mouse Parkinson's disease model. Hou Liyan,Sun Fuqiang,Huang Ruixue,Sun Wei,Zhang Dan,Wang Qingshan Redox biology The activation of NADPH oxidase contributes to dopaminergic neurodegeneration and motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether NADPH oxidase is involved in non-motor symptoms, especially cognitive dysfunction in PD remains unknown. This study is undertaken to characterize the effects of inhibition of NADPH oxidase by a widely used NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin on learning and memory deficits in paraquat and maneb-induced mouse PD model. Results showed that mice injected with paraquat and maneb displayed impairments of spatial learning and memory, which was associated with reduced tyrosine hydroxylase expression as well as increased neurodegeneration, synaptic loss, α-synuclein expression and Ser129-phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Interestingly, apocynin treatment significantly ameliorated learning and memory deficits as well as hippocampal neurodegeneration and α-synuclein pathology in mice treated with these two pesticides. Mechanistically, we found that apocynin mitigated paraquat and maneb-induced NADPH oxidase activation and related oxidative stress. Furthermore, reduced microglial activation and M1 polarization were observed in apocynin and paraquat and maneb co-treated mice compared with paraquat and maneb alone group. Finally, apocynin inhibited the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, two key regulatory factors for microglial M1 inflammatory responses, in paraquat and maneb-treated mice. Altogether, our findings implied that NADPH oxidase mediates learning and memory deficits in PD, and inhibition of NADPH oxidase by apocynin blocks impairments of learning and memory via the suppression of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101134
    Cross-Talk between NADPH Oxidase and Mitochondria: Role in ROS Signaling and Angiogenesis. Fukai Tohru,Ushio-Fukai Masuko Cells Angiogenesis, a new vessel formation from the pre-existing ones, is essential for embryonic development, wound repair and treatment of ischemic heart and limb diseases. However, dysregulated angiogenesis contributes to various pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy, atherosclerosis and cancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) as well as mitochondria play an important role in promoting the angiogenic switch from quiescent endothelial cells (ECs). However, how highly diffusible ROS produced from different sources and location can communicate with each other to regulate angiogenesis remains unclear. To detect a localized ROS signal in distinct subcellular compartments in real time in situ, compartment-specific genetically encoded redox-sensitive fluorescence biosensors have been developed. Recently, the intercellular communication, "cross-talk", between ROS derived from NOX and mitochondria, termed "ROS-induced ROS release", has been proposed as a mechanism for ROS amplification at distinct subcellular compartments, which are essential for activation of redox signaling. This "ROS-induced ROS release" may represent a feed-forward mechanism of localized ROS production to maintain sustained signaling, which can be targeted under pathological conditions with oxidative stress or enhanced to promote therapeutic angiogenesis. In this review, we summarize the recent knowledge regarding the role of the cross-talk between NOX and mitochondria organizing the sustained ROS signaling involved in VEGF signaling, neovascularization and tissue repair. 10.3390/cells9081849