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    LRP1 is a receptor for Clostridium perfringens TpeL toxin indicating a two-receptor model of clostridial glycosylating toxins. Schorch Björn,Song Shuo,van Diemen Ferdy R,Bock Hans H,May Petra,Herz Joachim,Brummelkamp Thijn R,Papatheodorou Panagiotis,Aktories Klaus Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Large glycosylating toxins are major virulence factors of various species of pathogenic Clostridia. Prototypes are Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, which cause antibiotics-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. The current model of the toxins' action suggests that receptor binding is mediated by a C-terminal domain of combined repetitive oligopeptides (CROP). This model is challenged by the glycosylating Clostridium perfringens large cytotoxin (TpeL toxin) that is devoid of the CROP domain but still intoxicates cells. Using a haploid genetic screen, we identified LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) as a host cell receptor for the TpeL toxin. LRP1-deficient cells are not able to take up TpeL and are not intoxicated. Expression of cluster IV of LRP1 is sufficient to rescue toxin uptake in these cells. By plasmon resonance spectroscopy, a KD value of 23 nM was determined for binding of TpeL to LRP1 cluster IV. The C terminus of TpeL (residues 1335-1779) represents the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the toxin. RBD-like regions are conserved in all other clostridial glycosylating toxins preceding their CROP domain. CROP-deficient C. difficile toxin B is toxic to cells, depending on the RBD-like region (residues 1349-1811) but does not interact with LRP1. Our data indicate the presence of a second, CROP-independent receptor-binding domain in clostridial glycosylating toxins and suggest a two-receptor model for the cellular uptake of clostridial glycosylating toxins. 10.1073/pnas.1323790111
    A Genetic Screen Identifies Etl4-Deficiency Capable of Stabilizing the Haploidy in Embryonic Stem Cells. Zhang Guozhong,Li Xiaowen,Sun Yi,Wang Xue,Liu Guang,Huang Yue Stem cell reports Mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs) hold great promise for functional genetic studies and forward screening. However, all established haploid cells are prone to spontaneous diploidization during long-term culture, rendering application challenging. Here, we report a genome-wide loss-of-function screening that identified gene mutations that could significantly reduce the rate of self-diploidization in haESCs. We further demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Etl4 knockout (KO) stabilizes the haploid state in different haESC lines. More interestingly, Etl4 deficiency increases mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity and decreases glycolysis in haESCs. Mimicking this effect by regulating the energy metabolism with drugs decreased the rate of self-diploidization. Collectively, our study identified Etl4 as a novel haploidy-related factor linked to an energy metabolism transition occurring during self-diploidization of haESCs. 10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.11.016
    A Chemical Screen Identifies Compounds Capable of Selecting for Haploidy in Mammalian Cells. Olbrich Teresa,Vega-Sendino Maria,Murga Matilde,de Carcer Guillermo,Malumbres Marcos,Ortega Sagrario,Ruiz Sergio,Fernandez-Capetillo Oscar Cell reports The recent availability of somatic haploid cell lines has provided a unique tool for genetic studies in mammals. However, the percentage of haploid cells rapidly decreases in these cell lines, which we recently showed is due to their overgrowth by diploid cells present in the cultures. Based on this property, we have now performed a phenotypic chemical screen in human haploid HAP1 cells aiming to identify compounds that facilitate the maintenance of haploid cells. Our top hit was 10-Deacetyl-baccatin-III (DAB), a chemical precursor in the synthesis of Taxol, which selects for haploid cells in HAP1 and mouse haploid embryonic stem cultures. Interestingly, DAB also enriches for diploid cells in mixed cultures of diploid and tetraploid cells, including in the colon cancer cell line DLD-1, revealing a general strategy for selecting cells with lower ploidy in mixed populations of mammalian cells. 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.06.060
    A haploid genetic screen identifies the G1/S regulatory machinery as a determinant of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity. Heijink Anne Margriet,Blomen Vincent A,Bisteau Xavier,Degener Fabian,Matsushita Felipe Yu,Kaldis Philipp,Foijer Floris,van Vugt Marcel A T M Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America The Wee1 cell cycle checkpoint kinase prevents premature mitotic entry by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases. Chemical inhibitors of Wee1 are currently being tested clinically as targeted anticancer drugs. Wee1 inhibition is thought to be preferentially cytotoxic in p53-defective cancer cells. However, TP53 mutant cancers do not respond consistently to Wee1 inhibitor treatment, indicating the existence of genetic determinants of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity other than TP53 status. To optimally facilitate patient selection for Wee1 inhibition and uncover potential resistance mechanisms, identification of these currently unknown genes is necessary. The aim of this study was therefore to identify gene mutations that determine Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity. We performed a genome-wide unbiased functional genetic screen in TP53 mutant near-haploid KBM-7 cells using gene-trap insertional mutagenesis. Insertion site mapping of cells that survived long-term Wee1 inhibition revealed enrichment of G1/S regulatory genes, including SKP2, CUL1, and CDK2. Stable depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 or chemical Cdk2 inhibition rescued the γ-H2AX induction and abrogation of G2 phase as induced by Wee1 inhibition in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. Remarkably, live cell imaging showed that depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 did not rescue the Wee1 inhibition-induced karyokinesis and cytokinesis defects. These data indicate that the activity of the DNA replication machinery, beyond TP53 mutation status, determines Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity, and could serve as a selection criterion for Wee1-inhibitor eligible patients. Conversely, loss of the identified S-phase genes could serve as a mechanism of acquired resistance, which goes along with development of severe genomic instability. 10.1073/pnas.1505283112