Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidance on the Treatment of Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase Producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E), Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Difficult-to-Treat Resistance (DTR-P. aeruginosa).
Tamma Pranita D,Aitken Samuel L,Bonomo Robert A,Mathers Amy J,van Duin David,Clancy Cornelius J
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
BACKGROUND:Antimicrobial-resistant infections are commonly encountered in US hospitals and result in significant morbidity and mortality. This guidance document provides recommendations for the treatment of infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with difficult-to-treat resistance (DTR-P. aeruginosa). METHODS:A panel of 6 infectious diseases specialists with expertise in managing antimicrobial-resistant infections formulated common questions regarding the treatment of ESBL-E, CRE, and DTR-P. aeruginosa infections. Based on review of the published literature and clinical experience, the panel provide recommendations and associated rationale for each recommendation. Because of significant differences in the molecular epidemiology of resistance and the availability of specific anti-infective agents globally, this document focuses on treatment of antimicrobial-resistant infections in the United States. RESULTS:Approaches to empiric treatment selection, duration of therapy, and other management considerations are briefly discussed. The majority of guidance focuses on preferred and alternative treatment recommendations for antimicrobial-resistant infections, assuming that the causative organism has been identified and antibiotic susceptibility testing results are known. Treatment recommendations apply to both adults and children. CONCLUSIONS:The field of antimicrobial resistance is dynamic and rapidly evolving, and the treatment of antimicrobial-resistant infections will continue to challenge clinicians. This guidance document is current as of 17 September 2020. Updates to this guidance document will occur periodically as new data emerge. Furthermore, the panel will expand recommendations to include other problematic gram-negative pathogens in future versions. The most current version of the guidance including the date of publication can be found at www.idsociety.org/practice-guideline/amr-guidance/.
How Long-Term Acute Care Hospitals Can Play an Important Role in Controlling Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a Region: A Simulation Modeling Study.
Lee Bruce Y,Bartsch Sarah M,Lin Michael Y,Asti Lindsey,Welling Joel,Mueller Leslie E,Leonard Jim,Brown Shawn T,Doshi Kruti,Kemble Sarah K,Mitgang Elizabeth A,Weinstein Robert A,Trick William E,Hayden Mary K
American journal of epidemiology
Typically, long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs) have less experience in and incentives to implementing aggressive infection control for drug-resistant organisms such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) than acute care hospitals. Decision makers need to understand how implementing control measures in LTACHs can impact CRE spread regionwide. Using our Chicago metropolitan region agent-based model to simulate CRE spread and control, we estimated that a prevention bundle in only LTACHs decreased prevalence by a relative 4.6%-17.1%, averted 1,090-2,795 new carriers, 273-722 infections and 37-87 deaths over 3 years and saved $30.5-$69.1 million, compared with no CRE control measures. When LTACHs and intensive care units intervened, prevalence decreased by a relative 21.2%. Adding LTACHs averted an additional 1,995 carriers, 513 infections, and 62 deaths, and saved $47.6 million beyond implementation in intensive care units alone. Thus, LTACHs may be more important than other acute care settings for controlling CRE, and regional efforts to control drug-resistant organisms should start with LTACHs as a centerpiece.
A public health concern: emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in a public transportation environment.
Cao Tingting,Liu Yuanyuan,Li Yiming,Wang Yang,Shen Zhangqi,Shao Bin,Walsh Timothy R,Shen Jianzhong,Wang Shaolin
The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
OBJECTIVES:This study was designed to understand the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the Beijing subway environment and the potential transmission of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a public transportation environment. METHODS:Carbapenem-resistant isolates were selected on brain heart infusion agar supplemented with meropenem (0.5 mg/L) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the broth microdilution method. WGS analyses were conducted for 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to identify resistance genes. The genetic relationships among the isolates were evaluated by MLST and PFGE. RESULTS:We identified 11 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from the Beijing subway environment. WGS revealed three STs among the 11 isolates, with 9 isolates classified as ST726 and containing a blaNDM-5-carrying IncX3 plasmid. The genetic environment of blaNDM-5 was very similar to that observed in other blaNDM-5-containing clinical isolates. CONCLUSIONS:The presence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a public transportation environment is concerning and indicates that regular antimicrobial resistance surveillance is urgent and necessary.